The University of Maine at Farmington, established in 1864 as Maine's first public institution of higher education, is a public liberal arts college, and a founding member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges offering programs in teacher education, human services and arts and science as a part of the University of Maine System. The school is also at times referred to as UMaine Farmington or UMF for short. Wikipedia.
Spector J.E.,University of Maine, United States |
Cavanaugh B.J.,University of Maine at Farmington
Remedial and Special Education | Year: 2015
A disproportionate number of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are below grade level in reading. This trend may be due in part to characteristics of the disability, but it may also reflect lack of access to the instructional conditions needed for success in beginning reading. In this study, we surveyed special education teachers to investigate the conditions of reading instruction for K-3 students with ASD. Consistent with recommendations regarding beginning reading, teachers (n = 66) indicated that the vast majority of students with ASD (n = 226) participated in daily reading instruction and received more comprehensive instruction than the sight word approach that has been used in the past. Findings of concern included frequency of use of paraprofessionals to provide primary instruction, teachers’ relatively low self-efficacy for teaching reading to students with ASD, and provision of less than the recommended instructional time for K-3 reading. © 2015, © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2015.
News Article | November 8, 2016
Clinton or Trump for President: What Happens If the Election Is a Tie? What could possibly make this election season worse? If it didn't end on Election Day. Although most people, regardless of their side of the aisle, are hoping that the presidential race will be over by Nov. 9, there is a rare chance that the election could drag on. That could happen if the Electoral College votes result in a tie, or if no candidate gets a majority of the electoral votes. There are nearly 100 different scenarios in which the Electoral College could be tied 269-269, according to 270towin.com. "You can always get a 269 tie if you put together the pieces just right," said James Melcher, a political scientist at the University of Maine at Farmington. [Election Day 2016: A Guide to the When, Why, What and How] Still, most political analysts aren't holding their breath for a tie. "It's very unlikely," Sam Wang, a neuroscience professor at Princeton University who runs the Princeton Election Consortium website, told Live Science in an email. Recent polling and election prediction sites such as fivethirtyeight.com put the odds of a tie at just 0.6 percent and the odds of electoral deadlock (when no one gets a majority because of third-party candidates) at just 1 percent. In the event that neither candidate gets the majority of the vote, the House of Representatives would decide the president, said Lyle Scruggs, a political scientist at the University of Connecticut. However, congress is still bound by the electoral vote. [Election Day 2016: How Are the Votes Counted?] According to Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, "[t]he Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse [sic] by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have [sic] a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse [sic] the President." In other words, if Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton and Republican candidate Donald Trump each have 269 electoral votes, then the current House of Representatives must choose one of them. Because Republicans hold a majority in Congress, Trump would very likely be chosen, Scruggs said. If neither candidate gets a majority of votes, then third-party candidates come into play — if they can earn electoral votes. (The 12th Amendment subsequently limited Congress to choosing among the top three candidates.) Because of the winner-takes-all structure of most states' electoral votes, third-party candidates typically face an uphill battle in presidential elections. For instance, in 1992, Ross Perot won nearly one-fifth of the popular vote but earned 0 electoral votes, Scruggs said. The last third-party candidate to take a significant chunk of the electoral college was the segregationist George Wallace in 1968, who had a strong showing in the South, Melcher said. [7 Great Dramas in U.S. Congressional History] This year, a third-party candidate's chance of disrupting the race is slim. "There's only one person who has a chance, really, of getting any electoral votes besides Trump and Clinton," Scruggs told Live Science. "His name is Evan McMullin." McMullin, a former CIA operative who hails from Utah, has a decent shot at taking electoral votes in his home state, a heavily Republican state that has recoiled from Trump's candidacy, Scruggs said. "In three-person polls [in Utah], they're polling pretty closely together," Scruggs said. "Some have McMullin with 30 percent, Trump with 32 percent and Clinton with 28 percent." If McMullin prevails in Utah, the House could, theoretically, choose him, though it's extremely unlikely that the Republicans would disregard the popular vote and choose a relatively unknown candidate, Scruggs said. When the Constitution was originally written, the second-place finisher in the presidential race would become the vice president. The flaws in that setup became crystal clear in 1800, when Thomas Jefferson's enemy, Aaron Burr, tied him for electoral votes and the House picked Jefferson as president only after 35 votes. (This spurred the passage of the 12thAmendment, which separates the presidential and vice presidential races.) [The Nastiest, Strangest Political Elections in U.S. History]
