University of Lyon

Lyon, France

University of Lyon

Lyon, France
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Patent
Polytechnic University of Turin, INSA Lyon, Doceram Medical Ceramics Gmbh, University of Lyon and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2015-02-13

A process is described, for producing zirconia-based multi-phasic ceramic composite materials, comprising the steps of: providing at least one ceramic suspension by dispersing at least one ceramic zirconia powder in at least one aqueous medium to obtain at least one matrix for such composite material; providing at least one aqueous solution containing one or more inorganic precursors and adding such aqueous solution to such ceramic suspension to surface modify such ceramic zirconia powder and obtain at least one additived suspension; quickly drying such additived suspension to obtain at least one additived powder; heat treating such additived powder to obtain at least one zirconia powder coated on its surface by second phases; and forming such zirconia powder coated on its surface by second phases.


Patent
Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, University of Lyon and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2014-04-29

The invention concerns a new class of tubulin polymerisation inhibitors and their applications in research and medicine, notably in chemotherapy. The invention proposes new azoaryl derivatives of formula (I): as defined in Claim 1, which may be fully reversibly interconverted between non-tubulin-binding trans and tubulin-binding as isomeric forms, either by irradiation or spontaneously. The invention also concerns compounds with a azoaryl structure for use in studying the cytoskeleton and/or its associated processes, or in the treatment of a disease for which a tubulin polymerisation inhibition activity has a beneficial effect, wherein the compound is administered to the cell, organism or patient in need of such treatment in the trans form of the diazenyl bond, and where this trans form is inactive as regards a tubulin polymerisation inhibition effect, and where after photoisomerisation in vitro, in cellulo or in vivo to an azoaryl compound in its cis isomeric form of the diazenyl bond by the application of light, optionally with modification in vitro, in cellulo or in vivo of one or more substituents, the resultant cis form is active as regards a tubulin polymerisation inhibition effect.


Patent
Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, University of Lyon and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2015-06-24

The invention provides probes with formula (I): in which:


The newly announced scientific board includes David Eagleman, PhD, Professor of Neuroscience, Stanford University, Founder & CSO, BrainCheck, and cofounder & CSO, NeoSensory; Christof Koch, PhD, CSO & President of Allen Institute for Brain Science; Emmanuel Mignot, MD, PhD, Director of Stanford Sleep Center; and Cedric Villani, PhD, winner of the 2010 Fields Medal and Director of Henri Poincarré Institute. These experts will help Rythm define its research strategy, encompassing sleep diagnosis, treatment, improvement, and understanding of the human brain. The human brain is the most complex organ in the known universe, and understanding the brain and sleep are among the biggest scientific challenges of the century. One-third of the population does not sleep well or sufficiently long. Currently, there are no obvious solutions to this epidemic. However, international research in neuroscience and Rythm are at the forefront of developing non-invasive solutions that are accurate and effective. The company is tackling multiple, ambitious challenges at the nexus of multiple disciplines: medicine, neurosciences, and mathematics. In forming a board, Rythm successfully sought to attract the best-of-the-best from across disciplines who are aligned with the company's mission and vision. "The brain is the most complex system known today, and within that field of study, sleep is a new domain that presents a variety of complex problems and solutions," said Hugo Mercier, CEO & Co-founder at Rythm. "The diversity of fields, experience, and intellect that the members of our board bring will help Rythm unlock major challenges and pursue the right research directions." David Eagleman is a professor at Stanford University in the department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, known for his work on brain plasticity, time perception, synesthesia, and neurolaw. He also serves as the Director of the Center for Science and Law. He is a Guggenheim Fellow, a council member in the World Economic Forum, and a popular TED speaker. He has launched two companies from his laboratory: NeoSensory and BrainCheck. He is a New York Times bestselling author published in 31 languages and is the writer and creator of the Emmy-nominated TV series, The Brain with David Eagleman. He is a renowned scientist with articles in all the major academic journals and profiles in national magazines such as the New Yorker. He is a regular commenter on national television and radio. "We don't yet fully understand why we sleep and dream, but we're aware that it's related to the consolidation of learning and memory," said Eagleman. "I am excited to work with Rythm to better unmask the mysteries and nuances of sleep state, and to be able to leverage that understanding to improve lives. Inadequate sleep prevents people from reaching their full potential. The improvement of sleep opens the hope of functioning at a more optimized mental performance." Christof Koch is a physicist turned neuroscientist serving as the President and Chief Scientific Officer of the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle. He is leading a team of 300 scientists, engineers and staff engaged in a ten-year project that aims to understand the building blocks of the mammalian brain. Koch previously served as a professor at the California Institute of Technology for nearly 30 years, specializing in the biophysics of the brain and the neural bases of consciousness, and has been influential in arguing that consciousness can be approached using the modern tools of neurobiology. As a member of Rythm's board, Koch will contribute his neuroscientific expertise on how sleep relates to the brain and its electrical behavior in health and disease. "We have so much more to learn about the relationship that sleep has to the functioning of our brains and our health," said Koch. "Working with Rythm is an opportunity to bring academia together with the development of consumer products so that sleep research can become practicable." Emmanuel Mignot is the Craig Reynolds Professor of Sleep Medicine at Stanford Medical School and the Director of the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine. He is a recognized authority on sleep research and medicine, known primarily for his work on narcolepsy. He is a member of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine and has received numerous research grants and honors, including National Institute of Health Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and McKnight Neuroscience awards. He is the co-author of more than 200 original scientific publications, and serves on the editorial board of scientific journals in the field of sleep and biology research. He formerly served as the president of the Sleep Research society, chair of the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research advisory board of the National institutes of Health, and chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute of Mental Health. "I've always been intrigued by the enigma of sleep and devoted my career to studying sleep disorders," said Mignot. "With the rapid growth of portable technology, biology and analytics, it is an exciting time for sleep, with plenty of opportunities to increase well-being. Rythm is bringing together people spanning multiple fields of science and technology to push forward our understanding of sleep and improve the diagnosis of sleep disorders. I look forward to contributing my knowledge and working with Rythm to help realize this vision." Cedric Villani is one of the world's most famous mathematicians who was awarded the Fields Medal, the world's most prestigious math award, in 2010. Currently, he is a professor at the University of Lyon and serves as the director of Pierre and Marie Curie University 's Institut Henri Poincaré. Villani's work focuses on partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry and mathematical physics. He received the Fields Medal for his work on Landau damping and the Boltzmann equation. He is also a well-known author and speaker, renowned for his passionate ability to make math exciting and accessible. Villani's expertise on computational mathematics and machine learning will be a valuable asset to Rythm because both areas are critical to the understanding of sleep and the brain. Until recently, machine learning mimicked brain functions, but now the new frontier is to understand how the brain works, and sleep represents an ideal entry door. This world class team serves as a validation of all the important work Rythm has done since 2014. The company is leveraging advancements in neuroscience, neurotechnology, artificial intelligence, and mathematics to propel sleep research and medicine forward and bring a real sleep solution to the market. This unique solution will introduce a whole new category of product that is efficient but non-invasive, and this demands a strong research effort and the development of sophisticated technology. The board is not only working with Rythm on diagnosis and treatment, but also to help build the product that will launch in Summer 2017. Rythm is a leading neurotechnology company. Bringing together the world's foremost experts in hardware, software, and neuroscience, Rythm builds consumer technology that stimulates brain function to enhance individual health and performance. The company's first product, Dreem, is sleep solution that uses brain activity and sound stimulation to increase the quality of sleep in a non-invasive way. Based in Paris and San Francisco, Rythm has raised substantial funding from investors, awards and government grants to support a world-class team of more than 70 people. For more information, visit www.dreem.com. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/rythm-accelerates-sleep-research-and-neurotechnology-efforts-with-a-prestigious-scientific-advisory-board-and-advances-in-the-ai-xprize-competition-300456427.html


Miossec P.,University of Lyon | Kolls J.K.,University of Pittsburgh
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery | Year: 2012

The key role of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and T helper 17 (T H 17) cells in tissue inflammation, autoimmunity and host defence led to the experimental targeting of these molecules in mouse models of diseases as well as in clinical settings. Moreover, the demonstration that IL-17 and T H 17 cells contribute to local and systemic aspects of disease pathogenesis, as well as the finding that the IL-17-T H 17 cell pathway is regulated by IL-23, prompted the identification of inhibitors. These inhibitors include biotechnology products that target IL-23 as well as the leading member of the IL-17 family, IL-17A, and one of its receptors, IL-17 receptor A. Several clinical trials of these inhibitors are underway, and positive results have been obtained in psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. This Review focuses on the current knowledge of the IL-17-T H 17 cell pathway to better understand the positive as well as potential negative consequences of targeting them. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Dreher J.-C.,University of Lyon
Progress in Brain Research | Year: 2013

