Chennai, India

University of Madras

www.unom.ac.in
Chennai, India

The University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest and premier universities in India. The university was incorporated by an act of the Legislative Council of India.It is a collegiate research university and has six campuses in the city viz., Chepauk, Marina, Guindy, Taramani, Maduravoyal and Chetpet. The university has 68 teaching and research departments grouped under 18 schools, covering languages, humanities, science, technology and medicine.The National Assessment and Accreditation Council has conferred 'five star' accreditation to the university and it has been given the status of 'University with Potential for Excellence' by the University Grants Commission. Wikipedia.

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Patent
Gencor Pacific Organics India Pvt. Ltd. and University of Madras | Date: 2015-07-02

This invention relates to a herbal composition and process for preparing a detoxifying herbal extract using the stem bark of the woody liana, Dalbergia horrida for treatment of snake bite, specifically Cobra (Naja naja) and Russells viper (Daboia russelli) in mammalians. The herbal composition can also be used to treat venomous bites of krait, bugarus caeruleus, Saw scaled viper, Echis carinaturs, Monocelled cobra, Naja kaouthia and King cobra, Oohiophagus hannah. An extract (Dalbergia horrida) can be performed utilizing an ethanol solvent. Further, the extract can be performed utilizing a methanol solvent (an alcoholic solvent) separately. The ethanol extraction and methanol extraction of the herb can be performed using a common plant extraction approach (CPEA). The concentrated ethanol and methanol solvents can be pooled together to obtain a novel detoxifying herbal extract for treatment of snake bite.


Patent
Gencor Pacific Organics India Pvt. Ltd. and University of Madras | Date: 2017-05-10

A herbal composition and process for preparing a detoxifying herbal extract using the stem bark of the woody liana, Dalbergia horrida for treatment of snake bite specifically Cobra (Naja naja) and Russells viper (Daboia russelli) in mammalians. The herbal composition can also be used to treat venomous bites of krait, bugarus caeruleus, Saw scaled viper, Echis carinatus, Monocelled cobra, Naja kaouthia and King cobra, Oohiophagus hannah. An extract (Dalbergia horrida) can be performed utilizing an ethanol solvent. Further, the extract can be performed utilizing a methanol solvent (an alcoholic solvent) separately. The ethanol extraction and methanol extraction of the herb can be performed using a common plant extraction approach (CPEA). The concentrated ethanol and methanol solvents can be pooled together in order to obtain a novel detoxifying herbal extract for treatment of snakebite.


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Charter Oak State College, (http://www.CharterOak.edu), Connecticut’s public online college, is pleased to announce that its 2017 commencement ceremony will take place on Sunday, June 4 at 1:30 p.m. in Welte Auditorium at Central Connecticut State University in New Britain, CT. Dr. Shyamala Raman, Faculty Emerita of Economics and International Studies at the University of Saint Joseph, West Hartford, CT, and former Core Consulting Faculty member for Charter Oak will be the commencement speaker. A live webcast of the ceremony will be hosted on CharterOak.edu for students unable to attend in person. Dr. Shyamala Raman has a passion for economics, education, and for international, multicultural, women’s and human rights understanding. Her international advocacy, academically as well as programmatically has included presentations at the United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain; at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, sultanate of Oman; and at the Human Rights Forum held in Kigali, Rwanda, sponsored by the UNESCO Chair in Comparative Human Rights at the University of Connecticut. She has also served as a speaker/workshop leader on the Millennium Development Goals at nine of the Annual Intergenerational Leadership Forums held by the UNESCO Chair. As Director of International Studies and Programs at USJ, she assisted with the international agreement with HAN University, Nijmegan, The Netherlands. She generously gives of her time and talent to support numerous non-profits, including: Board of the World Affairs Council, Mercy Housing and Shelter Corporation, and Volunteers in Service to Education in India, Inc. She has a Ph.D. in Economics and an M.BA. in Finance from the University of Connecticut, a M.A. in Liberal Studies from Wesleyan University and a M.A. in Economics from the University of Madras, India. Founded in 1973, Charter Oak State College (http://www.CharterOak.edu) is Connecticut’s only public online college, offering associate and bachelor’s degree completion programs in high-demand fields including Health Information Management, Health Care Administration, Cyber Security and Business Administration. The College offers a Master of Science in Organizational Effectiveness and Leadership. Charter Oak is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges and governed by Connecticut’s Board of Regents for Higher Education.


