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Patent
Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, University of Lyon and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2014-04-29

The invention concerns a new class of tubulin polymerisation inhibitors and their applications in research and medicine, notably in chemotherapy. The invention proposes new azoaryl derivatives of formula (I): as defined in Claim 1, which may be fully reversibly interconverted between non-tubulin-binding trans and tubulin-binding as isomeric forms, either by irradiation or spontaneously. The invention also concerns compounds with a azoaryl structure for use in studying the cytoskeleton and/or its associated processes, or in the treatment of a disease for which a tubulin polymerisation inhibition activity has a beneficial effect, wherein the compound is administered to the cell, organism or patient in need of such treatment in the trans form of the diazenyl bond, and where this trans form is inactive as regards a tubulin polymerisation inhibition effect, and where after photoisomerisation in vitro, in cellulo or in vivo to an azoaryl compound in its cis isomeric form of the diazenyl bond by the application of light, optionally with modification in vitro, in cellulo or in vivo of one or more substituents, the resultant cis form is active as regards a tubulin polymerisation inhibition effect.


Patent
Polytechnic University of Turin, INSA Lyon, Doceram Medical Ceramics Gmbh, University of Lyon and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2015-02-13

A process is described, for producing zirconia-based multi-phasic ceramic composite materials, comprising the steps of: providing at least one ceramic suspension by dispersing at least one ceramic zirconia powder in at least one aqueous medium to obtain at least one matrix for such composite material; providing at least one aqueous solution containing one or more inorganic precursors and adding such aqueous solution to such ceramic suspension to surface modify such ceramic zirconia powder and obtain at least one additived suspension; quickly drying such additived suspension to obtain at least one additived powder; heat treating such additived powder to obtain at least one zirconia powder coated on its surface by second phases; and forming such zirconia powder coated on its surface by second phases.


