Mumphansha H.,University of Lusaka
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2017
BACKGROUND:: In early 2015, clinicians throughout Zambia noted a range of unpredictable adverse events after the administration of propofol, including urticaria, bronchospasm, profound hypotension, and most predictably an inadequate depth of anesthesia. Suspecting that the propofol itself may have been substandard, samples were procured and sent for testing. METHODS:: Three vials from 2 different batches were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods at the John L. Holmes Mass Spectrometry Facility. RESULTS:: Laboratory gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis determined that, although all vials contained propofol, its concentration differed between samples and in all cases was well below the stated quantity. Two vials from 1 batch contained only 44% ± 11% and 54% ± 12% of the stated quantity, whereas the third vial from a second batch contained only 57% ± 9%. The analysis found that there were no hexane-soluble impurities in the samples. CONCLUSIONS:: None of the analyzed vials contained the stated amount of propofol; however, our analysis did not detect additional contaminants that would explain the adverse events reported by clinicians. Our results confirm the presence of substandard propofol in Zambia; however, anecdotal accounts of substandard anesthetic medicines in other countries abound and warrant further investigation to provide estimates of the prevalence and scope of this global problem. © 2017 International Anesthesia Research Society
Janowicz A.,University of Lusaka
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2017
BACKGROUND:: Data from 2006 show that the practice of anesthesia at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia was underdeveloped by international standards. Not only was there inadequate provision of resources related to environment, equipment, and drugs, but also a severe shortage of staff, with no local capability to train future physician anesthetic providers. There was also no research base on which to develop the specialty. This study aimed to evaluate patient care, education and research to determine whether conditions had changed a decade later. METHODS:: A mix of qualitative data and quantitative data was gathered to inform the current state of anesthesia at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key staff identified by purposive sampling, including staff who had worked at the hospital throughout 2006 to 2015. Further data detailing conditions in the environment were collected by reviewing relevant departmental and hospital records spanning the study period. All data were analyzed thematically, using the framework described in the 2006 study, which described patient care, education, and research related to anesthetic practice at the hospital. RESULTS:: There have been positive developments in most areas of anesthetic practice, with the most striking being implementation of a postgraduate training program for physician anesthesiologists. This has increased physician anesthesia staff in Zambia 6-fold within 4 years, and created an active research stream as part of the program. Standards of monitoring and availability of drugs have improved, and anesthetic activity has expanded out of operating theaters into the rest of the hospital. A considerable increase in the number of cesarean deliveries performed under spinal anesthetic may be a marker for safer anesthetic practice. Anesthesiologists have yet to take responsibility for the management of pain. CONCLUSIONS:: The establishment of international partnerships to support postgraduate training of physician anesthetists in Zambia has created a significant increase in the number of anesthesia providers and has further developed nearly all aspects of anesthetic practice. The facilitation of the training program by a global health partnership has leveraged high-level support for the project and provided opportunities for North-South and international learning. © 2017 International Anesthesia Research Society
Wanjiru E.M.,University of Pretoria |
Sichilalu S.M.,University of Lusaka |
Xia X.,University of Pretoria
Applied Energy | Year: 2017
Energy and water are two inseparable resources that are crucial for human survival, yet, most developing nations are struggling to reliably provide them to the population especially in rapidly growing urban areas. Increasing demand is forcing governments, organizations and private sectors to encourage end-users to increase efficiency and conservation measures for these resources. Water heating is one of the largest energy users in residential buildings thus has a huge potential to improve the efficiency of both energy and water. In this regard, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have been found to improve energy efficiency while providing domestic hot water. However, impediments such as optimal operation, integration and high initial cost especially in developing nations hinder their uptake. Further, since they are normally centrally located in a house, there are water and associated energy losses during hot water conveyance to the end-use, as the once hot water in the pipes that cooled off has to be poured away while end-user awaits for hot water. Therefore, this paper advances the previously developed open loop optimal control model by using the closed-loop model predictive control (MPC) to operate a HPWH and instantaneous shower powered using integrated renewable energy systems. This control strategy has the benefit of robustly and reliably dealing with disturbances that are present in the system as well as turnpike phenomenon. It has the potential to save 32.24% and 19. l of energy and water in a day respectively, while also promising lower energy and water bills to the end users. In addition, there is revenue benefit through the sale of excess renewable energy back to the grid through an appropriate feed-in tariff. Life cycle cost (LCC) analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of setting up and operating the system over its life, which shows that the benefits would pay back the cost of the system even before half of its life elapses. This control strategy of both hot water devices powered using integrated renewable systems is suitable for peri-urban home owners. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
Andrews B.,Vanderbilt University |
Andrews B.,University of Zambia |
Muchemwa L.,University of Zambia |
Lakhi S.,University of Zambia |
And 3 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014