Velmurugan M.S.,University of Madras
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Mobile phones have grown rapidly using today's wireless technology thereby providing a new dimension to simplify daily routine jobs by users. Mobile phone's applications have a great impact on the way of faster and more effective to convey information. In contrast, mobile phones could harm its users. This paper explored detrimental effects of mobile phones on energy consumption, electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation, environment, health and accidents. The effect of mobile phone's energy consumption can be considered during energy spend for its production and use. The electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRF) may cause adverse health effects on human. The raw materials which are used to manufacture for mobile phones may cause the severe environmental impacts due to their levels of toxicity. The health hazards are correlated with high-toxic substances released from the mobile phones and its addiction through a prolonged use. Mobile phone usage while driving can cause road traffic collisions and motor vehicle crashes. Furthermore, sustainable perspectives have been suggested as a way to overcoming these detrimental effects of mobile phones. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Lakshmi A.,University of Madras | Subramanian S.P.,University of Madras
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2014

Tangeretin, a citrus polymethoxyflavone, is an antioxidant modulator which has been shown to exhibit a surfeit of pharmacological properties. The present study was hypothesized to explore the therapeutic activity of tangeretin against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced kidney injury in mammary tumor bearing rats. Recently, we have reported the chemotherapeutic effect of tangeretin in the breast tissue of DMBA induced rats. Breast cancer was induced by "air pouch technique" with a single dose of 25. mg/kg of DMBA. Tangeretin (50. mg/kg/day) was administered orally for four weeks. The renoprotective nature of tangeretin was assessed by analyzing the markers of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence in DMBA induced rats. Tangeretin treatment revealed a significant decline in the levels of lipid peroxides, inflammatory cytokines and markers of DNA damage, and a significant improvement in the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Similarly, mRNA, protein and immunohistochemical analysis substantiated that tangeretin treatment notably normalizes the renal expression of Nrf2/Keap1, its downstream regulatory proteins and the inflammatory cytokines in the DMBA induced rats. Histological and ultrastructural observations also evidenced that the treatment with tangeretin effectively protects the kidney from DMBA-mediated oxidative damage, hence, proving its nephroprotective nature. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) mediated regulation of cellular antioxidant production and the anti-inflammatory mechanism play an important role in neuroprotection against neurodegenerative diseases. Naringin a citrus flavonone, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effect against Huntington's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders, however the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects on 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurodegeneration are poorly defined. The objective of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of naringin and delineate the mechanism of action on 3-NP-induced neurodegeneration. Rats were injected with 3-NP (10. mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for 2. weeks to develop neurodegeneration, while naringin (80. mg/kg body weight/day, orally) was administered throughout the experimental period, 1. h prior to 3-NP exposure. Thereafter rats were euthanized for biochemical, histological, and molecular studies. Treatment with naringin ameliorated the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio with concomitant decrease in the levels of hydroxyl radical, hydroperoxide and nitrite in 3-NP-induced rats. Nissl staining and transmission electron microscopic studies showed that naringin modulated 3-NP-induced histological changes. Naringin induces NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, glutathione S-transferase P1 and gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase mRNA expressions through the activation of Nrf2 and decreased the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators like tumour necrosis factor-alpha, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results indicate that naringin might be beneficial in mitigating 3-NP-induced neurodegeneration through the enhancement of phase II and antioxidant gene expressions via Nrf2 activation; thereby modulating the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. © 2012 IBRO.


