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Winnipeg, Canada

The University of Manitoba is a public university in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Located in Winnipeg, it is a research-intensive post-secondary educational institution. Founded in 1877, it was Western Canada’s first university. Wikipedia.

Kirouac G.J.,University of Manitoba
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2015

This article reviews the anatomical connections of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and discusses some of the connections by which the PVT could influence behavior. The PVT receives neurochemically diverse projections from the brainstem and hypothalamus with an especially strong innervation from peptide producing neurons. Anatomical evidence is also presented which suggests that the PVT relays information from neurons involved in visceral or homeostatic functions. In turn, the PVT is a major source of projections to the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central nucleus of the amygdala as well as the cortical areas associated with these subcortical regions. The PVT is activated by conditions and cues that produce states of arousal including those with appetitive or aversive emotional valences. The paper focuses on the potential contribution of the PVT to circadian rhythms, fear, anxiety, food intake and drug-seeking. The information in this paper highlights the potential importance of the PVT as being a component of the brain circuits that regulate reward and defensive behavior with the hope of generating more research in this relatively understudied region of the brain. © 2015 The Author. Source

Mutter T.C.,University of Manitoba
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Hydroxyethyl starches (HES) are synthetic colloids commonly used for fluid resuscitation to replace intravascular volume, yet they have been increasingly associated with adverse effects on kidney function. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010. To examine the effects of HES on kidney function compared to other fluid resuscitation therapies in different patient populations. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, MetaRegister and reference lists of articles. The most recent search was completed on November 19, 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in which HES was compared to an alternate fluid therapy for the prevention or treatment of effective intravascular volume depletion. Primary outcomes were renal replacement therapy (RRT), author-defined kidney failure and acute kidney injury (AKI) as defined by the RIFLE criteria. Screening, selection, data extraction and quality assessments for each retrieved article were carried out by two authors using standardised forms. All outcomes were analysed using relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Authors were contacted when published data were incomplete. Preplanned sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed after data were analysed with a random-effects model. This review included 42 studies (11,399 patients) including 19 studies from the original review (2010), as well as 23 new studies. Fifteen studies were excluded from the original review (nine retracted from publication due to concerns about integrity of data and six lacking individual patient creatinine data for the calculation of RIFLE criteria). Overall, there was a significant increase in the need for RRT in the HES treated individuals compared to individuals treated with other fluid therapies (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.49; 19 studies, 9857 patients) and the number with author-defined kidney failure (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.00; 15 studies, 1361 patients). The RR of AKI based on RIFLE-F (failure) criteria also showed an increased risk of AKI in individuals treated with HES products (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.30; 15 studies, 8402 participants). The risk of meeting urine output and creatinine based RIFLE-R (risk) criteria for AKI was in contrast in favour of HES therapies (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99; 20 studies, 8769 patients). However, when RIFLE-R urine output based outcomes were excluded as per study protocol, the direction of AKI risk again favoured the other fluid type, with a non-significant RR of AKI in HES treated patients (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; 8445 patients). A more robust effect was seen for the RIFLE-I (injury) outcome, with a RR of AKI of 1.22 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.37; 8338 patients). No differences between subgroups for the RRT and RIFLE-F based outcomes were seen between sepsis versus non-sepsis patients, high molecular weight (MW) and degree of substitution (DS) versus low MW and DS (≥ 200 kDa and > 0.4 DS versus 130 kDa and 0.4 DS) HES solutions, or high versus low dose treatments (i.e. ≥ 2 L versus < 2 L). There were differences identified between sepsis versus non-sepsis subgroups for the RIFLE-R and RIFLE-I based outcomes only, which may reflect the differing renal response to fluid resuscitation in pre-renal versus sepsis-associated AKI. Overall, methodological quality of the studies was good. The current evidence suggests that all HES products increase the risk in AKI and RRT in all patient populations and a safe volume of any HES solution has yet to be determined. In most clinical situations it is likely that these risks outweigh any benefits, and alternate volume replacement therapies should be used in place of HES products. Source

A new nonlinear theory for cosmic-ray scattering across the mean magnetic field is derived. This theory can be applied for arbitrary turbulence geometry. Previous theories such as the extended nonlinear guiding center theory are deduced as special limits. Furthermore, the new theory can explain subdiffusive transport for slab turbulence and the recovery of diffusion for slab/two-dimensional and three-dimensional turbulence. The nonlinear standard theory for field line wandering can be obtained as a special limit. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Berkes F.,University of Manitoba
Fish and Fisheries | Year: 2012

As a dominant paradigm, ecosystem-based fisheries have to come to terms with uncertainty and complexity, an interdisciplinary visioning of management objectives, and putting humans back into the ecosystem. The goal of this article is to suggest that implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) has to be 'revolutionary' in the sense of going beyond conventional practices. It would require the use of multiple disciplines and multiple objectives, dealing with technically unresolvable management problems of complex adaptive systems and expanding scope from management to governance. Developing the governance toolbox would require expanding into new kinds of interaction unforeseen by the mid-twentieth-century fathers of fishery science - governance that may involve cooperative, multilevel management, partnerships, social learning and knowledge co-production. In addition to incorporating relatively well-known resilience, adaptive management and co-management approaches, taking EBM to the next stage may include some of the following: conceptualizing EBM as a 'wicked problem'; conceptualizing fisheries as social-ecological systems; picking and choosing from an assortment of new governance approaches; and finding creative ways to handle complexity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Bernstein C.N.,University of Manitoba
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

In assessing the best evidence for optimizing management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the focus is typically on anti-inflammatory agents and therapies that modulate the immune system. The intestinal immune response remains the key focus of developing therapies as well. In the past decade, the concept of dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has emerged as a potential pathogenetic focus in IBD, and with this a burgeoning interest in manipulating the microbiome as a means of controlling the disease has emerged. In this review, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating, and microbiome-modulating therapies will be covered in terms of what is known today, as well as treatments that may be part of the therapeutic armamentarium in the near future. Concurrent with the evolution of our understanding of the basic biology of IBD, there is an increasing appreciation for the disconnect between patients' symptoms and inflammatory disease. As clinical trials have simultaneously addressed both symptom scores and mucosal healing, investigators and clinicians have gained a greater appreciation for the fact that many symptoms may not be driven by active inflammation, and hence focusing only on immunomodulatory therapies would not serve patients' needs fully. Furthermore, there is an emerging recognition of the importance of stress and psychological health in symptom experience and treatment needs. In this review, approaches to managing patients' symptoms as well as other adjunctive approaches to improving well-being will also be discussed. Finally, throughout this review, important research questions regarding different aspects of treatment will be proposed. © 2015 by the American College of Gastroenterology. Source

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