Yu S.,University of Management and Economics
Energy Strategy Reviews | Year: 2015
The remarkable growth of shale gas production in the U.S. has given rise to increasing interest in the exploration of shale resources in other areas of the world, especially in China. This study focuses on analyzing the socioeconomic impacts of China's nearly six years' shale exploration and in the process of exploitation practices. Findings reveal that China's shale gas resource potential is unconfirmed and its contribution to improving the structure of energy consumption is limited. The plans for shale gas exploration and development reflect the desire to achieve quick success and instant benefits despite a lack of long-term strategy. The exploitation of shale gas remains a pollute first, pay later model, which brings many ecological and environmental risks. To accelerate the progress of shale gas exploration, China should formulate a long-term plan and strengthen basic technology research into shale gas exploitation. Moreover, the strength and breadth of government incentives must be expanded, and water resources should be reasonably allocated during shale gas exploitation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Seyedin H.,University of Management and Economics
Global journal of health science | Year: 2014
Evidence-based policy documents that are well developed by senior civil servants and are timely available can reduce the barriers to evidence utilization by health policy makers. This study examined the barriers and facilitators in developing evidence-based health policy documents from the perspective of their producers in a developing country. In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews using purposive and snowball sampling. A qualitative analysis software (MAXQDA-10) was used to apply the codes and manage the data. This study was theory-based and the results were compared to exploratory studies about the factors influencing evidence-based health policy-making. 18 codes and three main themes of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were identified. Factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents were identified by the participants: behavioral beliefs included quality of policy documents, use of resources, knowledge and innovation, being time-consuming and contextualization; normative beliefs included policy authorities, policymakers, policy administrators, and co-workers; and control beliefs included recruitment policy, performance management, empowerment, management stability, physical environment, access to evidence, policy making process, and effect of other factors. Most of the cited barriers to the development of evidence-based policy were related to control beliefs, i.e. barriers at the organizational and health system levels. This study identified the factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents based on the components of the theory of planned behavior. But in exploratory studies on evidence utilization by health policymakers, the identified factors were only related to control behaviors. This suggests that the theoretical approach may be preferable to the exploratory approach in identifying the barriers and facilitators of a behavior.
Abbasi A.,University of Sydney |
Altmann J.,University of Management and Economics |
Hossain L.,University of Sydney
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2011
In this study, we develop a theoretical model based on social network theories and analytical methods for exploring collaboration (co-authorship) networks of scholars. We use measures from social network analysis (SNA) (i.e., normalized degree centrality, normalized closeness centrality, normalized betweenness centrality, normalized eigenvector centrality, average ties strength, and efficiency) for examining the effect of social networks on the (citation-based) performance of scholars in a given discipline (i.e., information systems). Results from our statistical analysis using a Poisson regression model suggest that research performance of scholars (g-index) is positively correlated with four SNA measures except for the normalized betweenness centrality and the normalized closeness centrality measures. Furthermore, it reveals that only normalized degree centrality, efficiency, and average ties strength have a positive significant influence on the g-index (as a performance measure). The normalized eigenvector centrality has a negative significant influence on the g-index. Based on these results, we can imply that scholars, who are connected to many distinct scholars, have a better citation-based performance (g-index) than scholars with fewer connections. Additionally, scholars with large average ties strengths (i.e., repeated co-authorships) show a better research performance than those with low tie strengths (e.g., single co-authorships with many different scholars). The results related to efficiency show that scholars, who maintain a strong co-authorship relationship to only one co-author of a group of linked co-authors, perform better than those researchers with many relationships to the same group of linked co-authors. The negative effect of the normalized eigenvector suggests that scholars should work with many students instead of other well-performing scholars. Consequently, we can state that the professional social network of researchers can be used to predict the future performance of researchers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Kang K.-N.,Korea Institute of Intellectual Property |
Park H.,University of Management and Economics
Technovation | Year: 2012
Although the development of biotechnology industry has been a national agenda, particularly in developing countries, few studies address factors that influence innovation performance in countries with unfavorable environments for biotechnology development. This paper examines the effects of inter-firm collaborations as well as the direct and indirect effects of government R&D support on innovation outputs. It is predicated on the national innovation system approach and the resource-based view. Data from 2005 through 2007 were obtained from a survey of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in biotechnology in South Korea. Findings show that upstream partnerships were significantly associated with the innovation output of biotechnology SMEs, and international linkages were much stronger than domestic connections. The government support through project funding directly and indirectly affects firms innovation by stimulating internal R&D and domestic upstream and downstream collaborations. The study findings imply the importance of governmental R&D funding and networking with foreign universities and research institutions as well as downstream partners. These Korea specific findings seem particularly relevant for countries where private investment firms are not well developed and knowledge bases and markets lag behind leading nations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rubio L.,University of Lleida |
Saura S.,University of Management and Economics
Ecological Complexity | Year: 2012
Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered to be severe threats to biodiversity, and maintaining natural levels of landscape connectivity may be one of the best responses to these issues. Graph-based habitat availability (reachability) metrics have been shown to be an appropriate method for a multifaceted but coherent landscape connectivity assessment. These metrics can be partitioned into three commensurate fractions (intra, flux, connector) that quantify the different ways in which habitat patches contribute to the overall landscape connectivity and habitat availability. In particular, the connector fraction measures the contribution of patches to the connectivity between other habitat areas as irreplaceable connecting elements or stepping stones. Because many conservation efforts and initiatives are focused on conserving or restoring corridors and other linkages between habitat areas, it is critical to understand more thoroughly the conditions under which investing in these connecting elements is an efficient management strategy. For this purpose, we analysed the contribution of the connector fraction in different simulated habitat patterns under different levels of habitat amount and fragmentation and in natural habitats for endangered forest bird species in Catalonia (Spain). We show that a prominent role of individual stepping stone patches as irreplaceable providers of habitat connectivity and availability arises only under a relatively narrow set of conditions, characterised by low habitat amount, high habitat fragmentation and modest to intermediate species dispersal abilities. We suggest that to support connectivity-related investments, it is necessary to focus on those few species or dispersal distance ranges that are likely to be both most dependent on and most benefited by the conservation or restoration of stepping stone patches. We conclude that the total amount of reachable habitat for a particular species is rarely determined by the contribution of individual connectors as the only dominant factor. Therefore, conservationists should be cautious not to overemphasise the importance of connectivity investments and to balance them with other conservation alternatives and strategies to promote species conservation in heterogeneous landscapes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.