Chennai, India
Chennai, India

The University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest and premier universities in India. The university was incorporated by an act of the Legislative Council of India.It is a collegiate research university and has six campuses in the city viz., Chepauk, Marina, Guindy, Taramani, Maduravoyal and Chetpet. The university has 68 teaching and research departments grouped under 18 schools, covering languages, humanities, science, technology and medicine.The National Assessment and Accreditation Council has conferred 'five star' accreditation to the university and it has been given the status of 'University with Potential for Excellence' by the University Grants Commission. Wikipedia.

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Chronic exposure of pancreatic β-cells to supraphysiologic glucose causes adverse β-cell dysfunction. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate the hypothesis that oral administration of resveratrol attenuates hyperglycemia, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence and protects β-cell ultrastructure in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of resveratrol (5 mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 30 days showed a significant decline in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NF-κB p65 unit and nitric oxide (NO) with concomitant elevation in plasma insulin. Further, resveratrol treated diabetic rats elicited a notable attenuation in the levels of lipid peroxides, hydroperoxides and protein carbonyls in both plasma and pancreatic tissues. The diminished activities of pancreatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) as well as the decreased levels of plasma ceruloplasmin, vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH) in diabetic rats were reverted to near normalcy by resveratrol administration. Based on histological and ultrastructural observations, it is first-time reported that the oral administration of resveratrol may effectively rescue β-cells from oxidative damage without affecting their function and structural integrity. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that resveratrol exhibits significant antidiabetic potential by attenuating hyperglycemia, enhancing insulin secretion and antioxidant competence in pancreatic β-cells of diabetic rats. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Kumar C.,University of Madras
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2011

The preparation of Calcium copper titanate (CCTO) nanopowder was carried out by a sol-gel self combustion method. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the samples calcined at 800 °C were fully crystallized in the CCTO phase. The results of atomic force microscope showed the particles size of CCTO was in the range of 60-80 nm. The absorption bands corresponding to vibrations of Cu-O, Ti-O-Ti and νCa-O were observed at 512, 450 and 562 cm -1 using FTIR. The samples sintered at 950 °C showed the densities as high as 97% of theoretical density. The grain sizes of sintered pellets were determined by HRSEM. The dielectric properties of prepared samples were studied by LCR meter. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Balasubramanian A.,University of Madras | Ponnuraj K.,University of Madras
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Urease, a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme, is synthesized by plants, some bacteria, and fungi. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Although the amino acid sequences of plant and bacterial ureases are closely related, some biological activities differ significantly. Plant ureases but not bacterial ureases possess insecticidal properties independent of its ureolytic activity. To date, the structural information is available only for bacterial ureases although the jack bean urease (Canavalia ensiformis; JBU), the best-studied plant urease, was the first enzyme to be crystallized in 1926. To better understand the biological properties of plant ureases including the mechanism of insecticidal activity, we initiated the structural studies on some of them. Here, we report the crystal structure of JBU, the first plant urease structure, at 2.05 Å resolution. The active-site architecture of JBU is similar to that of bacterial ureases containing a bi-nickel center. JBU has a bound phosphate and covalently modified residue (Cys592) by β-mercaptoethanol at its active site, and the concomitant binding of multiple inhibitors (phosphate and β-mercaptoethanol) is not observed so far in bacterial ureases. By correlating the structural information of JBU with the available biophysical and biochemical data on insecticidal properties of plant ureases, we hypothesize that the amphipathic β-hairpin located in the entomotoxic peptide region of plant ureases might form a membrane insertion β-barrel as found in β-pore-forming toxins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ashokkumar V.,University of Madras | Rengasamy R.,University of Madras
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Three different strains of colonial green alga Botryococcus bruanii Kutz. AP103, AP104 and AP105 were isolated from the freshwater lake Kolleru, Andhra Pradesh, India. The morphological features of these three isolates were studied under laboratory conditions. Molecular identification of the strains was carried out using 18S rRNA analysis and their systematic position was confirmed to species level as B. braunii. Among these isolates, B. braunii AP103 recorded highest biomass concentration of 1.7±0.12gL -1, 17% lipids, 17% proteins, 32% carbohydrates and 13% hydrocarbons under laboratory condition. Under open raceway pond AP103 produced a biomass concentration of 1.8±0.13gL -1, 19% lipids, 33% carbohydrates, 18% proteins and 11% hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons profile showed the presence of heptadecane (34%) and hexadecane (12.5%). Oleic (25.7%), linolenic (34.26%) and palmitic (9.42%) acids were the major fatty acids present in the lipids extracted from AP103. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ramanibai R.,University of Madras | Velayutham K.,University of Madras
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2015

Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fluorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A.aegypti and C.quinquefasciatus (LC50=7.94, LC90=23.82ppm and LC50=13.58 and LC90=40.03ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A.aegypti and C.quinquefasciatus (LC50=4.27 and 3.43μg/mL; LC90=12.61 and 10.29μg/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes. © 2014 .

Extractive removal of cationic dyes namely astacryl blue BG and astacryl golden yellow were carried out from aqueous solutions using salicylic acid dissolved in toluene. Extraction efficiency was studied under various experimental conditions, such as pH of feed solution, concentration of stripping agent, extractant concentration, extraction time, temperature, initial dye concentration, and reusability of solvent. Under the optimised experimental conditions 93-98% of dyes were extracted. The extracted dyes were quantitatively stripped with sulphuric acid solution. The organic phase obtained after the stripping of dyes was washed with dilute sodium hydroxide solution to neutralise any sulphuric acid trapped or adhered to the solvent and then with distilled water. This solvent was reused in succeeding extraction of dyes. The optimised conditions were: pH of the feed 10±0.2, extractant concentration 2.89×10 -2mol/L, concentration of stripping agent 1.5N H 2SO 4, extraction time 4min, initial dye concentration 50mgL -1, aqueous to organic (A/O) ratio 1:1. Finally real industrial textile wastewater was tested under optimised conditions, 92% of dye was extracted at 25°C. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Rajeshwaran G.G.,University of Madras | Mohanakrishnan A.K.,University of Madras
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

A synthesis of staurosporine aglycon and its analogs was achieved in a 28-36% overall yield starting from 2-methylindole. The prominent key steps for the synthesis of the indolocarbazole alkaloids involved electrocyclization and nitrene insertion reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Palsamy P.,University of Madras | Subramanian S.,University of Madras
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2011

Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the present study was hypothesized to explore the renoprotective nature of resveratrol by assessing markers of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of resveratrol to diabetic rats showed a significant normalization on the levels of creatinine clearance, plasma adiponectin, C-peptide and renal superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB p65 subunit and activities of renal aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in comparison with diabetic rats. The altered activities of renal aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and glyoxalase-I and elevated level of serum advanced glycation end products in diabetic rats were also reverted back to near normalcy. Further, resveratrol treatment revealed a significant improvement in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities and vitamins C and E, and reduced glutathione levels, with a significant decline in lipid peroxides, hydroperoxides and protein carbonyls levels in diabetic kidneys. Similarly, mRNA and protein analyses substantiated that resveratrol treatment notably normalizes the renal expression of Nrf2/Keap1and its downstream regulatory proteins in the diabetic group of rats. Histological and ultrastructural observations also evidenced that resveratrol effectively protects the kidneys from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage. These findings demonstrated the renoprotective nature of resveratrol by attenuating markers of oxidative stress in renal tissues of diabetic rats. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

