Kakad Wari Dir Upper, Pakistan

University of Malakand

Kakad Wari Dir Upper, Pakistan

The 'University of Malakand' ; abbreviated as 'UOM'), is a public university located in the banks of the Swat river and the rural area of Lower Dir district of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. There is no library science department in UOM.Founded in 2001, the university offers undergraduate, post-graduate and doctoral programmes in various academic disciplines. As of 2010, the university secured its place at the general category and ranked "seventh" by the HEC. Since its establishment in 2001, the university has been focused on sincerely towards the attainment of excellence of higher education and to bring prosperity in the country. Wikipedia.

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Ahmad I.,University of Malakand | Amin B.,Hazara University
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2013

Theoretical calculations of Ga1-xMnxP and Ga 1-xMnxAs (x = 0.125) in the zinc blende phase are presented. The electronic structure and magnetic properties of these compounds are calculated and their correlation is investigated with the lattice compressions. The results show that, both the compounds hold their half-metallic nature, conductor for spin up state and semiconductor for spin down state, with their lattice compressions up to certain critical lattice constants. An abrupt change in the electronic and magnetic properties is observed at these robust transition lattice constants (RTLCs). These compounds loss their integer magnetic moments (4 μβ) and tremendous decrease in the bandgaps (spin down states) start at these critical lattice constants and hence the materials transform from half-metals to degenerate semiconductors. The calculated RTLC for Ga0.875Mn0.125P is 5.14 Å and for Ga0.875Mn0.125As is 5.25 Å. The possible compression in the lattice constants from their relaxed states, while maintaining their half-metallic nature, is up to 6% for Ga 0.875Mn0.125P and 8% for Ga0.875Mn 0.125As. The feasibility of the growth of these compounds on different substrates on the basis of the variation in the lattice constants is also discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Akbar N.S.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Khan Z.H.,University of Malakand
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2015

Metachronal beating of cilia under the influence of Casson fluid and magnetic field is considered. The model for cilia literature is modelled for the first time. The governing coupled equations are constructed under long wavelength and low Reynold's number approximation. Exact solutions are evaluated for stream function and pressure gradient. The important results in this study are the variation of the Hartmann number M, Casson fluid parameter ζ. The velocity field increases due to the increase in Hartmann number M near the channel walls while velocity field decreases at the center of the channel. Comparative study is also made for Casson fluid with Newtonian fluid. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Camellia seed oil is one of most important edible oil, rich in oleic acid and contains many natural antioxidants with various biological activities. During preparation of foods or storage camellia oil oxidizes by the auto-oxidation and produce oxidized compounds. Traditional analytical techniques like FFA, POV are used for the determination of oxidation and adulteration of oils and fats. These methods were rarely able to detect the oxidized compounds produced and extent of oxidation. This paper presents the uses of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) for the analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) composition and evaluation of auto-oxidation and oxidation products of camellia seed oil. The camellia oil was auto-oxidized for 12 months at room temperature. The TAGs were identified from their characteristics fragmentations such as protonated molecular ion, ammonium and sodium adducts, diacylglycerols, epoxy-diacylglycerols fragments and mono-acylglycerol fragments in ESI-MS mass spectra. HPLC-ESI-MS data revealed the separation and identification of 15 TAGs. The major TAGs separated and identified in camellia seed oil were POO, OOO, OLO, PLO/POL, OLL, SOO, ALO and OLLn. The auto-oxidation studies revealed a total loss of LnLLn, LnOLn, LLLn and OLLn amounting about 13.5% total oxidation. The auto-oxidation products were epoxy hydroperoxides, epoxy epidioxides, and mono-epoxides. It was observed that these were characteristic compounds produced in high oleic oils. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Ali H.,University of Malakand | Khan E.,University of Malakand | Sajad M.A.,University of Peshawar
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Some heavy metals are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and endocrine disruptors while others cause neurological and behavioral changes especially in children. Thus remediation of heavy metal pollution deserves due attention. Different physical and chemical methods used for this purpose suffer from serious limitations like high cost, intensive labor, alteration of soil properties and disturbance of soil native microflora. In contrast, phytoremediation is a better solution to the problem. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated soil microbes to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environments. It is a relatively recent technology and is perceived as cost-effective, efficient, novel, eco-friendly, and solar-driven technology with good public acceptance. Phytoremediation is an area of active current research. New efficient metal hyperaccumulators are being explored for applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Molecular tools are being used to better understand the mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, sequestration and tolerance in plants. This review article comprehensively discusses the background, concepts and future trends in phytoremediation of heavy metals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Saeed K.,University of Malakand
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2010

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the most intensely studied nanostructures because of their unique properties. There are two types of carbon nanotubes CNTs, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), prepared by chemical-vapour deposition (CVD), plasma enhanced chemical-vapour deposition, thermal chemical vapour deposition, Vapour phase growth, Arc discharge and Lasser ablation. Both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) possess high mechanical and electrical conductivity, ultra-light weight, high aspect ratio and have excellent chemical and thermal stabilities. They also possess semi- and metallic-conductive properties depending upon their chirality. This review focuses on progress toward functionalization (not only dispersed nanotube but also dramatically improve their solubility), preparation and purification, composites and the toxicity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The functional groups attached to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) should react with polymers and improve the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has significant application in pharmaceutical field such as drug delivery and nanomedicine, but the available literature also suggests that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may have unusual toxicity and have more adverse effects than the same mass of nano size carbon and quartz.

