Louisiana State University and University of Louisiana at Monroe | Date: 2015-05-06
Water-soluble, cell-permeable nanomicelles containing ceramides and a steviol glycoside, such as rubusoside, are disclosed. The ceramide-steviol glycoside complex has high water solubility, and can be used for treating cancers with p53 mutations. Preliminary results have shown that the Cer nanomicelles are effective in restoring p53 protein expression, and that they are functionally dominant over p53 mutants. The novel nanomicelles restore a wild-type phenotype, and have very low toxicity to noncancerous cells. The novel Cer nanomicelles may be used in treating p53-associated cancers.
Koshy Cherian A.,University of Louisiana at Monroe |
Briski K.P.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
Journal of Neuroscience Research | Year: 2012
CNS neurons exhibit sustained activation by recurring hypoglycemia in the presence of estrogen. We investigated the impact of estradiol on fuel uptake and detection of energy imbalance by hindbrain A2 metabolosensory neurons during acute vs. chronic hypoglycemia. A2 neurons were laser dissected from estradiol benzoate (EB)- and oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized rats after single or serial injection of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin for single-cell qPCR or high-sensitivity Western blotting. Acute NPH increased A2 GLUT3 mRNA but not protein in EB, but decreased both profiles in O rats. Single insulin dosing did not alter monocarboxylate transporter-2 (MCT2) mRNAs in EB or O, but increased MCT2 protein in EB. Preceding hypoglycemia augmented baseline transporter mRNA and protein in O, but decreased GLUT4 and increased MCT2 proteins in EB. Chronic NPH increased A2 MCT2 and GLUT3 proteins in EB, but elevated GLUT4 protein in O. A2 phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) protein was progressively diminished by acute and chronic hypoglycemia in EB, but elevated in O after serial NPH. Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) transcripts were decreased in EB during acute and chronic hypoglycemia, but unaltered by serial NPH dosing in O. These results suggest that estrogen enhances A2 lactate utilization during acute hypoglycemia, thereby lessening AMPK activation relative to euglycemic controls. Cellular adaptation to chronic hypoglycemia may involve estrogen-dependent augmentation of lactate and GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake and hormone-independent increases in GLUT4 expression, coincident with diminished pAMPK-mediated signaling of energy deficiency. The data also imply that increased lactate and glucose uptake during recurring hypoglycemia may be required for sustained DβH transcriptional reactivity to this metabolic stress. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mehendale H.M.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2012
Once initiated, how tissue injury expands after high toxicant doses, even after their complete elimination, is not understood. Free-radical generation was initially proposed to mediate progression of injury. However, mechanisms proposed thus far have remained unsubstantiated. Necrotic injury is characterized by loss of osmoregulation, cell swelling, blebbing, and cell rupture. This exposes cytosolic enzymes, including proteases, phospholipases, and lysosomal Ca 2+-dependent enzymes, to high extracellular calcium (Ca 2+). Activated hydrolytic enzymes, termed 'death proteins,' hydrolyze their substrates in the plasma membrane of neighboring cells, commencing self-perpetuated injury progression. Likewise, ischemia-reperfusion injury exposes the hydrolytic enzymes to high Ca 2+, fuelling the progression of tissue injury. This mechanism is independent of the offending toxicant that initiates the injury. I present here a case for therapeutic intervention with inhibitors directed against death proteins as a means to avert organ failure and death well after the poisoning event. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
News Article | March 3, 2017
The Community for Accredited Online Schools, a leading resource provider for higher education information, has compiled a list of the best colleges and universities with online programs in Louisiana for 2017. Of the 20 four-year schools that were ranked, Tulane University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, Loyola University New Orleans and Louisiana Tech University secured the top five institutions. Louisiana’s top six two-year schools were also included on the list, with Delgado Community College, Southern University Shreveport and Bossier Parish Community College scoring highest. “For many students, earning a degree in a traditional classroom setting can be difficult, especially when working a full-time job or living far away from campus,” said Doug Jones, CEO and founder of AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org. “These Louisiana schools have outstanding online programs that meet the needs of students who need more flexible scheduling.” To earn a spot on the Best Online Schools list, colleges and universities in Louisiana must be institutionally accredited, public or private not-for-profit entities. Each college is also judged based on such criteria as student/teacher ratios, employment services, student counseling, graduation rates and financial aid availability. For more details on where each school falls in the rankings and the data and methodology used to determine the lists, visit: Louisiana’s Best Online Four-Year Schools for 2017 include the following: Grambling State University Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College Louisiana State University-Alexandria Louisiana State University-Shreveport Louisiana Tech University Loyola University New Orleans McNeese State University New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary Nicholls State University Northwestern State University of Louisiana Our Lady of the Lake College Southeastern Louisiana University Southern University and A & M College Southern University at New Orleans Tulane University of Louisiana University of Holy Cross University of Louisiana at Lafayette University of Louisiana at Monroe University of New Orleans Xavier University of Louisiana Louisiana’s Best Online Two-Year Schools for 2017 include the following: Bossier Parish Community College Delgado Community College Fletcher Technical Community College Louisiana State University-Eunice Northshore Technical Community College Southern University Shreveport ### About Us: AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org was founded in 2011 to provide students and parents with quality data and information about pursuing an affordable, quality education that has been certified by an accrediting agency. Our community resource materials and tools span topics such as college accreditation, financial aid, opportunities available to veterans, people with disabilities, as well as online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning programs that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational success.