News Article | February 22, 2017

Scientists obtained the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research for implementation of the project on creation of new materials for capacitor type accumulators. In mid-February 2017 researchers of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) and the University of Madras obtained support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research for implementation of the project to create new materials for accumulators of capacitor type. The project should be completed within three years. Storage of electrical energy in the accumulators of capacitor type is one of the most promising approaches when rapid, in particular pulsed, charge output is required. Such devices should maintain their functionality in conditions of significant temperature increase, combined with the high currents. The aim of the project is to develop approaches for creation of new dielectric materials to increase the efficiency of accumulators of capacitor type in a wide temperature range. The research focuses on new materials based on antiferroelectrics, having significantly different working mechanism from the widely used analogue. The principal novelty of the approach offered by scientists is a joint study of the antiferroelectric materials properties both in the form of single crystals, which allows to apply most informative experimental techniques, and in the form of ceramics, that has direct practical significance. "The opportunity to study monocrystalline antiferroelectrics appeared only in the last few years with the development of methods of this type of crystal growth. Joint influence of pressure and temperature will be studied by X-ray scattering using resistively heated diamond anvil cells. Previously, such approach has never been applied. X-ray scattering techniques are planned to be applied using both laboratory diffractometers, and experimental facilities of synchrotron sources ESRF (France) and CAT (India)", said Dr. Alexey Filimonov, Head of Physical Electronics department of the Institute of Physics, Nanotechnology and Telecommunications, SPbPU.

News Article | March 2, 2017

SAN FRANCISCO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Mercer, a global consulting leader in advancing health, wealth and careers, and a wholly owned subsidiary of Marsh & McLennan Companies (NYSE: MMC), announced today the appointment of Sheela Sukumaran as Technology Industry Leader, a newly created role. Ms. Sukumaran will lead a team of technology specialists, and joins Mercer’s existing energy, insurance, and financial services industry teams. Based in San Francisco, Ms. Sukumaran will be responsible for driving strategic alignment of business priorities with effective talent and HR strategies for technology sector clients, and driving the growth of Mercer’s technology industry-specific consulting capabilities globally. Ms. Sukumaran will report to Pat Milligan, Global Leader, Multinational Client Group, Mercer. “Sheela is an accomplished human capital and strategic change consulting leader,” said Ms. Milligan. “She will be a tremendous asset as we continue to build our Technology Industry Team to focus on the specific, complex needs of our clients in the Technology sector. We are thrilled to bring such high-caliber talent to Mercer.” Ms. Sukumaran has more than 18 years of experience in human capital strategy and execution, business process optimization, HR technology implementation, and change management, specializing in the technology sector. Prior to joining Mercer, Ms. Sukumaran served as Director, People and Organization Practice, at PwC, from 2014-2017. Previously, she was the HCM Consulting and Cloud Practice Lead, High Tech and Manufacturing, at Infosys. She began her career in HR, serving across various industry sectors, including Banking, Technology, and Beverages. Ms. Sukumaran holds a Master’s in Business Management from XLRI Jamshedpur, India, and a Master’s in Economics from University of Madras, India. Mercer’s Industry Teams constantly evaluate market challenges and trends to deliver fresh perspectives and innovative approaches for clients. The Industry Teams combine Mercer’s leading insights, extensive data, and analytical capabilities with clients’ business goals and objectives in order to achieve successful outcomes. Mercer is a global consulting leader in talent, health, retirement and investments. Mercer helps clients around the world advance the health, wealth and careers of their most vital asset – their people. Mercer’s more than 20,000 employees are based in 43 countries and the firm operates in over 140 countries. Mercer is a wholly owned subsidiary of Marsh & McLennan Companies (NYSE: MMC), a global professional services firm offering clients advice and solutions in the areas of risk, strategy and people. With annual revenue of more than $13 billion and approximately 60,000 colleagues worldwide, Marsh & McLennan Companies is also the parent company of Marsh, a leader in insurance broking and risk management; Guy Carpenter, a leader in providing risk and reinsurance intermediary services; and Oliver Wyman, a leader in management consulting. For more information, visit Follow Mercer on Twitter @Mercer.

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