Punta Arenas, Chile

University of Magallanes

Punta Arenas, Chile

University of Magallanes is a university in the southern Chilean city of Punta Arenas. It is part of the Chilean Traditional Universities. The University of Magallanes was established in 1981 during the neoliberal reforms of the Chile's military regime as the successor of Universidad Técnica del Estado's Punta Arenas section. Universidad Técnica del Estado had established the Punta Arenas section in 1961. The University of Magallanes have campuses in Punta Arenas and Puerto Natales as well as a university centre in Puerto Williams. University of Magallanes publishes the humanities and social science journal Magallania twice a year. Wikipedia.

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News Article | December 29, 2015
Site: www.techtimes.com

Where on Earth is the purest water found? A new scientific study concluded that the world's purest water can be found in fresh waters of Puerto Williams in southern Chile. A team of scientists from the University of North Texas (UNT), University of Magallanes and Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity of the University of Chile, analyzed water samples taken for more than 10 days from several natural waterways near Puerto Williams. They wanted to determine the quality of freshwater in that region in the Chilean Patagonia, near the tip of South America. "Our results confirm that these waters are clean, the cleanest waters existing on the planet," said Dr. Guido F. Verbeck, principal investigator and director of UNT Laboratory of Imaging Mass Spectrometry. "In fact, the instruments we use to study the samples can detect chemical compounds in the water up to two parts per million, and here, we did not detect anything," he added. The samples of water needed were collected from several sources of fresh water in the area including Bronzes River, Ukika River, Laguna Los Guanacos and Bass River. With the use of high-resolution laboratory equipment, the samples were analyzed and the scientists concluded that fresh water in this area is the purest in the whole world. The researchers said that the study is highly important for the world because water is one of the Earth's most essential compounds because of its scarcity. This discovery could place the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, one of the world's last remaining wilderness areas, as a natural laboratory. "So far there are no records of other sites as clean as this, and that has to do with its geographical location, below latitude 55 degrees south, out of the air currents that carry industrial pollutants generated in the northern hemisphere," explained Tamara A. Contador, from the University of Magallanes. According to the Director of the Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Ricardo Rozzi, the air and water in the area "have a purity and an ecosystem that existed before the Industrial Revolution". Aside from Puerto Williams, the study found that pure water was also found in Torres del Paine National Park, also a part of Magallanes region and in southeastern China, Upstate New York and western Australia. Pure water or unpolluted water is already scarce worldwide. In fact, of the world's available water, only 0.003 percent is unpolluted. Puerto Williams is a Chilean town, located on Isla Navarino facing the Beagle Channel and it is located in the Magallanes region. It is located at 3,551 kilometers (2,206 miles) south of Santiago at the country's extreme southern tip. With only a population of nearly 2,500 people, it is dubbed as the southernmost city in the world. Its name came from Captain John Williams, a person who founded Fuerte Bulnes on the Brunswick Peninsula in 1843. Its main source of income is through tourism. It offers several trails for days of hiking and backpacking trips in the mountains. This port is a major agenda for scientific studies associated with Antarctica.

Lewis L.R.,University of Connecticut | Rozzi R.,University of Magallanes | Rozzi R.,University of North Texas | Goffinet B.,University of Connecticut
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2014

Aim: Many intercontinental disjunctions, especially among spore-producing plants, are shaped by long-distance dispersal (LDD) via wind currents. Amphitropical disjunctions are most commonly explained through LDD, but other vectors and dispersal scenarios must also be considered. To interpret the New World amphitropical disjunction in the dung-moss genus Tetraplodon, we compared stepwise migration along the Andes, direct LDD and ancient vicariance. Location: Global, specifically high-latitude and high-elevation localities, with a focus on the New World. Methods: Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from four loci sampled from 124 populations representing the global range of Tetraplodon, and analysed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian optimality criteria, with divergence dates estimated in beast. Results: The monophyletic T. mnioides complex diversified between the early Miocene and early-to-mid Pliocene into three well-supported clades, each with a unique geographical distribution: Laurasian, primarily high-elevation tropical, and amphitropical. Populations from southernmost South American were reconstructed as a monophyletic lineage that diverged from high-latitude Northern Hemisphere populations around 8.63 Ma [95% highest posterior density (HPD) 3.07-10.11 Ma]. Main conclusions: Direct LDD has resulted in the American amphitropical disjunction in Tetraplodon. A lack of modern or historical wind connectivity between polar regions and the poor resistance of Tetraplodon spores to the conditions associated with wind-dispersal suggest that bird-mediated LDD provides the best explanation for the establishment of amphitropicality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Vidal H.,University of Magallanes | Colle S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper describes the hourly simulation and optimization of a thermally driven cooling cycle assisted by solar energy. The double stage solar ejector cooling cycle is modelled using the TRNSYS-EES simulation tool and the typical meteorological year file containing the weather data of Florianópolis, Brazil. The first stage is performed by a mechanical compression system with R134a as the working fluid, while the second stage is performed by a thermally driven ejector cycle with R141b. Flat plate collectors and an auxiliary energy burner provide heat to the ejector cycle. The thermo-economical optimization is carried out with respect to the intercooler temperature and the flat plate solar collector area, for given specific costs of the auxiliary energy and electric energy, the capital cost of the collectors, ejector cooler, and the capital cost of equivalent mechanical compression cooler. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pena R.,University of Concepción | Cardenas R.,University of Chile | Reyes E.,University of Magallanes | Clare J.,University of Nottingham | Wheeler P.,University of Nottingham
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper presents a control strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) using an indirect matrix converter, which consists of an input side matrix converter and an output side voltage source converter (VSC). The capability of the input converter to generate different "virtual dc link" voltage levels is exploited. The commutation of the VSI with reduced voltage is illustrated for operating points where the output voltage demand is low without any deterioration of the current control performance. The proposed method leads to a reduction in the commutation losses in the output converter and reduced common-mode voltage. For the input converter, soft switching commutation is obtained by synchronizing the input and output converter pulsewidth-modulation patterns. This modulation strategy is particularly applicable in DFIG applications because the required rotor voltage decreases when the DFIG speed is close to the synchronous speed. The complete control strategy is experimentally validated using a 2-kW rig. © 2011 IEEE.