Objective: To assess the efficacy of a simple, goal-directed sepsis treatment protocol for reducing mortality in patients with severe sepsis in Zambia. Design: Single-center nonblinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: Emergency department, ICU, and medical wards of the national referral hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Patients: One hundred twelve patients enrolled within 24 hours of admission with severe sepsis, defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome with suspected infection and organ dysfunction Interventions: Simplified Severe Sepsis Protocol consisting of up to 4 L of IV fluids within 6 hours, guided by jugular venous pressure assessment, and dopamine and/or blood transfusion in selected patients. Control group was managed as usual care. Blood cultures were collected and early antibiotics administered for both arms. Measurements and Main Results: Primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. One hundred nine patients were included in the final analysis and 88 patients (80.7%) were HIV positive. Pulmonary infections were the most common source of sepsis. In-hospital mortality rate was 64.2% in the intervention group and 60.7% in the control group (relative risk, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.79-1.41). Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was isolated from 31 of 82 HIV-positive patients (37.8%) with available mycobacterial blood culture results. Patients in Simplified Severe Sepsis Protocol received significantly more IV fluids in the first 6 hours (2.7 L vs 1.7 L, p = 0.002). The study was stopped early because of high mortality rate among patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure in the intervention arm (8/8, 100%) compared with the control arm (7/10, 70%; relative risk, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.95-2.14). Conclusion: Factors other than tissue hypoperfusion probably account for much of the end-organ dysfunction in African patients with severe sepsis. Studies of fluid-based interventions should utilize inclusion criteria to accurately capture patients with hypovolemia and tissue hypoperfusion who are most likely to benefit from fluids. Exclusion of patients with severe respiratory distress should be considered when ventilatory support is not readily available. Copyright © 2014 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Topp S.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham |
Chipukuma J.M.,University of Lusaka
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2015
Background Despite being central to achieving improved population health outcomes, primary health centres in low-and middle-income settings continue to underperform. Little research exists to adequately explain how and why this is the case. This study aimed to test the relevance and usefulness of an adapted conceptual framework for improving our understanding of the mechanisms and causal pathways influencing primary health centre performance. Methods A theory-driven, case-study approach was adopted. Four Zambian health centres were purposefully selected with case data including health-care worker interviews (n = 60); patient interviews (n = 180); direct observation of facility operations (2 weeks/centre) and key informant interviews (n = 14). Data were analysed to understand how the performance of each site was influenced by the dynamic interactions between system 'hardware' and 'software' acting on mechanisms of accountability. Findings Structural constraints including limited resources created challenging service environments in which work overload and stockouts were common. Health workers' frustration with such conditions interacted with dissatisfaction with salary levels eroding service values and acting as a catalyst for different forms of absenteeism. Such behaviours exacerbated patient-provider ratios and increased the frequency of clinical and administrative shortcuts. Weak health information systems and lack of performance data undermined providers' answerability to their employer and clients, and a lack of effective sanctions undermined supervisors' ability to hold providers accountable for these transgressions. Weak answerability and enforceability contributed to a culture of impunity that masked and condoned weak service performance in all four sites. Conclusions Health centre performance is influenced by mechanisms of accountability, which are in turn shaped by dynamic interactions between system hardware and system software. Our findings confirm the usefulness of combining Sheikh et al.'s (2011) hardware-software model with Brinkerhoff's (2004) typology of accountability to better understand how and why health centre micro-systems perform (or under-perform) under certain conditions. © 2014 The Author.
Mfinanga S.,National Institute for Medical Research |
Chanda D.,University of Lusaka |
Kivuyo S.L.,National Institute for Medical Research |
Guinness L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
And 11 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015
Summary Background Mortality in people in Africa with HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is high, particularly in those with advanced disease. We assessed the effect of a short period of community support to supplement clinic-based services combined with serum cryptococcal antigen screening. Methods We did an open-label, randomised controlled trial in six urban clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Lusaka, Zambia. From February, 2012, we enrolled eligible individuals with HIV infection (age 18 years, CD4 count of <200 cells per μL, ART naive) and randomly assigned them to either the standard clinic-based care supplemented with community support or standard clinic-based care alone, stratified by country and clinic, in permuted block sizes of ten. Clinic plus community support consisted of screening for serum cryptococcal antigen combined with antifungal therapy for patients testing antigen positive, weekly home visits for the first 4 weeks on ART by lay workers to provide support, and in Tanzania alone, re-screening for tuberculosis at 6-8 weeks after ART initiation. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 12 months, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISCRTN 20410413. Findings Between Feb 9, 2012, and Sept 30, 2013, 1001 patients were randomly assigned to clinic plus community support and 998 to standard care. 89 (9%) of 1001 participants in the clinic plus community support group did not receive their assigned intervention, and 11 (1%) of 998 participants in the standard care group received a home visit or a cryptococcal antigen screen rather than only standard care. At 12 months, 25 (2%) of 1001 participants in the clinic plus community support group and 24 (2%) of 998 participants in the standard care group had been lost to follow-up, and were censored at their last visit for the primary analysis. At 12 months, 134 (13%) of 1001 participants in the clinic plus community support group had died compared with 180 (18%) of 998 in the standard care group. Mortality was 28% (95% CI 10-43) lower in the clinic plus community support group than in standard care group (p=0·004). Interpretation Screening and pre-emptive treatment for cryptococcal infection combined with a short initial period of adherence support after initiation of ART could substantially reduce mortality in HIV programmes in Africa. Funding European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Leadford A.E.,University of Alabama at Birmingham |
