Lugano, Switzerland
Lugano, Switzerland

Università della Svizzera italiana is a public university founded in 1996 with campuses in Lugano and Mendrisio, Switzerland. USI has four faculties , and follows the European standard of three-year undergraduate studies and two-year master's . Wikipedia.

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Hassanali A.,University of Lugano | Giberti F.,University of Lugano | Cuny J.,CNRS Laboratory for Quantum Chemistry and Physics | Kuhne T.D.,University of Mainz | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

The diffusion of protons through water is understood within the framework of the Grotthuss mechanism, which requires that they undergo structural diffusion in a stepwise manner throughout the water network. Despite long study, this picture oversimplifies and neglects the complexity of the supramolecular structure of water. We use first-principles simulations and demonstrate that the currently accepted picture of proton diffusion is in need of revision. We show that proton and hydroxide diffusion occurs through periods of intense activity involving concerted proton hopping followed by periods of rest. The picture that emerges is that proton transfer is a multiscale and multidynamical process involving a broader distribution of pathways and timescales than currently assumed. To rationalize these phenomena, we look at the 3D water network as a distribution of closed directed rings, which reveals the presence of medium-range directional correlations in the liquid. One of the natural consequences of this feature is that both the hydronium and hydroxide ion are decorated with proton wires. Thesewires serve as conduits for long proton jumps over several hydrogen bonds.

Cashman T.J.,University of Lugano | Fitzgibbon A.W.,Microsoft
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2013

3D morphable models are low-dimensional parameterizations of 3D object classes which provide a powerful means of associating 3D geometry to 2D images. However, morphable models are currently generated from 3D scans, so for general object classes such as animals they are economically and practically infeasible. We show that, given a small amount of user interaction (little more than that required to build a conventional morphable model), there is enough information in a collection of 2D pictures of certain object classes to generate a full 3D morphable model, even in the absence of surface texture. The key restriction is that the object class should not be strongly articulated, and that a very rough rigid model should be provided as an initial estimate of the “mean shape.” The model representation is a linear combination of subdivision surfaces, which we fit to image silhouettes and any identifiable key points using a novel combined continuous-discrete optimization strategy. Results are demonstrated on several natural object classes, and show that models of rather high quality can be obtained from this limited information. © 1979-2012 IEEE.

Bacchelli A.,University of Lugano | Bird C.,Microsoft
Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering | Year: 2013

Code review is a common software engineering practice employed both in open source and industrial contexts. Review today is less formal and more 'lightweight' than the code inspections performed and studied in the 70s and 80s. We empirically explore the motivations, challenges, and outcomes of tool-based code reviews. We observed, interviewed, and surveyed developers and managers and manually classified hundreds of review comments across diverse teams at Microsoft. Our study reveals that while finding defects remains the main motivation for review, reviews are less about defects than expected and instead provide additional benefits such as knowledge transfer, increased team awareness, and creation of alternative solutions to problems. Moreover, we find that code and change understanding is the key aspect of code reviewing and that developers employ a wide range of mechanisms to meet their understanding needs, most of which are not met by current tools. We provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. © 2013 IEEE.

Koumoutsakos P.,ETH Zurich | Pivkin I.,University of Lugano | Milde F.,ETH Zurich
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2013

Fluid mechanics is involved in the growth, progression, metastasis, and therapy of cancer. Blood vessels transport oxygen and nutrients to cancerous tissues, provide a route for metastasizing cancer cells to distant organs, and deliver drugs to tumors. The irregular and leaky tumor vasculature is responsible for increased interstitial pressure in the tumor microenvironment, whereas multiscale flow-structure interaction processes control tumor growth, metastasis, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery. We outline these flow-mediated processes, along with related experimental and computational methods for the diagnosis, predictive modeling, and therapy of cancer. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Bronstein M.M.,University of Lugano | Bronstein A.M.,Tel Aviv University
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2011

Recent works have shown the use of diffusion geometry for various pattern recognition applications, including nonrigid shape analysis. In this paper, we introduce spectral shape distance as a general framework for distribution-based shape similarity and show that two recent methods for shape similarity due to Rustamov and Mahmoudi and Sapiro are particular cases thereof. © 2006 IEEE.

Gibbert M.,University of Lugano
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2014

This is an introduction to the JPIM special issue on the link between resource constraints and innovation. Before introducing the papers, we briefly review two perspectives on the role of resources in innovation management. The first, mainstream argument views adequate or even slack (rather than constrained) resources as an enabler of innovation. The second argument, currently frequented in the bottom-of-the-pyramid literature but originating much earlier, suggests that resource constraints provide a potentially highly valuable opportunity for innovation. © 2013 Product Development & Management Association.

Papadopoulou E.,University of Lugano
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems | Year: 2011

We address the problem of computing critical area for open faults (opens) in a circuit layout in the presence of multilayer loops and redundant interconnects. The extraction of critical area is the main computational bottleneck in predicting the yield loss of a very large scale integrated design due to random manufacturing defects. We first model the problem as a geometric graph problem and we solve it efficiently by exploiting its geometric nature. To model open faults, we formulate a new geometric version of the classic min-cut problem in graphs, termed the geometric min-cut problem. Then the critical area extraction problem gets reduced to the construction of a generalized Voronoi diagram for open faults, based on concepts of higher order Voronoi diagrams. The approach expands the Voronoi critical area computation paradigm with the ability to accurately compute critical area for missing material defects even in the presence of loops and redundant interconnects spanning over multiple layers. The generalized Voronoi diagrams used in the solution are combinatorial structures of independent interest. © 2006 IEEE.

Schmidhuber J.,University of Lugano
Neural Networks | Year: 2015

In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks. © 2014.

Hannawa A.F.,University of Lugano
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2014

Objective: The purpose of this study was to test causal effects of physicians' nonverbal involvement on medical error disclosure outcomes. Methods: 216 hospital outpatients were randomly assigned to two experimental treatment groups. The first group watched a video vignette of a verbally effective and nonverbally involved error disclosure. The second group was exposed to a verbally effective but nonverbally uninvolved error disclosure. All patients responded to seven outcome measures. Results: Patients in the nonverbally uninvolved error disclosure treatment group perceived the physician's apology as less sincere and remorseful compared to patients in the involved disclosure group. They also rated the implications of the error as more severe, were more likely to ascribe fault to the physician, and indicated a higher intent to change doctors after the disclosure. Conclusion: The results of this study imply that nonverbal involvement during medical error disclosures facilitates more accurate patient understanding and assessment of the medical error and its consequences on their health and quality of life. Practice implications: In the context of disclosing medical errors, nonverbal involvement increases the likelihood that physicians will be able to continue caring for their patient. Thus, providers are advised to consider adopting this communication skill into their medical practice. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Lepori B.,University of Lugano
Research Policy | Year: 2011

The aim of this paper is to look at public research funding systems from the perspective of their broader institutional arrangements, in order to observe how these shape the relationships between funding agencies and research actors. Accordingly, public funding is considered as a multilevel and multiactor system, where stable patterns are largely generated by the collective interaction among actors (beyond formal rules and structures) and where coordination between actors (especially funding agencies and performers) represents a key for the functionality of the systems. This drives to characterise the main organisational forms of public research funding in terms of their underlying coordination mode and to use this framework to evaluate them against a number of criteria. Further, the way how these organisational forms can be combined to yield national-level configurations is discussed, and some of their properties and conditions of functioning are derived from the previous discussion; this also leads to identification of three main configurations of funding systems - the project-based model, the mixed model, the vertically integrated model - which describe the variety of national systems and, to a large extent, underpin current discussion on European research policy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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