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Monroe, LA, United States

The University of Louisiana at Monroe is a coeducational public university in Monroe, Louisiana, United States and part of the University of Louisiana System. Wikipedia.

Perry E.C.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
CNS Drugs | Year: 2014

Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as β-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Sylvester P.W.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

The MTT colorimetric assay is an established method of determining viable cell number in proliferation and cytotoxicity studies. This assay is based on the cleavage of the yellow tetrazolium salt, MTT, to form a soluble blue formazan product by mitochondrial enzymes, and the amount of formazan produced is directly proportional to the number of living, not dead cells, present during MTT exposure. Since the MTT assay is rapid, convenient, and economical, it has become a very popular technique for quantification of viable cells in culture. However, various parameters have been identified that can affect cellular metabolism and other factors, which significantly modify MTT-specific activity and can result in calculated false high or false low cell counts. Therefore, it is essential to establish assay parameters with the proper controls for each cell line and/or drug treatment in order to optimize assay conditions and minimize confounding effects. These parameters should include determining appropriate cell densities, culture medium, optimal concentrations and exposure times for MTT, fresh culture medium at the time of assay to avoid nutrient depletion, and controlling for drug treatment effects that may influence cellular metabolism. By controlling these important parameters, the MTT colorimetric assay provides accurate and reliable quantification of viable cell number. Source

Mutant p53 is frequently detected in cancers in which p53 has lost its ability in tumor suppression and gained function in promoting tumor progression. Restoration of p53 functions by replacement of wild-type p53 and inhibition of its degradation or increment of its transcriptional activity has been applied to the prevention and treatment of cancers. Recent evidence indicates that disrupting ceramide glycosylation can resuscitate wild-type p53 expression and p53-dependent apoptosis in mutant p53 tumors. A posttranscriptional process that can turn on wild-type p53 expression and abrogate mutant p53 may provide a new strategy to eradicate mutant p53 cancers. ©2011 AACR. Source

Sylvester P.W.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2012

Systemic chemotherapy is the only current method of treatment that provides some chance for longterm survival in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. γ-Tocotrienol is a natural form of vitamin E found in high concentrations in palm oil and displays potent anticancer effects, but limited absorption and transport of by the body has made it difficult to obtain and sustain therapeutic levels in the blood and target tissues. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase and are an example of a promising cancer chemotherapeutic agent whose clinical usefulness has been limited due to high-dose toxicity. Similarly, erlotinib and gefitinib are anticancer agents that inhibit the activation of individual HER/ErbB receptor subtypes, but have shown limited clinical success because of heterodimerization between different EGF receptor family members that can rescue cancer cells from agents directed against a single receptor subtype. Recent studies have investigated the anticancer effectiveness of low-dose treatment of various statins or EGF receptor inhibitors alone and in combination with γ-tocotrienol on highly malignant +SA mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro. Combined treatment with subeffective doses of γ-tocotrienol with these other chemotherapeutic agents resulted in a synergistic inhibition of +SA cell growth and viability. These findings strongly suggest that combined treatment of γ-tocotrienol with other anticancer agents may not only provide an enhanced therapeutic response but also provide a means to avoid the toxicity, low bioavailability, or limited therapeutic action associated with high-dose monotherapy. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Meyer S.A.,University of Louisiana at Monroe | Jirtle R.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Science Signaling | Year: 2013

The decades-long quest for the phenobarbital (PhB) receptor that mediates activation of Cyp2B would appear fulfi lled with the discovery by Mutoh et al., who found that PhB binds with pharmacological affi nity to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This fi nding provides a molecular basis for the suppression of hepatocyte EGFR signaling observed with PhB treatment, as previously noted in the context of tumor promotion. Although the PhB-mediated induction of Cyp2B expression through the association of a canonical nuclear receptor with the 5'-enhancer PBREM of Cyp2B is well known, direct binding of PhB to constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR, also known as NR1I3) typical of other xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors has eluded detection. One EGF-activated pathway affected by the PhB-EGFR interaction is the loss of tyrosine phosphorylation of the scaffold protein RACK1. Dephosphorylated RACK1 provides the mechanistic link between the binding of PhB to EGFR and its effects on CAR by facilitating the interaction of serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A with inactive phosphorylated CAR. The dephosphorylation of CAR enables its translocation to the nucleus and activation of Cyp2B expression. Because EGFR and transducers RACK1, PP2A, and other partners are highly networked in numerous cellular pathways, this newly discovered partnership will surely reveal new fundamental roles for PhB beyond the regulation of drug metabolism. © 2013 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All Rights Reserved. Source

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