Umesalma S.,University of Madras | Sudhandiran G.,University of Madras
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Colon cancer is the third most malignant neoplasm in the world and chemoprevention through dietary intervention is an emerging option to reduce its mortality. Ellagic acid (EA) a major component of berries possesses attractive biological deeds. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of ellagic acid in fostering apoptosis in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) mediated experimental colon carcinogenesis model. Wistar male rats were segregated into four groups: group I-control rats, group II-rats received ellagic acid (60 mg/kg body weight p.o. every day), rats in group III-induced with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 15 weeks, DMH-induced group IV rats were initiated with ellagic acid treatment. The present study is designed to explore the significance of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt molecular pathway as well as ellagic acid's chemopreventive effect in colon cancer. DMH-induced rats exhibited elevated expressions of PI3K and Akt as confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoblot and confocal microscopic analysis. Mechanistically, ellagic acid was found to prevent PI3K/Akt activation that in turn, results in modulation of its downstream Bcl-2 family proteins. Bax expression and caspase-3 activation was noted after ellagic acid supplementation leading to elevation of cytochrome c (cyt c) levels and finally cell death. These observations were supported by the DNA fragmentation results, which showed the occurrence of apoptosis. This study reveals the involvement of PI3K-Akt signaling through which ellagic acid induces apoptosis and subsequently suppresses colon cancer during DMH-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that ellagic acid begets apoptosis in DMH-induced colon carcinoma. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rajesh P.,University of Madras | Balasubramanian K.,University of Madras
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2015

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a distinctive endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), is widely used as plasticizer. Gestational exposure to EDCs like DEHP may program a permanent diabetes disposition. We investigated whether gestational DEHP exposure disrupts glucose homeostasis in the rat F1 offspring as a result of early impairment in the functions of endocrine pancreas. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with DEHP (1, 10 and 100mgkg-1day-1) or olive oil from gestational day 9-21 by oral gavage. DEHP-exposed offspring exhibited elevated blood glucose, impaired insulin, glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and decreased pancreatic insulin content at postnatal day 60 (PND60). Global DNA methylation level was increased while the expression of genes involved in the development and function of β-cells were down regulated in islets in DEHP exposed groups. Gestational exposure to DEHP favours β-cell dysfunction and the whole body glucometabolic abnormalities in the F1 offspring by down regulating the expression of critical genes. Further, DEHP-induced epigenetic changes in genes involved in β-cell development and function appear to play a significant role. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Balasubramanian A.,University of Madras | Ponnuraj K.,University of Madras
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Urease, a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme, is synthesized by plants, some bacteria, and fungi. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Although the amino acid sequences of plant and bacterial ureases are closely related, some biological activities differ significantly. Plant ureases but not bacterial ureases possess insecticidal properties independent of its ureolytic activity. To date, the structural information is available only for bacterial ureases although the jack bean urease (Canavalia ensiformis; JBU), the best-studied plant urease, was the first enzyme to be crystallized in 1926. To better understand the biological properties of plant ureases including the mechanism of insecticidal activity, we initiated the structural studies on some of them. Here, we report the crystal structure of JBU, the first plant urease structure, at 2.05 Å resolution. The active-site architecture of JBU is similar to that of bacterial ureases containing a bi-nickel center. JBU has a bound phosphate and covalently modified residue (Cys592) by β-mercaptoethanol at its active site, and the concomitant binding of multiple inhibitors (phosphate and β-mercaptoethanol) is not observed so far in bacterial ureases. By correlating the structural information of JBU with the available biophysical and biochemical data on insecticidal properties of plant ureases, we hypothesize that the amphipathic β-hairpin located in the entomotoxic peptide region of plant ureases might form a membrane insertion β-barrel as found in β-pore-forming toxins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Palsamy P.,University of Madras | Subramanian S.,University of Madras
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2011

Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the present study was hypothesized to explore the renoprotective nature of resveratrol by assessing markers of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of resveratrol to diabetic rats showed a significant normalization on the levels of creatinine clearance, plasma adiponectin, C-peptide and renal superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB p65 subunit and activities of renal aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in comparison with diabetic rats. The altered activities of renal aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and glyoxalase-I and elevated level of serum advanced glycation end products in diabetic rats were also reverted back to near normalcy. Further, resveratrol treatment revealed a significant improvement in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities and vitamins C and E, and reduced glutathione levels, with a significant decline in lipid peroxides, hydroperoxides and protein carbonyls levels in diabetic kidneys. Similarly, mRNA and protein analyses substantiated that resveratrol treatment notably normalizes the renal expression of Nrf2/Keap1and its downstream regulatory proteins in the diabetic group of rats. Histological and ultrastructural observations also evidenced that resveratrol effectively protects the kidneys from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage. These findings demonstrated the renoprotective nature of resveratrol by attenuating markers of oxidative stress in renal tissues of diabetic rats. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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