The newly announced scientific board includes David Eagleman, PhD, Professor of Neuroscience, Stanford University, Founder & CSO, BrainCheck, and cofounder & CSO, NeoSensory; Christof Koch, PhD, CSO & President of Allen Institute for Brain Science; Emmanuel Mignot, MD, PhD, Director of Stanford Sleep Center; and Cedric Villani, PhD, winner of the 2010 Fields Medal and Director of Henri Poincarré Institute. These experts will help Rythm define its research strategy, encompassing sleep diagnosis, treatment, improvement, and understanding of the human brain. The human brain is the most complex organ in the known universe, and understanding the brain and sleep are among the biggest scientific challenges of the century. One-third of the population does not sleep well or sufficiently long. Currently, there are no obvious solutions to this epidemic. However, international research in neuroscience and Rythm are at the forefront of developing non-invasive solutions that are accurate and effective. The company is tackling multiple, ambitious challenges at the nexus of multiple disciplines: medicine, neurosciences, and mathematics. In forming a board, Rythm successfully sought to attract the best-of-the-best from across disciplines who are aligned with the company's mission and vision. "The brain is the most complex system known today, and within that field of study, sleep is a new domain that presents a variety of complex problems and solutions," said Hugo Mercier, CEO & Co-founder at Rythm. "The diversity of fields, experience, and intellect that the members of our board bring will help Rythm unlock major challenges and pursue the right research directions." David Eagleman is a professor at Stanford University in the department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, known for his work on brain plasticity, time perception, synesthesia, and neurolaw. He also serves as the Director of the Center for Science and Law. He is a Guggenheim Fellow, a council member in the World Economic Forum, and a popular TED speaker. He has launched two companies from his laboratory: NeoSensory and BrainCheck. He is a New York Times bestselling author published in 31 languages and is the writer and creator of the Emmy-nominated TV series, The Brain with David Eagleman. He is a renowned scientist with articles in all the major academic journals and profiles in national magazines such as the New Yorker. He is a regular commenter on national television and radio. "We don't yet fully understand why we sleep and dream, but we're aware that it's related to the consolidation of learning and memory," said Eagleman. "I am excited to work with Rythm to better unmask the mysteries and nuances of sleep state, and to be able to leverage that understanding to improve lives. Inadequate sleep prevents people from reaching their full potential. The improvement of sleep opens the hope of functioning at a more optimized mental performance." Christof Koch is a physicist turned neuroscientist serving as the President and Chief Scientific Officer of the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle. He is leading a team of 300 scientists, engineers and staff engaged in a ten-year project that aims to understand the building blocks of the mammalian brain. Koch previously served as a professor at the California Institute of Technology for nearly 30 years, specializing in the biophysics of the brain and the neural bases of consciousness, and has been influential in arguing that consciousness can be approached using the modern tools of neurobiology. As a member of Rythm's board, Koch will contribute his neuroscientific expertise on how sleep relates to the brain and its electrical behavior in health and disease. "We have so much more to learn about the relationship that sleep has to the functioning of our brains and our health," said Koch. "Working with Rythm is an opportunity to bring academia together with the development of consumer products so that sleep research can become practicable." Emmanuel Mignot is the Craig Reynolds Professor of Sleep Medicine at Stanford Medical School and the Director of the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine. He is a recognized authority on sleep research and medicine, known primarily for his work on narcolepsy. He is a member of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine and has received numerous research grants and honors, including National Institute of Health Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and McKnight Neuroscience awards. He is the co-author of more than 200 original scientific publications, and serves on the editorial board of scientific journals in the field of sleep and biology research. He formerly served as the president of the Sleep Research society, chair of the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research advisory board of the National institutes of Health, and chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute of Mental Health. "I've always been intrigued by the enigma of sleep and devoted my career to studying sleep disorders," said Mignot. "With the rapid growth of portable technology, biology and analytics, it is an exciting time for sleep, with plenty of opportunities to increase well-being. Rythm is bringing together people spanning multiple fields of science and technology to push forward our understanding of sleep and improve the diagnosis of sleep disorders. I look forward to contributing my knowledge and working with Rythm to help realize this vision." Cedric Villani is one of the world's most famous mathematicians who was awarded the Fields Medal, the world's most prestigious math award, in 2010. Currently, he is a professor at the University of Lyon and serves as the director of Pierre and Marie Curie University 's Institut Henri Poincaré. Villani's work focuses on partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry and mathematical physics. He received the Fields Medal for his work on Landau damping and the Boltzmann equation. He is also a well-known author and speaker, renowned for his passionate ability to make math exciting and accessible. Villani's expertise on computational mathematics and machine learning will be a valuable asset to Rythm because both areas are critical to the understanding of sleep and the brain. Until recently, machine learning mimicked brain functions, but now the new frontier is to understand how the brain works, and sleep represents an ideal entry door. This world class team serves as a validation of all the important work Rythm has done since 2014. The company is leveraging advancements in neuroscience, neurotechnology, artificial intelligence, and mathematics to propel sleep research and medicine forward and bring a real sleep solution to the market. This unique solution will introduce a whole new category of product that is efficient but non-invasive, and this demands a strong research effort and the development of sophisticated technology. The board is not only working with Rythm on diagnosis and treatment, but also to help build the product that will launch in Summer 2017. Rythm is a leading neurotechnology company. Bringing together the world's foremost experts in hardware, software, and neuroscience, Rythm builds consumer technology that stimulates brain function to enhance individual health and performance. The company's first product, Dreem, is sleep solution that uses brain activity and sound stimulation to increase the quality of sleep in a non-invasive way. Based in Paris and San Francisco, Rythm has raised substantial funding from investors, awards and government grants to support a world-class team of more than 70 people. For more information, visit www.dreem.com. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/rythm-accelerates-sleep-research-and-neurotechnology-efforts-with-a-prestigious-scientific-advisory-board-and-advances-in-the-ai-xprize-competition-300456427.html


