Szolnoki A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences |
Perc M.,University of Maribor
Physical Review X | Year: 2014
Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavior is therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.
Perc M.,University of Maribor
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2014
The Matthew effect describes the phenomenon that in societies, the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. It is closely related to the concept of preferential attachment in network science, where the more connected nodes are destined to acquire many more links in the future than the auxiliary nodes. Cumulative advantage and success-breads-success also both describe the fact that advantage tends to beget further advantage. The concept is behind the many power laws and scaling behaviour in empirical data, and it is at the heart of self-organization across social and natural sciences. Here, we review the methodology for measuring preferential attachment in empirical data, as well as the observations of the Matthew effect in patterns of scientific collaboration, socio-technical and biological networks, the propagation of citations, the emergence of scientific progress and impact, career longevity, the evolution of common English words and phrases, as well as in education and brain development. We also discuss whether the Matthew effect is due to chance or optimization, for example related to homophily in social systems or efficacy in technological systems, and we outline possible directions for future research. & 2014 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society.
Perc M.,University of Maribor
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2011
Previous research has highlighted the importance of strong heterogeneity for the successful evolution of cooperation in games governed by pairwise interactions. Here we determine to what extent this is true for games governed by group interactions. We therefore study the evolution of cooperation in the public goods game on the square lattice, the triangular lattice, and the random regular graph, whereby the payoffs are distributed either uniformly or exponentially amongst the players by assigning to them individual scaling factors that determine the share of the public good they will receive. We find that uniformly distributed public goods are more successful in maintaining high levels of cooperation than exponentially distributed public goods. This is not in agreement with previous results on games governed by pairwise interactions, indicating that group interactions may be less susceptible to the promotion of cooperation by means of strong heterogeneity than originally assumed, and that the role of strongly heterogeneous states should be reexamined for other types of games. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.
Perc M.,University of Maribor
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society | Year: 2013
Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and non-living matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proved valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection and self-organization in evolutionary games. Here, we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on top of structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: WASTE-1-2014 | Award Amount: 11.43M | Year: 2015
The RESYNTEX project aims at designing, developing and demonstrating new high environmental impact industrial symbiosis between the unwearable blends and pure components of textile waste and the chemical and textile industries. The project comprises: - a strategic design of the whole value chain from textile waste collection, until the new marketable feedstock for chemical & textile industrie, by which the symbiosis opportunities are evaluated (by public authorities and the private sector) in terms of their social, technical, economic, environmental and legislative aspects - the improvement of collection approaches particularly for non-wearable textiles for recycling by changing citizens behaviour and creation of tools for higher social involvement and recycling promotion. This will ensure a greater accessibility to textile waste as resource and increase the textile waste rates destined for recycling. With 50% collection rate all over Europe would be a significant improvement in order to provide large quantities of feedstock - a data aggregation system that will be developed and implemented in order to ensure waste traceability and also provide relevant data for economic and environmental assessment; - the development of new business models adapted for different synergies identified and for new markets. In addition, environmental LCA and LCC for different scenarios and identification of the most promising routes and synergies will support this objective - automation of the macro separation and sorting for pure or blended textiles, in order to enhance productivity and competitiveness of the whole recycling process - a new demonstration process based on a synergistic chemical and biotechnological cascading separation/transformation approach of textile basic components (proteins, cellulose, polyamide and polyester) from textile blends as basic feedstock materials for chemical & textile industries. Liquid and solid waste treatment and valorisation will close the loop
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-IF-EF-ST | Phase: MSCA-IF-2014-EF | Award Amount: 157.29K | Year: 2016
The proposed research includes the following two main directions: (1) Using methods and tools of algebraic geometry and computational algebra, we study the integrability of the nonlinear dynamical systems. We focus on finding the varieties of integrability of dynamical systems with the emphasize on the higher dimensional systems. Our approaches are based on combining symbolic computations with methods of the theory of integrability of dynamical systems. We then study bifurcations of limit cycles and critical periods arising after perturbations of higher dimensional integrable systems of differential equation. Furthermore, we intend to study the problem of isochronicity (which is equivalent to the problem of linearization). (2) We propose to study the global topological linearization, linearization of integral manifold, smooth linearization with the emphasis on the study of the linearization of non-autonomous systems when the nonlinear term is unbounded or linear system does not possess exponential dichotomy (in critical state). Up to now there are few results concerning the linearization
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-10-2015 | Award Amount: 2.49M | Year: 2016