Rozzi R.,University of North Texas | Rozzi R.,University of Magallanes
Environmental Ethics | Year: 2012

Biocultural homogenization involves three major drivers: (a) the physical barrier to everyday contact with biodiversity derived from the rapid growth of urban population, (b) the conceptual barrier derived from the omission in formal and non-formal education of native languages that contain a broad spectrum of traditional ecological knowledge and values, and (c) political barriers associated with the elimination or reduction of the teaching of ethics under the prevailing neoliberal economy governance since the 1960s. Biocultural ethics aims at overcoming these barriers by recovering the vital links between biological and cultural diversity, between the habits and the habitats of the inhabitants. These links are acknowledged by early Western philosophy, Amerindian traditional ecological knowledge, and contemporary ecological and evolutionary sciences, but have been lost in prevailing modern ethics. There is an overlooked diversity of forms of knowing and inhabiting regional ecosystems, each of them having diverse environmental and social consequences. A better understanding of the regionally diverse mosaics of ecosystems, languages, and cultures facilitates the distinction of specific causes and responsible agents of environmental problems, and the disclosure of sustainable practices, forms of ecological knowledge and values that offer already existing options to solve socio-ecological problems.

Soto-Sanchez D.E.,University of Magallanes | Pena R.,University of Concepción | Cardenas R.,University of Chile | Clare J.,University of Nottingham | Wheeler P.,University of Nottingham
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

A novel frequency changing conversion scheme using three cascade multilevel converters in a Π topology is presented. The scheme resembles a direct frequency converter using the cascade converter in its simplest form (series strings of H-bridge modules equipped with a dc link capacitor) as the building block of the overall converter. This yields a highly modular implementation approach which may be attractive for large power applications such as intertie connections and variable speed drives. Frequency conversion takes place in a cascade converter which connects the input and output ports. Two other converters are placed, respectively, in parallel to the input, to remove unwanted current components from the input, and the output to regulate output voltage. Operation of this topology is explained and a scheme to control all the converters is developed, including control of converter currents, capacitor voltages, and output voltage. Experimental results, using a low-power prototype, confirm the foundations of the topology and verify its overall performance operating as a power supply at typical output frequencies (25 Hz, 16 2/3Hz and dc) while being fed from a 50-Hz system. Additionally, PowerSIM simulations demonstrate that the topology may be suitable for implementing high-performance, high-power ac drive systems using vector control techniques. © 2012 IEEE.

Loaiza S.,University of Magallanes | Atalah E.,University of Chile
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective To determine the association of birth weight with obesity risk at first grade of high school in Chilean children after accounting for potential confounding factors. Design National non-concurrent cohort of newborns. Sociodemographic information, height, weight and anthropometric measurements at first grade of high school were analysed. Birth weight was classified as macrosomia (≥4000 g), by gestational age and by ponderal index. The relationship between birth weight and obesity at first grade of high school (BMI ≥ 95th percentile of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's reference) was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic information at delivery. Setting First grade of public high school of low and middle socio-economic status in the whole country (about 77 % of Chilean children in this age group). Subjects Newborns (n 119 070) and the same number of high-school students. Results A positive relationship of high ponderal index (OR = 1·86, 95 % CI 1·69, 2·03), birth weight ≥4000 g (OR = 1·66, 95 % CI 1·54, 1·78) and large for gestational age (OR = 1·69, 95 % CI 1·58, 1·81) with obesity at adolescence (P < 0·001) was found. Macrosomic children had a higher risk of being obese at first grade of high school after controlling for prenatal confounding variables (OR = 1·63, 95 % CI 1·52, 1·76; P < 0·001). Conclusions A direct relationship between high birth weight and obesity at first grade of high school was observed in this group of Chilean children. The results highlight the significance of birth weight as a simple tool to be used as an indicator of obesity risk for children by health-care providers. © The Authors 2012.

