The University of Manitoba is a public university in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Located in Winnipeg, it is a research-intensive post-secondary educational institution. Founded in 1877, it was Western Canada’s first university. Wikipedia.
University of Manitoba | Date: 2014-12-17
A composition for therapy of a peripheral neuropathy disorder in a subject in need thereof. The composition comprises an effective amount of an agent selected from a group consisting of pirenzepine, oxybutynin, muscarinic toxin 7, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, and combinations thereof, and a pharmacologically acceptable carrier and/or an excipient. The composition is useful for therapy of peripheral neuropathies exemplified by peripheral neuropathies induced by systemic diseases, peripheral neuropathies induced by metabolic diseases, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies, compression-induced peripheral neuropathies, peripheral neuropathies induced by exposure to dichloroacetate, immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies, peripheral neuropathies induced by infections, and genetically acquired peripheral neuropathies.
University of Manitoba | Date: 2015-02-18
An enzymatic method is provided for restructuring an affinity ligand bound heterogenous glycoform antibody sample to a substantially homogenous single desired glycoform antibody sample for therapeutic uses and kits for performing the methods. A method for enzymatically altering the Fc region of an affinity ligand bound antibody from a heterogenous glycoform to a substantially homogenous single glycoform comprises: contacting the affinity ligand bound heterogeneous glycoform antibody with a reaction buffer designed for a particular glycoform modification for a time sufficient and under conditions to modify the glycoform of the Fc region to a substantially homogeneous single form; optionally adding one or more nucleotide sugars and/or cofactors; and releasing the substantially homogeneous single glycoform antibody sample from said affinity ligand. The invention also encompasses biopharmaceuticals comprising single glycoform mAbs and polyclonal antibodies enzymatically produced for the treatment of cancers and immune disorders as well as compositions comprising the single glycoform antibodies as a biopharmaceutical.
University of Manitoba | Date: 2016-09-28
The Mito-Ob obese mouse model overexpresses the mitochondrial protein prohibitin (PHB). Mito-Ob male mice develop insulin resistance in addition to obesity and they do not develop overt diabetes. It has been discovered that these mice also spontaneously develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocarcinogenesis over time. Also described is a mutant Mito-Ob mouse that develops lymphadenopathy and histiocytosis.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-07-2015 | Award Amount: 5.51M | Year: 2016
Objectives: 1) to improve the observation and predictions of oil spreading in the sea using novel on-line sensors on-board vessels, fixed structures or gliders, and smart data transfer into operational awareness systems; 2) to examine the true environmental impacts and benefits of a suite of marine oil spill response methods (mechanical collection in water and below ice, in situ burning, use of chemical dispersants, bioremediation, electro-kinetics, and combinations of these) in cold climate and ice-infested areas; 3) to assess the impacts on biota of naturally and chemically dispersed oil, in situ burning residues and non-collected oil using biomarker methods and to develop specific methods for the rapid detection of the effects of oil pollution; 4) to develop a strategic Net Environmental Benefit Analysis tool (sNEBA) for oil spill response strategy decision making. A true trans-disciplinary consortium will carry out the project. Oil sensors will be applied to novel platforms such as ferry-boxes, smart buoys, and gliders. The environmental impacts of the oil spill response methods will be assessed by performing pilot tests and field experiments in the coastal waters of Greenland, as well as laboratory tests in Svalbard and the Baltic Sea with the main focus on dispersed oil, in situ burning residues and non-collected oil. The sNEBA tool will be developed to include and overarch the biological and technical knowledge obtained in the project, as well as integrate with operational assessments being based on expertise on coastal protection and shoreline response. This can be used in establishing cross-border and trans-boundary cooperation and agreements. The proposal addresses novel observation technology and integrated response methods at extreme cold temperatures and in ice. It also addresses the environmental impacts and includes a partner from Canada. The results are vital for the off-shore industry and will enhance the business of oil spill response services.
