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Mannheim, Germany

The University of Mannheim , also known as UMA, is a public research university situated in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1967 the university has its origins in the 1763 established Theodoro Palatinae , which was founded by the later Duke of Bavaria Charles Theodor, as well as the Handelshochschule , founded by Mannheim's senior mayor Otto Beck and Heidelberg's professor for Economics Eberhard Gothein in 1907. The University offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs as well as Ph.D degrees within business administration, economics, law, social science, humanities, mathematics, computer science and information systems – all with an interdisciplinary and international focus. The University of Mannheim's campus is located in the city center of Mannheim and mainly centers on its main campus – the Mannheim Palace . The university has around 11,880 full-time students, 800 scholars enrolled, 800 academic staff and a total income of more than €115 million in 2012. It is organized into 5 academic departments and 2 academic colleges.The UMA is considered to have the by far best and most prestigious business school in Germany and is consistently ranked #1 in national university rankings and among the top business schools worldwide for its business administration and economics programs. Moreover, the university's programs for social science, politics as well as business informatics rank nationwide within the Top 3 and its programs for law and computer science within the Top 10. The 2012/2013 QS World University Rankings ranked the UMA among the best one hundred universities within the disciplines of Social science & Management, Accounting and Economics & Econometrics, as well as among the Top 50 universities within the discipline of Political science. Furthermore, the University of Mannheim is placed 83rd with regard to global employer reputation.The University of Mannheim is a member of the German Universities Excellence Initiative, the International Association of Universities, the European Network for Training Economic Research, the German Research Foundation , and it is accredited by the European Quality Improvement System , the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business as well as the Association of MBAs . Wikipedia.

Early assessment of response at 3 months of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment has become an important tool to predict favorable outcome. We sought to investigate the impact of relative changes of BCR-ABL transcript levels within the initial 3 months of therapy. In order to achieve accurate data for high BCR-ABL levels at diagnosis, beta glucuronidase (GUS) was used as a reference gene. Within the German CML-Study IV, samples of 408 imatinib-treated patients were available in a single laboratory for both times, diagnosis and 3 months on treatment. In total, 301 of these were treatment-naïve at sample collection. Results: (i) with regard to absolute transcript levels at diagnosis, no predictive cutoff could be identified; (ii) at 3 months, an individual reduction of BCR-ABL transcripts to the 0.35-fold of baseline level (0.46-log reduction, that is, roughly half-log) separated best (high risk: 16% of patients, 5-year overall survival (OS) 83% vs 98%, hazard ratio (HR) 6.3, P=0.001); (iii) at 3 months, a 6% BCR-ABLIS cutoff derived from BCR-ABL/GUS yielded a good and sensitive discrimination (high risk: 22% of patients, 5-year OS 85% vs 98%, HR 6.1, P=0.002). Patients at risk of disease progression can be identified precisely by the lack of a half-log reduction of BCR-ABL transcripts at 3 months.Leukemia advance online publication, 3 June 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.153. Source

Farzanegan M.R.,University of Mannheim
Energy Economics | Year: 2011

Oil revenues play an important role in the political economy of Iran. On average, 60% of the Iranian government revenues and 90% of export revenues originate from oil and gas resources. Current international sanctions on Iran have mainly targeted the oil production capacity of Iran and its exports to the global markets. In this study, we analyze the dynamic effects of oil shocks on different categories of the Iranian government expenditures from 1959 to 2007, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDC) techniques. The main results show that Iran's military and security expenditures significantly respond to a shock in oil revenues (or oil prices), while social spending components do not show significant reactions to such shocks. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ronellenfitsch U.,University of Mannheim
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The outcome of patients with locally advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal (GE) junction, and stomach) is poor. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of perioperative chemotherapy on survival and other outcomes. To assess the effect of perioperative chemotherapy for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma on survival and other clinically relevant outcomes in the overall population of participants in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and in prespecified subgroups. We performed computerized searches in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Review of Effectiveness (DARE), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) from The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011), EMBASE (1980 to May 2011), and LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud), combining the Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy with specific search terms. Moreover, we handsearched several online databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved papers. We included RCTs which randomized patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, in the absence of distant metastases, to receive either chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy followed by surgery, or surgery alone. Two independent review authors identified eligible trials. We solicited individual patient data (IPD) from all selected trials. We performed meta-analyses based on intention-to-treat populations using the two-stage method to combine IPD with aggregate data from RCTs for which IPD were unavailable. We combined data from all trials providing IPD in a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the effect of several covariables on overall survival. We identified 14 RCTs with 2422 eligible patients. For eight RCTs with 1049 patients (43.3%), we were able to obtain IPD. Perioperative chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 0.89). This corresponds to a relative survival increase of 19% or an absolute survival increase of 9% at five years. This survival advantage was consistent across most subgroups. There was a trend towards a more pronounced treatment effect for tumors of the GE junction compared to other sites, and for combined chemoradiotherapy as compared to chemotherapy in tumors of the esophagus and GE junction. Resection with negative margins was a strong predictor of survival. Multivariable analysis showed that tumor site, performance status, and age have an independent significant effect on survival. Moreover, there was a significant interaction of the effect of perioperative chemotherapy with age (larger treatment effect in younger patients). Perioperative chemotherapy also showed a significant effect on several secondary outcomes. It was associated with longer disease-free survival, higher rates of R0 resection, and more favorable tumor stage upon resection, while there was no association with perioperative morbidity and mortality. Perioperative chemotherapy for resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma increases survival compared to surgery alone. It should thus be offered to all eligible patients. There is a trend to a larger survival advantage for tumors of the GE junction as compared to other sites and for chemoradiotherapy as compared to chemotherapy in esophageal and GE junction tumors. Likewise, there is an interaction between age and treatment effect, with younger patients having a larger survival advantage, and no survival advantage for elderly patients. Source

Setzer S.,University of Mannheim
International Journal of Computer Vision | Year: 2011

We examine the underlying structure of popular algorithms for variational methods used in image processing. We focus here on operator splittings and Bregmanmethods based on a unified approach via fixed point iterations and averaged operators. In particular, the recently proposed alternating split Bregman method can be interpreted from different points of view-as a Bregman, as an augmented Lagrangian and as a Douglas-Rachford splitting algorithm which is a classical operator splitting method.We also study similarities between this method and the forward-backward splitting method when applied to two frequently used models for image denoising which employ a Besov-norm and a total variation regularization term, respectively. In the first setting, we show that for a discretization based on Parseval frames the gradient descent reprojection and the alternating split Bregman algorithm are equivalent and turn out to be a frame shrinkage method. For the total variation regularizer, we also present a numerical comparison with multistep methods. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source

Henzler T.,University of Mannheim
AJR. American journal of roentgenology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: Various applications for dual-energy CT (DECT) have been investigated and have shown substantial clinical benefits. However, only limited data are available regarding the radiation dose associated with DECT imaging. The purpose of this article is to review the available literature regarding the radiation dose associated with DECT imaging applications in comparison with conventional single-energy CT techniques. CONCLUSION: The rediscovery of DECT and the increasing availability of this technique on clinical CT systems have opened new dimensions for CT. The advanced spectral differentiation of materials within the human body as well as the selective visualization or subtraction of iodinated contrast material or xenon provides both advanced visualization of disease-specific molecular substrates as well as additional functional information within a single scan. Source

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