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Bone cancer patients facing difficult pelvic surgeries at the Texas Medical Center could soon benefit from Rice University research that will use personalized computer models to predict surgical outcomes for patients. The research is being made possible by a $5 million grant by the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) to recruit mechanical engineering researcher B.J. Fregly to Rice's Department of Mechanical Engineering. The grant is one of 10 totaling more than $25 million approved this week by CPRIT in Austin. Fregly, a Knox T. Millsaps Professor in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Florida, is a classically trained mechanical engineer with more than 30 years of research experience building computer models that predict how a patient will function following different planned surgical or rehabilitation treatments. With motion-capture technology similar to that used by the film industry, Fregly and colleagues build personalized computer models of individual patients that can simulate post-treatment patient function for a wide range of treatment options being considered by the clinician. By performing the simulations in a systematic manner, Fregly's team seeks to identify the optimal surgical or rehabilitation treatment and how the clinician should implement it for the current patient -- a process called "personalized medicine." "My research program has always had a heavy orthopedic, human movement prediction and computational treatment design focus, and developing my CPRIT research plan in collaboration with surgeon Valerae Lewis at MD Anderson (Cancer Center) helped me realize how relevant my research toolbox is to orthopedic oncology," Fregly said. Lewis is chair of the Department of Orthopedic Oncology at MD Anderson. "I am extremely grateful to CPRIT for giving me the opportunity to take the innovative personalized treatment design methods I have been developing for other orthopedic conditions and apply them to cancer surgeries, where every patient is truly unique and requires a truly unique treatment plan," Fregly said. "I am enthusiastic to explore a broad range of orthopedic oncology applications with Dr. Lewis and her team in the years to come." Originally from Rochester, N.Y., Fregly earned his bachelor's degree from Princeton University and his doctoral degree from Stanford University before moving to the University of Lyon, France, for postdoctoral studies under a Chateaubriand Fellowship. He also worked at a Silicon Valley software startup for four years before joining the University of Florida in 1999. In his second year at Florida, Fregly was recognized as Teacher of the Year in his department, and in 2008 he was named Teacher of the Year in Florida's College of Engineering. He has published more than 75 refereed journal articles and won numerous research grants from NASA, the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including an NIH R01 "Knee Grand Challenge" grant in 2010 to collect and make freely available comprehensive human movement data sets that musculoskeletal modeling researchers around the world use to validate their predictions of muscle and joint contact forces in the knee. Fregly is no stranger to Rice. His wife, Shirley, is a 1988 alumna, and his son, Christopher, just completed his freshman year at Rice. In fact, Fregly's recruitment to Rice began with an August 2016 conversation as he was moving his son into university housing. "Shirley and I were helping move Christopher into his room at (one of Rice's residential colleges), and he walked in and said, 'I just met the college master (Laura Schaefer), and she said she wants to speak with you,'" Fregly recalled. Schaefer, chair of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, had recognized the senior Fregly's name and wanted to encourage him to apply for a position at Rice. Fregly said Schaefer also encouraged him to apply for CPRIT funding. Fregly's CPRIT research will focus on using patient-specific computational walking models to predict which type of pelvic surgery -- and how to perform it -- will maximize a patient's ability to regain mobility. Few cancer surgeries today are as invasive or life-changing as those involving the pelvis, the ring-shaped bone that anchors both the spine and hips. Removing key parts of the bone can keep patients off their feet for more than a year, and outcomes are so variable that patients often go into the operating room without a clear idea of what their walking ability will be like after surgery. "Custom pelvic prostheses have the potential to both maximize walking ability and minimize recovery time, but they are not available clinically because of low reliability," Fregly said. "That's an engineering problem that Rice is in a good position to tackle." He said his lab will work with Scott Tashman, director of the Biomotion Lab at the University of Texas Health Science Center, to gather patient-specific 3-D imaging, gross body movement and fine bone movement data. Using those data, Fregly's team will create a state-of-the-art computer model for each patient, and those models will provide force and stress predictions that mechanical engineering researcher Fred Higgs, director of the Particle Flow and Tribology Lab at Rice, will use to create custom prostheses with 3-D printing. "Our hope is to improve the postsurgical functional outcome and recovery time for pelvic sarcoma patients in the Texas Medical Center, regardless of which surgical method a patient receives," Fregly said. He said the CPRIT project is only possible because of the willingness of Rice and Texas Medical Center experts to collaborate. "This project could not have happened without a collaborative team," Fregly said. "I'm pulling it together and leading the modelling, but without Valerae Lewis we would have no clinical problem to address and no patients. Without Scott Tashman, we couldn't do pretreatment testing or assess how patients are progressing. And we need Fred Higgs' expertise to create custom implants using additive manufacturing. It really will take all of us to make this project go." Cancer is a leading cause of death for Texans. CPRIT was approved by state taxpayers in a 2007 ballot initiative to provide $3 billion to support cancer research statewide. To date, CPRIT has awarded $1.8 billion in grants to Texas researchers, institutions and organizations through its academic research, prevention and product development research programs. Rice recruits cancer researcher from Harvard with CPRIT grant -- May 26, 2015 http://news. This release can be found online at news.rice.edu. Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,879 undergraduates and 2,861 graduate students, Rice's undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is ranked No. 1 for happiest students and for lots of race/class interaction by the Princeton Review. Rice is also rated as a best value among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance. To read "What they're saying about Rice," go to http://tinyurl. .