News Article | January 15, 2016
At the Republican debates last night, Donald Trump argued that fellow Republican presidential candidate Ted Cruz might be ineligible to be U.S. president, given that the Constitution requires the president to be a "natural born citizen" of the country. (Cruz was born in Canada, though his mother was an American citizen at the time of his birth.) Some have argued that a 1952 law deems people with one American parent born outside the United States as nationals and citizens of the U.S. at birth. Others argue that the framers of the U.S. Constitution clearly meant someone born on American soil. One man, Houston attorney Newton Schwartz Sr., has even filed a suit against Cruz, aiming to settle the question before the primaries or party conventions get under way, Bloomberg Business reported. Whatever your opinion may be, it is true that all of the presidents to date have been born in one of the 50 U.S. states. Live Science took a look at where the presidents were born. While the tally may have a lot to do with chance, the overall trends do reflect changes in the population, politics and attitudes of Americans over the years. [Map: See Where All the U.S. Presidents Were Born] Proud to be an American It's no surprise that all 44 presidents were born on U.S. soil: The requirement for a president to be a "natural born citizen" is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. The current debate about what that means stems from the fact that there's no document trail to reveal what, exactly, the Constitution writers meant by that statement. "This wasn't one of the big, burning questions at the Constitutional Convention," said James Melcher, a political science professor at the University of Maine at Farmington. However, an early letter from Supreme Court Justice John Jay to George Washington reveals that the founders were likely trying to avoid foreign influence on American politics, Melcher said. At its birth, America was incredibly weak and insecure, and had recently been in a fight for its life against the British, Melcher said. "It was a little itty-bitty thing; it only had 5 million people," Melcher told Live Science. So the law reflects distrust that a foreign power could unduly influence the course of the country and even command its armies, Melcher said. "What [the founders] were trying to say is, 'We don't trust the British; they could try to infiltrate this new America and bring us down from the outside,'" said Larry Sabato Jr., director of the University of Virginia Center for Politics. "They were worried about a Manchurian candidate— except not Chinese, but British." All of the early presidents, except the John Adamses, hailed from Virginia, and eight presidents, or nearly one in five, were born in the state. "Virginia was the most populous state in the country in the 18th century, and you had just a remarkable collection of intellectual firepower and leaders coming from there," Melcher said. However, that early lead has since dissipated, and the last president from Virginia was Woodrow Wilson, who governed from 1913 to 1921. Ohio is also disproportionately represented, claiming seven of the country's presidents. That reflects Ohio's historical brand of politics, as well as its more populous and prominent past, Melcher said. "Ohio used to be a more central state in the country than it is now," not too far north or south, east or west, Melcher said. In addition, the swing state's moderate, unheated and even bland political style played better in early electoral politics, Melcher said. Prior to 1968, state politicians got together in smoky rooms to pick presidential candidates, while primaries counted for relatively little. These backroom deal makers often picked someone who most of the state party leaders could get behind — often the opposite of someone with strong points of view, according to Melcher. Superstition may have played a role in the decision, too. Once one Ohioan made it to the Oval Office, state leaders might have decided that Ohioans were more likely to win, and thus might have been more willing to select a Buckeye State resident as their preferred presidential candidate, Melcher said. However, since Warren G. Harding (who many blame for corruption scandals), no Ohioans have made it to the Oval Office. That likely reflects its dwindling population relative to the growth of the overall U.S. population, as well as changes in how presidential candidates are selected. With primaries playing a more central role in the process, winners tend to be more extreme candidates who can "fire up the base" — and that doesn't tend to jive with the mild-mannered Ohio strain of politics, Melcher said. [The 5 Nastiest, Strangest Political Elections in History] Meanwhile, some of the most populous states — such as California, Texas and Pennsylvania — claim relatively few presidents. That is part history, part geography and part luck. California earned its statehood in 1850, but the rest of the Southwest and the Rocky Mountain states took decades longer to become part of the United States. "You had a lot of empty country and didn't have a lot of communication," Sabato said. Therefore, anyone from California would have headed east to have any hope of winning the presidential election, Sabato said. But Pennsylvania is even more bizarre. It was one of the original colonies (the Constitutional Convention