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Marburg, Germany

The Philipp University of Marburg , was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philip I of Hesse as one of Germany's oldest universities, dating back to a Protestant foundation. As a state university it has no religious affiliation anymore.It was the main university of the principality of Hesse and remains a public university of that German state. It now has about 25,000 students and 7,500 employees, making Marburg, a town of 72,000 inhabitants, the proverbial "university town" . Though most subjects are grouped, the University of Marburg is not a campus university in the broader sense. About 12% of the students are international, the highest percentage in Hesse. It offers an International summer university programme every summer and has an awarded ERASMUS programme.Marburg is home to one of Germany's most traditional medical faculties. The German physicians' union is called "Marburger Bund". Wikipedia.

Rensing S.A.,University of Marburg
Current Opinion in Plant Biology

Most duplicated genes (paralogs) are quickly erased during evolution, and only some are retained. Yet, gene and genome duplications are connected to the evolution of genetic and, in turn, morphological complexity. Plants are especially prone to experience polyploidizations and to enhance their gene repertoire after such events. Genes encoding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation are of especial interest since they are correlated with the occurrence of genome duplication events and with the rise of plant morphological complexity. Here, I review what we know about paralog retention as a driver for morphogenetic evolution of plants. The main focus is on the evolution of plant genes controlling development (morphogenetic transcription factors). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Meggers E.,University of Marburg
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition

The tremendous challenge presented by the specific molecular recognition of single biomacromolecular targets within complex biological systems demands novel and creative design strategies. This Minireview discusses some conventional and unusual approaches for the design of target-selective enzyme inhibitors with a focus on the underlying chemical scaffolds. These include complicated natural-product-like organic molecules, stable octahedral metal complexes, fullerenes, carboranes, polymetallic clusters, and even polymers. Thus the whole repertoire of organic, inorganic, and macromolecular chemistry can be applied to tackle the problem of target-specific enzyme inhibition. Creativity in demand: Enzyme inhibitor scaffolds ranging from typical small organic molecules to inorganic clusters and even to polymers demonstrate that the whole repertoire of organic, inorganic, and macromolecular chemistry can be used to meet the challenge of specific molecular recognition in complex biological systems. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Jonas K.,University of Marburg
Current Opinion in Microbiology

Whether to divide or not is an important decision that nearly all cells have to make, especially bacteria that are exposed to drastic environmental changes. Under adverse conditions proliferation and growth could compromise cellular integrity and hence must be downregulated. To this end, bacteria have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to transduce environmental information into the cell cycle engine. Recent studies in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus indicate that these mechanisms often involve small molecule-based signaling, regulated proteolysis, as well as protein-protein interactions. Most of them delay replication initiation or septum formation by targeting the key regulators DnaA or FtsZ, respectively. Remarkably, while the targets are conserved, the precise mechanisms show a considerable degree of diversity among different species. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hoffmann R.W.,University of Marburg
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition

For almost 200 years, the synthesis of natural products has been practiced. In this time span, not only the target structures have become increasingly more complex (see two examples from the 1970s), the objectives of natural product synthesis have also changed. Likewise, the standards and criteria for the conduction of natural product synthesis have changed. It is these changes that form the subject of this Essay. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a class of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social behavior and communication across multiple contexts, together with repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The high concordance rate between monozygotic twins supports a strong genetic component. Among the most promising candidate genes for ASD is the SHANK gene family, including SHANK1, SHANK2 (ProSAP1), and SHANK3 (ProSAP2). SHANK genes are therefore important candidates for modeling ASD in mice and various genetic models were generated within the last few years. As the diagnostic criteria for ASD are purely behaviorally defined, the validity of mouse models for ASD strongly depends on their behavioral phenotype. Behavioral phenotyping is therefore a key component of the current translational approach and requires sensitive behavioral test paradigms with high relevance to each diagnostic symptom category. While behavioral phenotyping assays for social deficits and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities are well-established, the development of sensitive behavioral test paradigms to assess communication deficits in mice is a daunting challenge. Measuring ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) appears to be a promising strategy. In the first part of the review, an overview on the different types of mouse USV and their communicative function will be provided. The second part is devoted to studies on the emission of USV in Shank mouse models for ASD. Evidence for communication deficits was obtained in Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3 genetic mouse models for ASD, often paralleled by behavioral phenotypes relevant to social deficits seen in ASD. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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