Sylvester P.W.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011
The MTT colorimetric assay is an established method of determining viable cell number in proliferation and cytotoxicity studies. This assay is based on the cleavage of the yellow tetrazolium salt, MTT, to form a soluble blue formazan product by mitochondrial enzymes, and the amount of formazan produced is directly proportional to the number of living, not dead cells, present during MTT exposure. Since the MTT assay is rapid, convenient, and economical, it has become a very popular technique for quantification of viable cells in culture. However, various parameters have been identified that can affect cellular metabolism and other factors, which significantly modify MTT-specific activity and can result in calculated false high or false low cell counts. Therefore, it is essential to establish assay parameters with the proper controls for each cell line and/or drug treatment in order to optimize assay conditions and minimize confounding effects. These parameters should include determining appropriate cell densities, culture medium, optimal concentrations and exposure times for MTT, fresh culture medium at the time of assay to avoid nutrient depletion, and controlling for drug treatment effects that may influence cellular metabolism. By controlling these important parameters, the MTT colorimetric assay provides accurate and reliable quantification of viable cell number.
Perry E.C.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
CNS Drugs | Year: 2014
Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as β-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Sirmans S.M.,University of Louisiana at Monroe |
Pate K.A.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2014
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%-20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%-70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and fnasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. © 2014 Sirmans and Pate, This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited.
Sylvester P.W.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2012
Systemic chemotherapy is the only current method of treatment that provides some chance for longterm survival in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. γ-Tocotrienol is a natural form of vitamin E found in high concentrations in palm oil and displays potent anticancer effects, but limited absorption and transport of by the body has made it difficult to obtain and sustain therapeutic levels in the blood and target tissues. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase and are an example of a promising cancer chemotherapeutic agent whose clinical usefulness has been limited due to high-dose toxicity. Similarly, erlotinib and gefitinib are anticancer agents that inhibit the activation of individual HER/ErbB receptor subtypes, but have shown limited clinical success because of heterodimerization between different EGF receptor family members that can rescue cancer cells from agents directed against a single receptor subtype. Recent studies have investigated the anticancer effectiveness of low-dose treatment of various statins or EGF receptor inhibitors alone and in combination with γ-tocotrienol on highly malignant +SA mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro. Combined treatment with subeffective doses of γ-tocotrienol with these other chemotherapeutic agents resulted in a synergistic inhibition of +SA cell growth and viability. These findings strongly suggest that combined treatment of γ-tocotrienol with other anticancer agents may not only provide an enhanced therapeutic response but also provide a means to avoid the toxicity, low bioavailability, or limited therapeutic action associated with high-dose monotherapy. © Springer-Verlag 2011.
Liu Y.-Y.,University of Louisiana at Monroe
Cancer Research | Year: 2011
Mutant p53 is frequently detected in cancers in which p53 has lost its ability in tumor suppression and gained function in promoting tumor progression. Restoration of p53 functions by replacement of wild-type p53 and inhibition of its degradation or increment of its transcriptional activity has been applied to the prevention and treatment of cancers. Recent evidence indicates that disrupting ceramide glycosylation can resuscitate wild-type p53 expression and p53-dependent apoptosis in mutant p53 tumors. A posttranscriptional process that can turn on wild-type p53 expression and abrogate mutant p53 may provide a new strategy to eradicate mutant p53 cancers. ©2011 AACR.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Digitization | Award Amount: 83.44K | Year: 2014
The southeastern USA is botanically rich, with areas of high global biodiversity in both the Appalachians and the coastal plain. Millions of plant specimens have been collected from this region over the past four centuries, and these specimens and the information they contain currently reside in museums, or herbaria, at universities across the area. Scientists study these specimens intently; however, it is difficult to retrieve information at broad geographic and taxonomic scales without pipelines to move the information electronically from the specimen to an accessible pool of data. SERNEC, or the SouthEast Regional Network of Expertise and Collections, is a large regional network of botanical experts and collections that has, through an NSF-sponsored research coordination network (RCN) project, developed critical skills in biodiversity informatics. The current project will allow the SERNEC group to make data available for over 3 million specimens using the latest photography and information capture tools and to engage citizen scientists and students to assist in transcribing and georeferencing this large dataset. The research generated through this project can help regional planners, land managers and communities to manage their natural resources in our ever-changing environment.
The interaction of scientists, citizen scientists, and students will provide a synergy to build a research tool of an unparalleled scale and scope. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an imaged and databased set of over 3 million specimens from over 100 herbaria in one of the most floristically diverse regions in North America and a global hotspot of plant diversity. This will represent a valuable data source for research on the response of vegetation to climate change, human development, and rapid migrations of introduced species. This region has been a biodiversity hotspot for 100 million years and this project should encourage research on changes over time to develop better predictive models as areas of biodiversity change. By partnering with Symbiota, Notes from Nature, GEOLocate, Adler Planetarium, iPlant/TACC, and Specify, the project will develop ways to best integrate various efforts for data accessibility. This award is made as part of the National Resource for Digitization of Biological Collections through the Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, and all data resulting from this award will be available through the national resource (iDigBio.org).