occurred there), had a large population from the beginning and is even a swing state. Yet it has produced just one U.S. president — James Buchanan. Though Buchanan is considered by many to have been a "terrible" president who helped bring on the Civil War through inaction, it's a mystery as to why Pennsylvania hasn't produced more leaders, Sabato said. While Abraham Lincoln may have been the only president to have been born in a log cabin, his birth at home was completely unexceptional. All but four of the presidents were born at home: Jimmy Carter, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama. The home-birth trend mirrors changes in American society. For instance, while just 1.36 percent of babies born in 2012 entered the world at home, about 95 percent were born at home in 1900, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But by 1944, less than 44 percent of births occurred at home, according to the CDC. But the stats on presidents' birth states can be a little misleading, Sabato said. Many presidents spent little time in their home state before heading off to greener political pastures. (For instance, although Ronald Reagan was born in Illinois, he first rose to power in California. And although George W. Bush was born in Connecticut, he came into big-league politics when he became the 46th governor of Texas.) Beyond that, there have been almost 1 billion Americans in history, and just 43 have occupied the country's highest office, Sabato said. (Grover Cleveland gets counted twice.) Therefore, because the group of presidents is so small and there are so many factors affecting the outcome, it may be hard to draw any conclusions about how birthplace affects the odds of becoming president, he said. "It is a haphazard process," Sabato said. "Politics is haphazard." Editor's Note: This article was updated to add information about last night's Republican debate and the lawsuit filed against Ted Cruz. Copyright 2016 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
Nolan M.C.,Arecibo Observatory |
Magri C.,University of Maine at Farmington |
Howell E.S.,Arecibo Observatory |
Benner L.A.M.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory |
And 7 more authors.
Icarus | Year: 2013
We determine the three-dimensional shape of near-Earth Asteroid (101955) Bennu based on radar images and optical lightcurves. Bennu was observed both in 1999 at its discovery apparition, and in 2005 using the 12.6-cm radar at the Arecibo Observatory and the 3.5-cm radar at the Goldstone tracking station. Data obtained in both apparitions were used to construct a shape model of this object. Observations were also obtained at many other wavelengths to characterize this object, some of which were used to further constrain the shape modeling. The lightcurve data, along with an initial determination of the rotation period derived from them, simplified and improved the shape modeling.Below we briefly describe the observations and shape modeling process. We discuss the shape model and the implications for the possible formation and evolution of this object. We also describe the importance and limitations of the shape model in view of the fact that this object is the target of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft mission. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Karno D.,University of Maine at Farmington |
Glassman M.,Ohio State University
Journal of Science Education and Technology | Year: 2013
Science education has experienced significant changes since the mid-20th century, most recently with the creation of STEM curricula (DeBoer 1991; Yager 2000). The emergence of the World Wide Web as a tool in research and discovery offers Pre-K-12 science education an opportunity to share information and perspectives which engage students with the scientific community (Zoller 2011). Students are able to access open, transparent sites creating common resources pools and autonomous working groups which can be used for shared problem solving. Science teachers should carefully build web 2.0 technology into their practice based on a changing pedagogy. Instead of focusing on teaching rule-based concepts and processes in which the teacher's role is that of expert, education should be focusing on possibilities of the web both in scientific research and understanding. In addition, web-focused education can also help remake scientific product as a public good in the lives of both science researchers and science consumers. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Kellett N.C.,University of Maine at Farmington |
Willging C.E.,Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Much of the mental health, substance use, and educational programming within a particular women's prison in the southwestern United States promotes individual choice and agency. Incarcerated women from rural areas are told that their ability to succeed outside of prison is primarily dependent upon their personal choices. Comparably little attention is given to preparing women for their upcoming release or to overcoming structural barriers that could undermine successful reentry within rural communities. As a result, these returning citizens, many of whom grapple with mental illness and alcohol or drug dependence, blame themselves for their inability to surmount these barriers. In this qualitative research, we draw upon the perspectives of 99 incarcerated women to clarify how ideologies of individual choice promulgated in reentry pedagogy clash with contextual factors within rural communities to derail the reentry process. We also consider community reentry from Amartya Sen's capabilities framework and discuss how this model could inform needed interventions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Reusch D.N.,University of Maine at Farmington |