Zeb A.,University of Malakand
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids | Year: 2012

β-Carotene is one of the most important lipid component extensively used in food industries as source of pro-vitamin A and colorant. During processing and storage β-carotene is oxidized and degraded to various oxidation compounds. Some of these compounds are also the key aroma compounds in certain flowers, vegetables and fruits. The methods for analysis and determination of these oxidized products formed during food boiling or preparation are key to the understanding the chemistry of these compounds. This paper presents a novel analytical method incorporating high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection for the characterization of oxidation, isomerization and oxidation products of β-carotene in toluene at boiling temperature. HPLC and APCI-MS was optimized using oxidized sample and flow injection analysis of the standard β-carotene respectively. β-Carotene was oxidized in the Rancimat at 110 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. The oxidized samples were than analyzed by HPLC system at 450 nm and 350 nm as well as scanning and single ion monitoring mass spectrometry. A total of ten oxidation products and three Z-isomers were reported. Extensive isomerization was observed during treatment at the control accelerated conditions. The oxidation products include five apo-carotenals, three diepoxides, one mono-epoxide and one short chain species. Results show that the method was reproducible, accurate and reliable for the separation and identification of oxidation products of β-carotene. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ali H.,University of Malakand
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2010

The contamination of soils and waters by dye-containing effluents is of environmental concern. Due to the increasing awareness and concern of the global community over the discharge of synthetic dyes into the environment and their persistence there, much attention has been focused on the remediation of these pollutants. Among the current pollution control technologies, biodegradation of synthetic dyes by different microbes is emerging as an effective and promising approach. The bioremediation potentials of many microbes for synthetic dyes have been demonstrated and those of others to be explored in future. The biodegradation of synthetic dyes is an economic, effective, biofriendly, and environmentally benign process. Bioremediation of xenobiotics including synthetic dyes by different microbes will hopefully prove a green solution to the problem of environmental soil and water pollution in future. This review paper discusses comprehensively the science and arts of biodegradation of synthetic dyes. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mukarram Shah S.M.,University of Malakand
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Teucrium stocksianum (T. stocksianum) is one of the important members of the genus Teucrium which contains numerous biologically active compounds. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of fever, pain, as expectorant and blood purifier. Researchers are trying to discover plants origin, novel and safe remedies for the management of various ailments. The present study was aimed to determine the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extract of T. stocksianum. Methods: Preliminary, the ethanolic extract and sub-fractions were screened for anti-inflammatory potential at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (i.p) body weight, using carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. In-order to determine the possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect, the ethyl acetate fraction was ascertained with different phlogistic agents like histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins E2 and arachedonic acid via paw edema test in mice. Results: The ethanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum displayed marked to moderate anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. Among the sub-fractions, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) demonstrated excellent (66 %) anti-inflammatory action at the highest tested dose (300 mg/kg) that reached to the maximum value at 3rd hour after carrageenan injection and remained significant (***P < 0.001) till 5th hour of test sample administration. EAF revealed moderate effect against the paw edema induced by histamine (31.048 %) while non-significant results (18.148 %) were observed against the edema induced by bradykinin. The extract demonstrated significant (66.23-73.076 %) anti-inflammatory potential against the edematogenic effect of prostaglandin E2. Moreover, the extract also significantly inhibited (51.33 %) the paw edema induced by arachedonic acid. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the EAF has dual action and produced the anti-inflammatory effect by blocking both pathways of arachedonic acid metabolites (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase). Thus validating the traditional use of T. stocksianum and could provide a source of novel, effective and safe drug for the treatment of inflammation. © 2015 Mukarram Shah.

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are one of the major components of the cells in higher biological systems, which can act as an energy reservoir in the living cells. The unsaturated fatty acid moiety is the key site of oxidation and formation of oxidation compounds. The TAG free radical generates several primary oxidation compounds. These include hydroperoxides, hydroxides, epidioxides, hydroperoxy epidioxides, hydroxyl epidioxides, and epoxides. The presence of these oxidized TAGs in the cell increases the chances of several detrimental processes. For this purpose, several liquid chromatography (LC) methods were reported in their analyses. This review is therefore focused on the chemistry, oxidation, extraction, and the LC methods reported in the analyses of oxidized TAGs. The studies on thin-layer chromatography were mostly focused on the total oxidized TAGs separation and employ hexane as major solvent. High-performance LC (HPLC) methods were discussed in details along with their merits and demerits. It was found that most of the HPLC methods employed isocratic elution with methanol and acetonitrile as major solvents with an ultraviolet detector. The coupling of HPLC with mass spectrometry (MS) highly increases the efficiency of analysis as well as enables reliable structural elucidation. The use of MS was found to be helpful in studying the oxidation chemistry of TAGs and needs to be extended to the complex biological systems. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.

Lashari A.A.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Zaman G.,University of Malakand
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2012

The paper presents the optimal control applied to a vector borne disease with direct transmission in host population. First, we show the existence of the control problem and then use both analytical and numerical techniques to investigate that there are cost effective control efforts for prevention of direct and indirect transmission of disease. In order to do this three control functions are used, one for vector-reduction strategies and the other two for personal (human) protection and blood screening, respectively. We completely characterize the optimal control and compute the numerical solution of the optimality system using an iterative method. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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