Gonzalez-Wevar C.A.,University of Chile | Nakano T.,National Museum of Nature and Science | Canete J.I.,University of Magallanes | Poulin E.,University of Chile
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2011

Common inhabitants of Antarctic and Subantarctic rocky shores, the limpet genus Nacella, includes 15 nominal species distributed in different provinces of the Southern Ocean. The Magellanic Province represents the area with the highest diversity of the genus. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed an absence of reciprocal monophyly and high levels of genetic identity among nominal species in this Province and therefore imply a recent diversification in southern South America. Because most of these taxa coexist along their distribution range with clear differences in their habitat preferences, Nacella is a suitable model to explore diversification mechanisms in an area highly affected by recurrent Pleistocene continental ice cap advances and retreats. Here, we present genetic and morphological comparisons among sympatric Magellanic nominal species of Nacella. We amplified a fragment of the COI gene for 208 individuals belonging to seven sympatric nominal species and performed geometric morphometric analyses of their shells. We detected a complete congruence between genetic and morphological results, leading us to suggest four groups of Nacella among seven analysed nominal species. Congruently, each of these groups was related to different habitat preferences such as bathymetric range and substrate type. A plausible explanation for these results includes an ecologically based allopatric speciation process in Nacella. Major climatic changes during the Plio-Pleistocene glacial cycles may have enhanced differentiation processes. Finally, our results indicate that the systematics of the group requires a deep revision to re-evaluate the taxonomy of Nacella and to further understand the Pleistocene legacy of the glacial cycles in the southern tip of South America. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Navarro N.P.,University of Magallanes
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2015

Red algae can synthesize UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) compounds to minimize the damage caused by UV radiation. MAAs are molecules with low molecular weight and absorption maxima in the UV region (310-360 nm). Combined with their antioxidant activities, these features suggest a potential application in the prevention and therapeutic treatment of afflictions related to free-radical production and UV irradiation in humans. However, the use of MAAs in biotechnological products is limited by the low concentrations of these compounds in macroalgae harvested from the wild. Thus, species with high MAA concentrations are desirable. Information on red algae from Patagonia generally shows low concentrations of MAAs. However, increased MAA or at least changes in individual MAA concentration have been observed in certain species under stressful conditions. Additionally, methanolic extracts show an interesting absorption in the UVB region in certain red algae species, such as Lophurella hoockeriana. © IUPAC & De Gruyter 2015.

Gonzalez-Wevar C.A.,University of Chile | Nakano T.,National Museum of Nature and Science | Canete J.I.,University of Magallanes | Poulin E.,University of Chile
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

The evolution and the historical biogeography of the Southern Ocean marine benthic fauna are closely related to major tectonic and climatic changes that occurred in this region during the last 55 million years (Ma). Several families, genera and even species of marine organisms are shared between distant biogeographic provinces in this region. This pattern of distribution in marine benthic invertebrates has been commonly explained by vicariant speciation due to plate tectonics. However, recent molecular studies have provided new evidence for long-distance dispersion as a plausible explanation of biogeographical patterns in the Southern Ocean. True limpets of the genus Nacella are currently distributed in different biogeographic regions of the Southern Ocean such as Antarctica, Kerguelen Province, southern New Zealand Antipodean Province, North-Central Chile and South American Magellanic Province. Here, we present phylogenetic reconstructions using two mitochondrial DNA markers (Cytochrome Oxidase I and Cytochrome b) to look into the relationships among Nacella species and to determine the origin and diversification of the genus. Phylogenies were reconstructed using two methods, Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference, while divergence time among Nacella species was estimated following a relaxed Bayesian approach. For this purpose, we collected inter- and subtidal species belonging to four biogeographic regions in the Southern Ocean: Antarctica, Kerguelen Province, Central Chile, and Magellanic Province. Our molecular results agree with previous morphological and molecular studies supporting the monophyly of Nacella and its sister relationship with Cellana. Two rounds of diversification are recognized in the evolution of Nacella. The first one occurred at the end of the Miocene and gave rise to the main lineages, currently distributed in Antarctica, South America or Kerguelen Province. Large genetic divergence was detected among Nacella species from these distant biogeographic provinces emphasizing the significance of trans-oceanic discontinuities and suggesting long-distance dispersal was relatively unimportant. The second diversification round consisted of a more recent Pleistocene radiation in the Magellanic region. In this province, different morphological species of Nacella exhibit extreme low levels of genetic divergence with absence of reciprocal monophyly among them. According to our time estimation, the origin and diversification of Nacella in the Southern Ocean is more recent (<15 MY) than the expected under the hypothesis of vicariant speciation due to plate tectonics. The evolution of this genus seems to be closely related to drastic climatic and oceanographic changes in the Southern Ocean during the middle-Miocene climatic transition. In spite of the high number of species described for the Magellanic Province, molecular results indicate that these species are the most derived ones in the evolution of the genus and therefore that the Magellanic region does not need to correspond to the origin center of Nacella. The absence of genetic divergence among these species supports a very recent radiation process accompanied by rapid morphological and ecological diversification. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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