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Mahajanga, Madagascar

Quemere E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Quemere E.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | Crouau-Roy B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Crouau-Roy B.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Habitat fragmentation may strongly reduce individuals' dispersal among resource patches and hence influence population distribution and persistence. We studied the impact of landscape heterogeneity on the dispersal of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), an endangered social lemur species living in a restricted and highly fragmented landscape. We combined spatial analysis and population genetics methods to describe population units and identify the environmental factors which best predict the rates and patterns of genetic differentiation within and between populations. We used non-invasive methods to genotype 230 individuals at 13 microsatellites in all the main forest fragments of its entire distribution area. Our analyses suggest that the Manankolana River and geographical distance are the primary structuring factors, while a national road crossing the region does not seem to impede gene flow. Altogether, our results are in agreement with a limited influence of forest habitat connectivity on gene flow patterns (except for North of the species' range), suggesting that dispersal is still possible today among most forest patches for this species. Within forest patches, we find that dispersal is mainly among neighbouring social groups, hence confirming previous behavioural observations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Aymoz B.G.P.,Laval University | Randrianjafy V.R.,University of Mahajanga | Randrianjafy Z.J.N.,Direction Provincial du Projet de Soutien Au Developpement Rural | Khasa D.P.,Laval University
Ambio | Year: 2013

We analyzed the management, resource use and conservation of the Ankarafantsika National Park (Madagascar) to develop a management plan, which provides a sustainable development strategy of the area while empowering the local residents. Using qualitative methodology we performed interviews with villagers and local organizations to assess the park's successes and failures from local stakeholders' perspectives. People living in a village with a permanent Madagascar National Parks (MNP) agent are more favorable to and supportive of the park conservation. People living in the park are supportive but are more divided. On the other hand, people living on the periphery of the park see conservation as more of a burden. Strategies like more equitable distribution of wealth, environment improvement and decentralization of power are discussed to achieve a more sustainable management plan based on community natural resources management. Short-term, medium, and long-term interventions from park authorities are needed to ensure the cooperation of local people in conservation endeavors. © 2013 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Honda A.,University of Cape Town | Randaoharison P.G.,University of Mahajanga | Matsui M.,Maternal and Child Health Group
Reproductive Health Matters | Year: 2011

Timely access to emergency obstetric care is necessary to save the lives of women experiencing complications at delivery, and for newborn babies. Out-of-pocket costs are one of the critical factors hindering access to such services in low- and middle-income countries. This study measured out-of-pocket costs for caesarean section and neonatal care at an urban tertiary public hospital in Madagascar, assessed affordability in relation to household expenditure and investigated where families found the money to cover these costs. Data were collected for 103 women and 73 newborns at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Mahajanga in the Boeny region of Madagascar between September 2007 and January 2008. Out-of-pocket costs for caesarean section were catastrophic for middle and lower socio-economic households, and treatment for neonatal complications also created a big financial burden, with geographical and other financial barriers further limiting access to hospital care. This study identified 12 possible cases where the mother required an emergency caesarean section and her newborn required emergency care, placing a double burden on the household. In an effort to make emergency obstetric and neonatal care affordable and available to all, including those living in rural areas and those of medium and lower socio-economic status, well-designed financial risk protection mechanisms and a strong commitment by the government to mobilise resources to finance the country's health system are necessary. © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters.

Fischer E.,University of Koblenz-Landau | Rahelivololona M.E.,University of Mahajanga
Phytotaxa | Year: 2015

Two new species, Impatiens susan-nathansoniae and I. hendrikii, from Mt. Marojejy, Madagascar, are described. Impatiens susan-nathansoniae is related to I. humblotiana from eastern central Madagascar, but differs in the shape of the lower sepal with spur, the dorsal petal and the lateral united petals. Impatiens hendrikii is related to I. fuchsioides, but differs in the straight stem, the larger leaves, the broader lateral sepals, the broader lateral united petals with different shape, and the glabrous lower sepal gradually tapering into a short, saccate, whitish red spur. © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Giacoma C.,University of Turin | Sorrentino V.,University of Turin | Rabarivola C.,University of Mahajanga | Gamba M.,University of Turin
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2010

In some primate species, males and females within a social group emit loud calls in a coordinated manner or chorus. Indri indri emits a very conspicuous loud call that elicits the loud calls of neighboring groups. Previous investigations have hypothesized that the main functions of the indri chorus are related to territorial announcement, intergroup avoidance, and group cohesion. We investigated sex differences in indri song. We recorded and analysed songs given by 10 different groups over 160 d. Overall singing duration did not vary between the sexes. However, males emitted significantly fewer but longer notes. Adult males and females of each group participated in the song with sex-specific repertoires. Females had a song repertoire of 8 note types; males shared all of their 6 notes with females. Apart from the initial roars, in all note types shared by both sexes, male notes were significantly longer than female ones, whereas variations in frequency parameters differed according to the note type. These findings suggest that indri song may provide cues to conspecifics, such as group size and sex composition, which could influence interactions between groups. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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