We constantly need to make decisions that can result in rewards of different amounts with different probabilities and at different timing. To characterize the neural coding of such computational factors affecting value-based decision making, we have investigated how reward information processing is influenced by parameters such as reward magnitude, probability, delay, effort, and uncertainty using either fMRI in healthy humans or intracranial recordings in patients with epilepsy. We decomposed brain signals modulated by these computational factors, showing that prediction error (PE), salient PE, and uncertainty signals are computed in partially overlapping brain circuits and that both transient and sustained uncertainty signals coexist in the brain. When investigating the neural representation of primary and secondary rewards, we found both a common brain network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, and a functional organization of the orbitofrontal cortex according to reward type. Moreover, separate valuation systems were engaged for delay and effort costs when deciding between options. Finally, genetic variations in dopamine-related genes influenced the response of the reward system and may contribute to individual differences in reward-seeking behavior and in predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Mood disorders, such as bipolar and major depressive disorders, are frequent, severe, and often disabling neuropsychiatric diseases affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Available mood stabilizers and antidepressants remain unsatisfactory because of their delayed and partial therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the development of targeted therapies, working more rapidly and being fully effective, is urgently needed. In this context, the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling system, which regulates multiple neuronal processes implicated in mood regulation, can constitute a novel therapeutic target. This paper reviews the currently available knowledge regarding the role of the PKC signaling pathway in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and the therapeutic potential of PKC modulators. Current antidepressants and mood stabilizers have been shown to modulate the PKC pathway, and the inhibition of this intracellular signaling cascade results in antimanic-like properties in animal models. Disrupted PKC activity has been found both in postmortem brains and platelet from patients with mood disorders. Finally, the PKC inhibitor tamoxifen has recently demonstrated potent antimanic properties in several clinical trials. Overall, emerging data from preclinical and clinical research suggest an imbalance of the PKC signaling system in mood disorders. Thus, PKC may be a critical molecular target for the development of innovative therapeutics.


Ventre-Dominey J.,University of Lyon
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience | Year: 2014

A number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies have reported converging data in favor of a cortical network for vestibular function, distributed between the temporo-parietal cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the primate. In this review, we focus on the role of the cerebral cortex in visuo-vestibular integration including the motion sensitive temporo-occipital areas i.e., the middle superior temporal area (MST) and the parietal cortex. Indeed, these two neighboring cortical regions, though they both receive combined vestibular and visual information, have distinct implications in vestibular function. In sum, this review of the literature leads to the idea of two separate cortical vestibular sub-systems forming (1) a velocity pathway including MST and direct descending pathways on vestibular nuclei. As it receives well-defined visual and vestibular velocity signals, this pathway is likely involved in heading perception and rapid top-down regulation of eye/head coordination and (2) an inertial processing pathway involving the parietal cortex in connection with the subcortical vestibular nuclei complex responsible for velocity storage integration. This vestibular cortical pathway would be implicated in high-order multimodal integration and cognitive functions, including world space and self-referential processing. © 2014 Ventre-Dominey.


Ricard-Blum S.,University of Lyon
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2011

Collagens are the most abundant proteins in mammals. The collagen family comprises 28 members that contain at least one triple-helical domain. Collagens are deposited in the extracellular matrix where most of them form supramolecular assemblies. Four collagens are type II membrane proteins that also exist in a soluble form released from the cell surface by shedding. Collagens play structural roles and contribute to mechanical properties, organization, and shape of tissues. They interact with cells via several receptor families and regulate their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Some collagens have a restricted tissue distribution and hence specific biological functions.


Pao W.,Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center | Girard N.,University of Lyon
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Treatment decisions for patients with lung cancer have historically been based on tumour histology. Some understanding of the molecular composition of tumours has led to the development of targeted agents, for which initial findings are promising. Clearer understanding of mutations in relevant genes and their effects on cancer cell proliferation and survival, is, therefore, of substantial interest. We review current knowledge about molecular subsets in non-small-cell lung cancer that have been identified as potentially having clinical relevance to targeted therapies. Since mutations in EGFR and KRAS have been extensively reviewed elsewhere, here, we discuss subsets defined by so-called driver mutations in ALK, HER2 (also known as ERBB2), BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1, MAP2K1, and MET. The adoption of treatment tailored according to the genetic make-up of individual tumours would involve a paradigm shift, but might lead to substantial therapeutic improvements. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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