Southeast Europe has seen a century of continuous transformation and transition the disappearance and emergence of states, political and legal systems, ideologies, institutions, and social classes. This has been accompanied by a stability of social practices resistant to change. Shaken by radically changing ideological and legal structures, citizens rely on customary and informal social networks of kin, symbolic kin, and friends for meeting economic needs, and on clan- or kin-related structures rather than the rule of law for security and protection. We trace the persistence of informal practices to: 1) the external origin of major transformations, including the transitions to and from socialism; 2) the incomplete character of change, which has tended to be replaced by equally radical but diametrically opposed projects; 3) the development of a buffer culture based on informal practices, directed to enabling people to survive under unstable conditions; and 4) the widening gap between formal institutions and informal social practices. The distance between proclaimed goals and existing practices represents the key challenge to the European integration of Balkan societies. The integration process could end with superficial change, behind which the real social life of corruption, clientelism, tension, inequality, and exclusion will continue to unfold. We propose to explicate the key formal and informal rules of the game, and to identify and decipher the unwritten rules which underpin tactical maneuvering between formal and informal institutions, in various spheres and at various levels of social life. These would then be compared to the demands and recommendations laid out in the key EU documents outlining expectations from Southeast European states. The goal is to contribute to the formulation of policy recommendations which would aim not to eradicate informal practices, but to close the gap between formal and informal institutions in Balkan societies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INSO-2-2014 | Award Amount: 3.10M | Year: 2015
Reaching the ambitions of the Europe 2020 and the Innovation Union requires much more than just technological innovations. In the academic community, Business Model Innovation (BMI) has for a long time been recognized as the key to improved competitiveness and innovativeness. However, BMI does not reach SMEs yet nor is there knowledge on how SMEs conduct BMI in practice. Empowering SMEs to conduct BMI requires new approaches. By leveraging existing networks and communities, we will gather examples, best practices and insights into Business Models (BM) from case studies from each and every European region or industry, complemented with insights from other leading countries worldwide. The BM vortex will thus generate an enormous and rich library of business models patterns and managerial structures, provided on a platform, to support SMEs in these communities. We will also develop innovative tooling and provide them on the platform to makes it easy for SMEs to develop, evaluate and plan new business models. The ENVISION consortium covers Northern, Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Europe. In each region a top-ranked academic institution in the field of BMI is present as well as innovative businesses that deliver smart and tailored BMI tooling and reach out to SMEs. We build on over a decade of joint work on BMI and BM tooling. We will build and maintain regional and thematic communities. In the communities, support is delivered to help SMEs transform and improve their BMs. The consortium also includes partners and associated partners that will realize our pan-European reach to SMEs: on a pan-European level (e.g., UAEPME and female entrepreneurs network), on a national and regional level (e.g., chambers of commerce, family business organizations and statistical offices). The consortium also has linkages to EIT/ICT Labs and the European Service Innovation Centre (ESIC).
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MSCA-NIGHT-2016 | Award Amount: 158.99K | Year: 2016
Main objectives of the SciFe proposal is to bring researchers to the general public, to inspire youngster to embark on scientific careers, to increase awareness of importance of research and innovation activities, with a view to supporting the public recognition of researchers creating an understanding of the impact of researchers work on citizens daily life. For that purpose the awareness campaign (AC) to convey messages under the slogan Science for Life will be used in 2016 and 2017. On Fridays 30.9.16 and 29.9.17 SciFe events will be organized with renewed programs in festive and fun atmosphere in Ljutomer, Maribor, Breice, Ljubljana, Koper, Izola and Nova Gorica. All SciFe events activities aim at offering the public at large an opportunity to cooperate in fascinating experiments, demonstrations, observations etc., to socialize and have fun with researchers in a relaxed atmosphere. The program is appropriate for public in general, regardless their scientific program and especially designed for youngest. SciFe programs red line is contribution of science to life in various aspects. The European corner will be prepared in the heart of every RN location: the visitors will be offered information on ECs various actions and programs, EU material, the Charter and the Code, information how young people can become researchers and Framework Program witnesss experiences. Intensive awareness campaign is designed according to its main target. The rich communication mix includes active engagement of the young people through the public call targeting primary and secondary schools. Last but not least, the impact assessment will focus to measure the success and the impact of SciFe activities. All that will be achieved through consortium management of all WPs and harmonised communication mix with general public which takes into account existing recognition of the RN event in certain region and its number of inhabitants.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 2.46M | Year: 2015
The ageing society and demographic change is one of the major challenges which Europe is facing now, and even more so in the future. Mastering this challenge requires radically new diagnostic and therapeutic treatments as key factors in achieving the healthy well-being of European citizens. Molecular imaging (MI) plays a pivotal role in diagnosis, understanding of disease and in the development of effective treatments. CONQUER will explore a fundamentally new contrast mechanism with the potential to push magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) far beyond its limits towards a powerful MI modality. This will be achieved by exploiting the cross relaxation between 1H and large quadrupolar nuclei (QN) for contrast agent (CA) design. The main objective is to synthesize bio-compatible QN compounds and nano-particles (NPs), high efficiency and manifold degrees of freedom in the design of smart properties, such as the ability to switch the contrast on and off by changing the magnetic field or chemical binding (e.g. targeting). The NPs will be tailored based on quantum-mechanical simulations. Sensitivity and contrast switching will be demonstrated with MRI in cell cultures. This highly interdisciplinary project combines expertise in quantum physics, chemical and biomedical engineering, material characterisation as well as nanotoxicology. Today, European scientists and companies are already leading global players in CA development. CONQUER will significantly fertilise this field and lay the scientific foundations for a new technology by providing theoretical groundwork, synthesis guidelines, imaging instrumentation and toxicological references. These results will be actively transferred to academia and industry as well in order to strengthen European competitiveness. The combination of a so far unexploited quantum-mechanical phenomenon and cutting-edge imaging technologies has the potential to create MI solutions with significant impact.