van Staal C.R.,Geological Survey of Canada
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences | Year: 2012
The Dog Bay Line, a Silurian suture key to deciphering Appalachian accretionary history, was first recognized in Newfoundland. It marks where the Ordovician Tetagouch-Exploits ensimatic back-arc basin (TEB), which had opened within the leading peri-Gondwanan Gander terrane, finally closed. Here, we extrapolate this suture into New England, placing it between the Liberty-Orrington-Miramichi inliers (LOM) and the Merrimack-Fredericton trough (MFT). Southeastward, marine strata of the MFT overlie the TEB passive margin, exposed in the Ganderian St. Croix block, and display southeast-vergent structures transected by Acadian cleavage. They structurally underlie southeast-vergent thrusts at the base of the LOM. Northwestward, the LOM, Central Maine - Matapedia trough (CMMT), and Lower Silurian igneous rocks record elements of the upper plate trench-arc system, respectively, a subduction complex, forearc basin, and arc. The CMMT forearc received detritus both from the northwesterly arc region, and also from the Early Silurian-exhumed subduction complex. Minimal contrast in Silurian turbidites near the line may be due to sediment bypassing the subduction complex, and (or) a common provenance when the complex emerged above sea level. Salinic unconformities in the upper plate (arc-trench) reflect episodes of shortening, within an overall extensional setting that resulted in thinned, weakened lithosphere, and also final uplift accompanying latest Silurian slab breakoff. Silurian strata of the Coastal Volcanic Belt document a separate arc system built on Ganderia's trailing edge, where northwest-directed subduction of a narrow seaway led to latest Silurian collision with buoyant, strong lithosphere of Avalonia's passive margin, and the onset of Acadian typically dextral-oblique, northwest-vergent deformation.
A Preliminary Investigation Examining the Use of Minor Discipline Referral Data to Identify Students at Risk for Behavioral Difficulties: Observations Within Systems of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports
Cavanaugh B.,University of Maine at Farmington
Journal of Applied School Psychology | Year: 2016
Within multitiered behavioral frameworks such as schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS), it is recommended that schools use multiple sources of data to identify students at risk who may benefit from additional intervention. To date, much of the research in this area has focused on examining either systematic screening data or major office discipline referrals. This study adds to the literature on this topic by examining the extent to which data collected on minor behavior problems may make useful contributions towards identifying students at risk. Using a sample of 597 elementary school students, descriptive and inferential statistical data indicate that minor discipline data may be a useful additional piece of information for schools to consider when screening students for behavioral risk. Additional research is needed to confirm this finding. Implications for practice and research are discussed. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Reusch D.N.,University of Maine at Farmington
Geology | Year: 2011
During the latest Eocene, as Earth's climate transitioned from a greenhouse to an icehouse state, likely forced by declining atmospheric carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2), a large tract of basic and ultrabasic seafloor breached sea level in the New Caledonian region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean. A plausible mechanism for CO2 drawdown at this precise time, 35-34 Ma, invokes weathering of the seafloor rocks, composed of highly soluble Ca- and Mg-rich silicates, and related organic carbon burial. Carbon burial fluxes based on estimates of paleo-area, paleo-erosion rate, and paleo-sedimentation rate suggest a peak perturbation of 0.3-0.5 Emol (1018 mol) m.y.-1 This perturbation may have been sufficient to lower atmospheric pCO2 ~100 ppmv, thus triggering growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet and a host of related environmental changes. © 2011 The Geological Society of America.
Bentley K.M.,University of Maine at Farmington
Journal of Family Violence | Year: 2016
A retrospective qualitative constant comparative analysis of the stories of English speaking women (N==22) who mothered children age 6 or under, while experiencing abuse at the hands of a male partner, was conducted. The emergent theory of Attentive Surveillance (AS), a vital, proactive, complex process of monitoring and prioritizing, was identified. Two non-linear and interrelated stages emerged. One, Understanding Circumstances (UC) is a gradual increase of awareness that the family environment and a woman’s ability to achieve her mothering standards are affected by her partner’s behavior. The second stage, Prioritizing Standards (PS), is a deliberate or a subconscious balancing act of assessing needs, adapting, and ranking mothering standards while still mothering as close to the original standards as possible. Recommendations for professionals, based on AS, in supporting mothers existing capacities to foster mother-child relationships and healthy child outcomes in the context of intimate partner violence are provided. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York