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.theengineer.co.uk

Molybdenum-based electrolysis catalyst system has promise to reduce cost of hydrogen production One of the blocks along the path to greater use of hydrogen in energy systems has been the cost of producing the gas. Although dreams of a ‘hydrogen economy’ entirely displacing industrial-economic models based around hydrocarbons have not come to fruition, the energy density of hydrogen and its potential for energy production free from carbon emissions are still seen by proponents as being under-utilised. One of the main problems has been the cost of producing hydrogen by splitting water by electrolysis, the only way to make the gas without emitting carbon is if renewable or nuclear electricity is used (the alternative is to strip hydrogen away from methane, which requires carbon-capture to be emission free). Water is so stable that electrolysis needs a highly-active catalyst, and the precious metal platinum has always been the material of choice. However, it is so scarce and expensive that the cost of efficient electrolysers has tended to be high. A multinational team involving researchers from the Technical University of Dresden, the University of Lyon, Tohoku University in japan and the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems has now found that a catalyst system based on molybdenum and nickel displays activity comparable to platinum at potentially much lower cost. In a paper in Nature Communications, the team explains how it formed nanoparticles of the alloy MoNi on cuboids of MoO that were supported on nickel foam. The paper explains that nickel is good at dissociating water, while molybdenum is good at adsorbing hydrogen on its surface. The resulting catalyst outperforms any other platinum-free catalyst, the team claims.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MSCA-NIGHT-2016 | Award Amount: 1.11M | Year: 2016

We are proposing ERNs for 2016 and 2017 in 12 French cities. Our consortium of 11 partners will organise afternoons for schoolchildren, events in the cities and, above all, evenings where 1000 researchers will meet up to 30,000 people a year. The general public will be able to meet a number of researchers directly and experience something memorable with them. Since 2006, we have acquired a solid knowhow in the art of interaction. In 2014-2015, we went one step further by including the public in the actual research experiments, thereby creating scientist-citizen cooperation. We will renew these experiences and go even further: we are encouraging the public and researchers to experience creative moments together! Several creative interactions will be set up, around the Ideas theme in 2016 and the Impossible? theme in 2017, to allow researchers and the public to interact. The evenings will be full of ideas, challenges, and encounters with diverse individuals. In this way, we will rally European researchers to get involved in each city. Specific strategies will be used (such as public radio recordings) to allow them to share their European experience. These moments of cooperation will without a doubt reinforce the mutual appreciation between researchers and citizens. Our communication strategy (attracting specific audiences through networking, web, partnerships with youth-oriented press, etc.) will be based on the slogan: General Creativity. This slogan denotes the interactive nature of the evening and gives us a chance to talk about the richness of European research. To this effect, and for the first time, Cdric Villani, an inspiring and renowned researcher, has accepted to be the ERNs patron. Lastly, we plan to renew the Great Participatory Experiment in 2017. In each city (and perhaps even Italy), the public will contribute to the same playful scientific experiment chosen in 2016 after a challenge involving all our research institutions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ISSI-5-2014 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2015