Bonaz B.L.,Grenoble University Hospital Center |
Bernstein C.N.,University of Manitoba
Gastroenterology | Year: 2013
Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune modulation through the brain-gut axis likely has a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The brain-gut axis involves interactions among the neural components, including (1) the autonomic nervous system, (2) the central nervous system, (3) the stress system (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), (4) the (gastrointestinal) corticotropin-releasing factor system, and (5) the intestinal response (including the intestinal barrier, the luminal microbiota, and the intestinal immune response). Animal models suggest that the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through an anti-tumor necrosis factor effect of the efferent vagus nerve could be a therapeutic target in IBD through a pharmacologic, nutritional, or neurostimulation approach. In addition, the psychophysiological vulnerability of patients with IBD, secondary to the potential presence of any mood disorders, distress, increased perceived stress, or maladaptive coping strategies, underscores the psychological needs of patients with IBD. Clinicians need to address these issues with patients because there is emerging evidence that stress or other negative psychological attributes may have an effect on the disease course. Future research may include exploration of markers of brain-gut interactions, including serum/salivary cortisol (as a marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), heart rate variability (as a marker of the sympathovagal balance), or brain imaging studies. The widespread use and potential impact of complementary and alternative medicine and the positive response to placebo (in clinical trials) is further evidence that exploring other psycho-interventions may be important therapeutic adjuncts to the conventional therapeutic approach in IBD. © 2013 AGA Institute.
Berkes F.,University of Manitoba
Fish and Fisheries | Year: 2012
As a dominant paradigm, ecosystem-based fisheries have to come to terms with uncertainty and complexity, an interdisciplinary visioning of management objectives, and putting humans back into the ecosystem. The goal of this article is to suggest that implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) has to be 'revolutionary' in the sense of going beyond conventional practices. It would require the use of multiple disciplines and multiple objectives, dealing with technically unresolvable management problems of complex adaptive systems and expanding scope from management to governance. Developing the governance toolbox would require expanding into new kinds of interaction unforeseen by the mid-twentieth-century fathers of fishery science - governance that may involve cooperative, multilevel management, partnerships, social learning and knowledge co-production. In addition to incorporating relatively well-known resilience, adaptive management and co-management approaches, taking EBM to the next stage may include some of the following: conceptualizing EBM as a 'wicked problem'; conceptualizing fisheries as social-ecological systems; picking and choosing from an assortment of new governance approaches; and finding creative ways to handle complexity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bernstein C.N.,University of Manitoba
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015
In assessing the best evidence for optimizing management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the focus is typically on anti-inflammatory agents and therapies that modulate the immune system. The intestinal immune response remains the key focus of developing therapies as well. In the past decade, the concept of dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has emerged as a potential pathogenetic focus in IBD, and with this a burgeoning interest in manipulating the microbiome as a means of controlling the disease has emerged. In this review, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating, and microbiome-modulating therapies will be covered in terms of what is known today, as well as treatments that may be part of the therapeutic armamentarium in the near future. Concurrent with the evolution of our understanding of the basic biology of IBD, there is an increasing appreciation for the disconnect between patients' symptoms and inflammatory disease. As clinical trials have simultaneously addressed both symptom scores and mucosal healing, investigators and clinicians have gained a greater appreciation for the fact that many symptoms may not be driven by active inflammation, and hence focusing only on immunomodulatory therapies would not serve patients' needs fully. Furthermore, there is an emerging recognition of the importance of stress and psychological health in symptom experience and treatment needs. In this review, approaches to managing patients' symptoms as well as other adjunctive approaches to improving well-being will also be discussed. Finally, throughout this review, important research questions regarding different aspects of treatment will be proposed. © 2015 by the American College of Gastroenterology.
