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Managua, Nicaragua

Avellan D.R.,University of Managua | Avellan D.R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Macias J.L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Pardo N.,Massey University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2012

The Nejapa Volcanic Field (NVF) is located on the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua. It consists of at least 30 volcanic structures emplaced along the N-S Nejapa fault, which represents the western active edge of the Managua Graben. The study area covers the central and southern parts of the volcanic field. We document the basic geomorphology, stratigraphy, chemistry and evolution of 17 monogenetic volcanic structures: Ticomo (A, B, C, D and E); Altos de Ticomo; Nejapa; San Patricio; Nejapa-Norte; Motastepe; El Hormigón; La Embajada; Asososca; Satélite; Refinería; and Cuesta El Plomo (A and B). Stratigraphy aided by radiocarbon dating suggests that 23 eruptions have occurred in the area during the past ~. 34,000. years. Fifteen of these eruptions originated in the volcanic field between ~. 28,500 and 2,130. yr BP with recurrence intervals varying from 400 to 7,000. yr. Most of these eruptions were phreatomagmatic with minor strombolian and fissural lava flow events. A future eruption along the fault might be of a phreatomagmatic type posing a serious threat to the more than 500,000 inhabitants in western Managua. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Komp R.,Maine Solar Energy Association | Orr C.,Falls Brook Center | Kinne S.,University of Managua
40th ASES National Solar Conference 2011, SOLAR 2011 | Year: 2011

More than three decades ago, The Jet Propulsion Labs in California developed methods of manufacturing PV modules using Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) as the encapsulant. This encapsulation method has become the industry standard used for virtually all the certified PV modules sold and installed worldwide However, this system needs special, complex laminating machines precluding its use as a cottage industry for people in the developing world. This paper reports on a simplified encapsulation system that uses weights in solar ovens to encapsulate PV modules with the new fast-cure EVA formulations. This new encapsulation system is now successfully being used in a village in Nicaragua to replace a previous encapsulation method that used an expensive two part silicone encapsulant that could be cured at room temperature, The drop in the price of finished commercial modules has required a reduction in the cost of the encapsulation material, which had gotten to be about equal to the cost of the cheaper PV cells. This work, the details of which are given in this paper has been successful ensuring that cottage PV module manufacturing is still a viable option for developing countries. Copyright © (2011) by the American Solar Energy Society. Source

Avellan D.R.,University of Managua | Avellan D.R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Macias J.L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Sosa-Ceballos G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Velasquez G.,National Autonomous University of Nicaragua, Managua
Bulletin of Volcanology | Year: 2014

Apoyeque volcano, located 9 km northwest of Managua city, erupted explosively at 12.4 ka. The Plinian eruption deposited a widespread pumice fall deposit known as the Upper Apoyeque Tephra (UAq). The UAq is massive, reversely graded, and consists of white juvenile pumice (~78 vol.%), a variety of cognate lithics and accidental altered lithics. The whole-rock pumice composition is rhyodacitic (SiO2 = 66.9-68.5 wt.%) with a mineral paragenesis of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, amphibole, titanomagnetite, and ilmenite in a rhyolitic glass groundmass (SiO2 = 74.4 ± 0.6 wt.%). The deposit's dispersal axis is to the south, with the deposit covering a minimum area of 877 km2 within the 50 cm isopach and has a total volume of 3 km3 (dense rock equivalent, 1.15 km3). The eruption column reached a maximum height of ca.28 km. The eruption ejected a total mass of 3 × 1012 kg at an average rate of 2 × 108 kg/s, and based on available models, we infer duration of almost 4 h. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics suggest that the eruption was triggered by magma mixing. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Pena J.H.,National University of Costa Rica | Jaimes R.F.,National University of Costa Rica | Chow M.,University of Managua | Chow M.,University of Guanajuato | And 2 more authors.
Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica | Year: 2012

Strömgren uvby - photoelectric photometry of the stars RU Piscium, SS Piscium and TU UMa is reported. Source

Singh P.,Villanova University | Klingler J.,Villanova University | Dougherty E.,Villanova University | Moncada M.V.,University of Managua
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

The entrepreneurial mindset has a number of attributes including curiosity about the world around you, discovery of opportunities, prototyping and vetting technology/business solutions and then executing on the venture. International development projects offer many possibilities to learn about an environment that students are not used to seeing and through observation, see opportunities for technology-based solutions to developing world problems. We have used this methodology for several senior design projects in the past and more recently have developed courses specifically to develop these attributes in electrical and computer engineering students. A two course sequence has been piloted for the first time this year. In the first course, taken by students in their junior year, the students are given the cultural context in a developing country (in particular, the present course's focus has been on Nicaragua). This topic is followed by a Spring break trip to Nicaragua and the students live out in rural communities to discover potential projects that have technical merit and offer potential business opportunities. The project proposals are then developed by students from a US university and a Nicaraguan university. In the second course, in parallel with the actual project design, the students take a business model development course to understand business models and how to produce them. They then use this knowledge to develop a business model for their particular projects. In the paper, details of the two courses will be presented along with student outcomes being measured in terms of how well the entrepreneurial mindset is being instilled. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2015. Source

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