Mune Mune M.A.,University of Maroua
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2015
The effects of limited enzymatic hydrolysis with pepsin on the functional properties and molecular characteristics of cowpea protein concentrate (CPC) were investigated. Hydrolysates were prepared at degrees of hydrolysis (DH) 5-30%. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that globulin was the major protein component of CPC, and enzymatic breakdown of polypeptides was selective. As a result, significant changes in the functional properties of hydrolysates were noticed as compared to the protein concentrate. Then, cowpea protein hydrolysates (CPHs) showed good water solubility index at pH7 (>95%) and pH4.5 (>55%), at DH 20 and 30%, respectively. Oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming capacity were also improved by the enzymatic hydrolysis, while proteolysis was detrimental to foam stability and did not improve emulsion stability at DH 10-30%. Therefore, CPHs showed good potential for utilization in food formulations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tsamo C.,University of Maroua
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014
In Cameroon like many African countries, awareness on e-waste is very low despite increasing dependence on modern technologies that generate e-waste. This paper presents a case study of Maroua town Cameroon. A survey of 33 EEE repair workshops was conducted, the regional government service in charge of environment, local councils and HYSACAM, a private company, responsible for handling waste in Maroua were visited where through questionnaires a number of findings were undertaken. A total of 1628 different e-waste items were found with an average flux rate of 1-4 items per week. Only 6% of items brought to the workshops could be repaired as over 90% enters the e-waste stream. The majority of the waste is stored in the workshops, and parts recycled when necessary. 87.9% of those manipulating these e-waste items do so without any protection, as 12% of them are aware of the toxicity of these wastes. The local councils have no e-waste management plan as no legislation exists to that effect. There is complete lack of awareness on this type of waste to the public as well as the main actors that should be responsible for their management stemming from poor policy and regulatory systems.
Mune Mune M.A.,University of Maroua |
Minka S.R.,University of Yaounde I |
Mbome I.L.,Food and Nutrition Research Center
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modelisation and optimisation of protein extraction parameters in order to obtain a protein concentrate with high functional properties. A central composite rotatable design of experiments was used to investigate the effects of two factors, namely pH and NaCl concentration, on six responses: water solubility index (WSI), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil holding capacity (OHC), emulsifying activity (EA), emulsifying stability (ES) and foam ability (FA). The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation showed that the second-order polynomial model was appropriate to fit experimental data. The optimum condition was: pH 8.43 and NaCl concentration 0.25 M, and under this condition WSI was ≥17.20%, WAC ≥ 383.62%, OHC ≥ 1.75 g/g, EA ≥ 0.15, ES ≥ 19.76 min and FA ≥ 66.30%. The suitability of the model employed was confirmed by the agreement between the experimental and predicted values for functional properties. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas B.B.,University of Yaounde I |
Saleh M.,University of Yaounde I |
Saleh M.,University of Maroua |
Kofane T.C.,University of Yaounde I
General Relativity and Gravitation | Year: 2012
We investigate thermodynamics and phase transition of the Reissner-Nordström black hole surrounded by quintessence. Using thermodynamical laws of black holes, we derive the expressions of some thermodynamics quantities for the Reissner-Nordström black hole surrounded by quintessence. The variations of the temperature and heat capacity with the entropy were plotted for different values of the state parameter related to the quintessence, ω q, and the normalization constant related to the density of quintessence c. We show that when varying the entropy of the black hole a phase transition is observed in the black hole. Moreover, when increasing the density of quintessence, the transition point is shifted to lower entropy and the temperature of the black hole decreases. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Nkwetisama C.M.,University of Maroua
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2013
Literature was once regarded as being inappropriate for the teaching of the English language. Nowadays, the importance of applying literature in the development of learners’ language skills is receiving a lot of attention by EFL/ESL practitioners worldwide (Lee 2009). In spite of such “remarkable revival of interest in literature" in the English language classroom (Duff & Maley 1990: 3), literature as a component of the English language teaching programme in secondary schools in Cameroon "remains the exception rather than the rule" (Macalister 2008: 248). This paper seeks to examine the impact of the withdrawal of English Literature from the English as a foreign language curriculum of French-speaking Cameroonians. In the article, we statistically compare the performances of Frenchspeaking and English-speaking Cameroonian teacher trainees of the department of Bilingual Studies of the Higher Teachers’ Training College of the University of Maroua in English Literature and in French Literature. We also discuss the importance and effectiveness of the different models and approaches in the development of the cultural competence and communicative skills of learners. The results obtained reveal that the studying of literatures in French by Anglophones at the Advanced Level positively influences their performances in French in Higher Education. The poor performances of Francophone Student-teachers in courses like LBL 11 (Introduction to English Literature) are attributable to the fact that they do not study literatures in English at the secondary school level. © Australian International Academic Centre, Australia.