Warren J.B.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Manasyan A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham |
Manasyan A.,Center for Infectious Disease Research in |
And 4 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypothermia contributes to neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially in preterm and low birth weight infants in developing countries. Plastic bags covering the trunk and extremities of very low birth weight infants reduces hypothermia. This technique has not been studied in larger infants or in many resourcelimited settings. The objective was to determine if placing preterm and low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth maintains normothermia. METHODS: Infants at 26 to 36 weeks' gestational age and/or with a birth weight of 1000 to 2500 g born at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, ZMB, were randomized by using a 1:1 allocation and parallel design to standard thermoregulation (blanket or radiant warmer) care or to standard thermoregulation care plus placement inside a plastic bag at birth. The primary outcome measure was axillary temperature in the World Health Organization-defined normal range (36.5-37.5°C) at 1 hour after birth. RESULTS: A total of 104 infants were randomized. At 1 hour after birth, infants randomized to plastic bag (n = 49) were more likely to have a temperature in the normal range as compared with infants in the standard thermoregulation care group (n = 55; 59.2% vs 32.7%; relative risk 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.81; P = .007). The temperature at 1 hour after birth in the infants randomized to plastic bag was 36.5 ± 0.5°C compared with 36.1 ± 0.6°C in standard care infants (P < .001). Hyperthermia (>38.0°C) did not occur in any infant. CONCLUSIONS: Placement of preterm/low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth compared with standard thermoregulation care reduced hypothermia without resulting in hyperthermia, and is a lowcost, low-technology tool for resource-limited settings. Pediatrics 2013;132:e128-e134. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Tikly M.,University of Witwatersrand |
Njobvu P.,University of Lusaka |
McGill P.,Stobhill NHS Trust Hospital
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2014
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is generally uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa, in part because of the rarity of HLA-B27 in this region. However, the relationship between HLA-B27 and SpA, particularly ankylosing spondylitis (AS), is complex. Despite the HLA-B*27:05 risk allele occurring in some West African populations, associated AS is not seen. In fact, most patients with AS are HLA-B27-negative, although there is emerging evidence that another class I HLA molecule, HLA-B*14:03, is associated with AS in black Africans. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria for detecting early axial disease are of limited value in sub-Saharan Africa, because of both the rarity of HLA-B27 and very limited access to magnetic resonance imaging. Reactive arthritis (ReA), psoriatic arthritis, and undifferentiated SpA are seen mainly in the context of HIV infection, although the exact effect of the virus in the pathogenesis of arthritis is unclear. In Zambia, ReA is associated with the HLA-B*57:03 allele, which is paradoxically also associated with slow progression of HIV infection. HIV-associated ReA has a more protracted and aggressive course than standard ReA. Enthesitis-related arthritis is more common in children infected with HIV by vertical mother-to child transmission. Use of TNF inhibitors for axial disease is problematic, mainly because of cost, but also because of potential safety problems, especially reactivation of tuberculosis. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.
Prendergast A.,Zvitambo Project |
Prendergast A.,University of Lusaka |
Prendergast A.,Queen Mary, University of London |
Kelly P.,Zvitambo Project |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012
A spectrum of enteropathies, characterized by small intestinal inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and increased intestinal permeability, commonly affect people in developing countries. This subclinical intestinal pathology facilitates microbial translocation across the compromised intestinal barrier, leading to chronic systemic inflammation that may adversely impact health. Environmental enteropathy (EE), ubiquitous among people living in unhygienic conditions, likely mediates two interlinked public health problems of childhood, stunting and anemia, and underlies poor oral vaccine efficacy in developing countries. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enteropathy, which frequently overlaps with EE, may contribute to immune activation and modulate HIV disease progression. The interacting effects of infection and enteropathy drive a vicious cycle that can propagate severe acute malnutrition, which underlies almost half of under-5-y deaths. Enteropathies are therefore highly prevalent, interacting causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Interventions to prevent or ameliorate enteropathies have potential to improve the health of millions of people in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Hayashida K.,Hokkaido University |
Hayashida K.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine |
Kajino K.,Hokkaido University |
Hachaambwa L.,University of Lusaka |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid and sensitive tool used for the diagnosis of a variety of infectious diseases. One of the advantages of this method over the polymerase chain reaction is that DNA amplification occurs at a constant temperature, usually between 60–65°C; therefore, expensive devices are unnecessary for this step. However, LAMP still requires complicated sample preparation steps and a well-equipped laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible results, which limits its use in resource-poor laboratories in most developing countries. In this study, we made several substantial modifications to the technique to carry out on-site diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in remote areas using LAMP. The first essential improvement was that LAMP reagents were dried and stabilized in a single tube by incorporating trehalose as a cryoprotectant to prolong shelf life at ambient temperature. The second technical improvement was achieved by simplifying the sample preparation step so that DNA or RNA could be amplified directly from detergent-lysed blood samples. With these modifications, diagnosis of HAT in local clinics or villages in endemic areas becomes a reality, which could greatly impact on the application of diagnosis not only for HAT but also for other tropical diseases. © 2015 Hayashida et al.