NUCLEUS develops, supports and implements inclusive and sustainable approaches to Responsible Research and Innovation within the governance and culture of research organisations in Europe. A major goal of the transdisciplinary project will be to stimulate research and innovation which continuously reflects and responds to societal needs. In order to achieve a multifaceted and cross-cultural New Understanding of Communication, Learning and Engagement in Universities and Scientific Institutions, 26 renowned institutions from 15 countries, among them leading representatives of 14 universities, will collaboratively identify, develop, implement and support inclusive and sustainable approaches to RRI. For a mutual learning and exchange process, the project will reach out beyond the European Research Area by including renowned scientific institutions in China, Russia and South Africa. Within a 4-year timeframe NUCLEUS will systematically uncover and analyse structural and cultural obstacles to RRI in scientific institutions. The partners will collaboratively develop innovative approaches to overcome these barriers. The project is expected to lead to an applicable RRI DNA, providing practical guidelines for higher education institutions and funding agencies across Europe and beyond. This DNA will form the basis for the NUCLEUS Living Network, an alliance to ensure sustainability of the approach beyond the project timeline. By offering new academic insights and practical recommendations derived from 30 RRI test beds, NUCLEUS will contribute to the debate on science policies both on a national and European level, including the future design of HORIZON 2020 and the European Research Area (ERA).


Ricard-Blum S.,University of Lyon
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2011

Collagens are the most abundant proteins in mammals. The collagen family comprises 28 members that contain at least one triple-helical domain. Collagens are deposited in the extracellular matrix where most of them form supramolecular assemblies. Four collagens are type II membrane proteins that also exist in a soluble form released from the cell surface by shedding. Collagens play structural roles and contribute to mechanical properties, organization, and shape of tissues. They interact with cells via several receptor families and regulate their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Some collagens have a restricted tissue distribution and hence specific biological functions.


Pao W.,Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center | Girard N.,University of Lyon
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Treatment decisions for patients with lung cancer have historically been based on tumour histology. Some understanding of the molecular composition of tumours has led to the development of targeted agents, for which initial findings are promising. Clearer understanding of mutations in relevant genes and their effects on cancer cell proliferation and survival, is, therefore, of substantial interest. We review current knowledge about molecular subsets in non-small-cell lung cancer that have been identified as potentially having clinical relevance to targeted therapies. Since mutations in EGFR and KRAS have been extensively reviewed elsewhere, here, we discuss subsets defined by so-called driver mutations in ALK, HER2 (also known as ERBB2), BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1, MAP2K1, and MET. The adoption of treatment tailored according to the genetic make-up of individual tumours would involve a paradigm shift, but might lead to substantial therapeutic improvements. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Garnero P.,University of Lyon
Bone | Year: 2014

Over the last 15. years several biological markers of bone turnover have been developed with increased specificity and sensitivity. In osteoporosis clinical studies, the IOF and IFCC organizations have recently recommended the measurements of serum type I collagen N-propeptide (PINP) and the crosslinked C-terminal telopeptide (serum CTX) as markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively. However these markers have some limitations including a lack of specificity for bone tissue, their inability to reflect osteocyte activity or periosteal apposition. In addition they do not allow the investigation of bone tissue quality an important determinant of skeletal fragility. To address these limitations, new developments in markers of bone metabolism have been recently achieved. These include assays for periostin, a matricellular protein preferentially localized in the periosteal tissue, sphingosine 1-phosphate, a lipid mediator which acts mainly on osteoclastogenesis and the osteocyte factors such as sclerostin and FGF-23. Recent studies have shown an association between the circulating levels of these biological markers and fracture risk in postmenopausal women or elderly men, although data require confirmation in additional prospective studies. Finally, recent studies suggest that the measurements of circulating microRNAs may represent a novel class of early biological markers in osteoporosis. It is foreseen that with the use of genomics and proteomics, new markers will be developed to ultimately improve the management of patients with osteoporosis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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