Zhanel G.G.,University of Manitoba
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2013
The purpose of the CANWARD study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of a variety of available agents against 22,746 pathogens isolated from patients in Canadian hospitals between 2007 and 2011. Between 2007 and 2011, 27,123 pathogens were collected from tertiary-care centres from across Canada; 22,746 underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing using CLSI broth microdilution methods. Patient demographic data were also collected. Of the isolates collected, 45.2%, 29.6%, 14.8% and 10.4% were from blood, respiratory, urine and wound specimens, respectively. Patient demographics were as follows: 54.4%/45.6% male/female, 12.8% ≤ 17 years old, 45.1% 18-64 years old and 42.1% ≥65 years old. Isolates were obtained from patients in medical and surgical wards (37.8%), emergency rooms (25.7%), clinics (18.0%) and intensive care units (18.5%). The three most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (20.1%), Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)] (20.0%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.0%), which together accounted for nearly half of the isolates obtained. Susceptibility rates (SRs) for E. coli were 100% meropenem, 99.9% tigecycline, 99.7% ertapenem, 97.7% piperacillin/tazobactam, 93.7% ceftriaxone, 90.5% gentamicin, 77.9% ciprofloxacin and 73.4% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Twenty-three percent of the S. aureus were MRSA. SRs for MRSA were 100% daptomycin, 100% linezolid, 100% telavancin, 99.9% vancomycin, 99.8% tigecycline, 92.2% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 48.2% clindamycin. SRs for P. aeruginosa were 90.1% amikacin, 93.1% colistin, 84.0% piperacillin/tazobactam, 83.5% ceftazidime, 82.6% meropenem, 72.0% gentamicin and 71.9% ciprofloxacin. The CANWARD surveillance study has provided important data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens commonly causing infections in Canadian hospitals.
Del Bigio M.R.,University of Manitoba
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2010
The literature was reviewed to summarize the current understanding of the role of ciliated ependymal cells in the mammalian brain. Previous reviews were summarized. Publications from the past 10 years highlight interactions between ependymal cells and the subventricular zone and the possible role of restricted ependymal populations in neurogenesis. Ependymal cells provide trophic support and possibly metabolic support for progenitor cells. Channel proteins such as aquaporins may be important for determining water fluxes at the ventricle wall. The junctional and anchoring proteins are now fairly well understood, as are proteins related to cilia function. Defects in ependymal adhesion and cilia function can cause hydrocephalus through several different mechanisms, one possibility being loss of patency of the cerebral aqueduct. Ependymal cells are susceptible to infection by a wide range of common viruses; while they may act as a line of first defense, they eventually succumb to repeated attacks in long-lived organisms. Ciliated ependymal cells are almost certainly important during brain development. However, the widespread absence of ependymal cells from the adult human lateral ventricles suggests that they may have only regionally restricted value in the mature brain of large size. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-, AmpC β-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Canadian hospitals over a 5 year period: CANWARD 2007-11.
Denisuik A.J.,University of Manitoba
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2013
To assess the proportion of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Canadian hospitals that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases and carbapenemases, as well as to describe the patterns of antibiotic resistance and molecular characteristics of these organisms. Some 5451 E. coli and 1659 K. pneumoniae were collected from 2007 to 2011 inclusive as part of the ongoing CANWARD national surveillance study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed to detect putative ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase producers, which were then further characterized by PCR and sequencing to detect resistance genes. In addition, isolates were characterized by PFGE and an allele-specific PCR to detect isolates of sequence type (ST) 131. The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli (2007, 3.4%; 2011, 7.1%), AmpC-producing E. coli (2007, 0.7%; 2011, 2.9%) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (2007, 1.5%; 2011, 4.0%) among the isolates collected increased during the study period. The majority of ESBL-producing E. coli (>95%), AmpC-producing E. coli (>97%) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (>89%) remained susceptible to colistin, amikacin, ertapenem and meropenem. Isolates were generally unrelated by PFGE (<80% similarity); however, ST131 was identified among 55.8% and 28.7% (P < 0.001) of ESBL- and AmpC-producing E. coli, respectively. CTX-M-15 was the dominant genotype in both ESBL-producing E. coli (66.2%) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (50.0%), while the dominant genotype in AmpC-producing E. coli was CMY-2 (55.7%). Carbapenemase production was identified in 0.04% (n = 2) of E. coli and 0.06% (n = 1) of K. pneumoniae, all of which produced KPC-3. The proportion of ESBL- and AmpC-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae increased significantly during the study period, while the number of carbapenemase producers remained low (<1%). Compared with AmpC-producing E. coli, ESBL-producing E. coli were significantly associated with multidrug resistance and the ST131 clone.