Osorno, Chile
Osorno, Chile

The University of Los Lagos is a university in Chile. It is a derivative university part of the Chilean Traditional Universities. It currently operates two campuses: the main campus in Osorno, and another in Valdivia and Puerto Montt, the regional capital. Wikipedia.


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Gajardo G.M.,University of Los Lagos | Beardmore J.A.,University of Swansea
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to "perceive" forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovovivipar-ity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism).The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of Artemia for the well-being of human populations. © 2012 Gajardoand Beardmore.


Quevedo R.,University of Los Lagos | Aguilera J.M.,University of Santiago de Chile
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2010

The computer vision and a stereoscopy technique were used to characterize and detect changes in the capacity of the salmon fillet surface to recover its original form after a constant weight was applied. A curvature index (associated to fillet firmness) calculated by means of 3D information data obtained with the stereoscopy technique from the fat stripe on the fillets was estimated over 6 months and was suggested as a characteristic of the recovery property of the fresh salmon fillet surface. Simultaneously, instrumental firmness using a LFRA1500 texture was measured. The values for the fresh salmon fillet measurement curvature index during a period of 6 months were established in the range of 0.05 and 0.10 (dimensionless), and this value was used in the experiments to represent fresh salmon fillets. Changes in the curvature index (associated with similar changes in firmness) for salmon fillet surface treated with enzymes (pepsin and papain) were registered on the second day during storage at 2 °C. In general, stereoscopy is a technique that can be used on salmon fillets to detect changes in the recovery properties of the salmon fillet surface and to determine when salmon fillets can be classified as a fillet that has not been processed with enzymes. © 2008 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Edomah N.,University of Los Lagos
Energy Reports | Year: 2016

In the face of scarcity of energy resources and rising energy prices due primarily to a world of increasing demand, energy security concerns becomes more crucial both for private and public sector alike. At the same time, energy policies have been shifting and policy changes have become hard to predict because of radical changes in energy supply. This paper analyzes the barriers to sustainable energy development in Nigeria which are: (1) cost and pricing barriers, (2) legal and regulatory barriers, (3) market performance barriers. It concludes by highlighting some key policies that can help address some of the identified barriers in order to ensure a secured sustainable energy future for Nigeria. © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Oduwole A.O.,University of Los Lagos
West African journal of medicine | Year: 2010

Pneumonia, a common childhood infection in Nigerian children with a number of debilitating complications such as empyema thoracis, has been linked to vitamin D deficiency due to its ability to modulate the T lymphocyte of the immune system . To determine the relationship between vitamin D and outcome of pneumonia in children. This was a case-control study involving 24 children, admitted for pneumonia as subjects and 10 children without pneumonia as controls. Pre-formatted questionnaire was utilized to obtain background information, anthropometric measurements were made to determine nutritional status and estimation of 25- hydroxy cholecalciferol (25OHD) done for all those studied. The mean (SD) serum 25OHD concentration was 104 (59) nmol/L and 130 (107) nmol/L for subjects and controls respectively. Amongst the subjects 15 (54%) had serum 25OHD less than 70 nmol/L and 11 (46%) serum 25OHD greater than 70 nmol/L. Hypocalcaemia was present in 15 (54%) of the subjects. Further analysis of hypocalcaemia with regards to the concentration of serum 25OHD showed that 2 (13%) had levels below 40 nmol/L, 10 (67%) had levels below 70 nmol/L and 3 (20%) above 70 nmol/L. Hypocalcaemia was more frequent among subjects with 25OHD below 70nmol/L compared with those above 70nmol/L, (p =0.01). Empyema thoracis and death occurred amongst the two subjects with 25OHD between 27.5 and 40 nmol/L. Anaemia was more frequent among subjects with 25OHD below 70 nmol/L compared with those above 70 nmol/L (p = 0.03). The study showed that Vitamin D insufficiency, and not solely its deficiency, may have an important role to play in the immune and haemopoetic system. It may therefore affect the response of a child to infections especially pneumonia.


Anunobi C.C.,University of Los Lagos
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal | Year: 2011

To present a 10year retrospective histologic study of prostate diseases in Lagos, Nigeria. The aim is to document the prevalence, histologic pattern, age distribution and PSA values of prostatic diseases. The materials consisted of slides, paraffin embedded tissue blocks, patients case files and histology request forms of all prostatic biopsies received at the Morbid Anatomy department of Lagos University Teaching Hospital Idi-Araba, Lagos from 1999 to 2008. Each sample represents a different patient. Prostatic biopsies comprised 3.6 % of all biopsies in LUTH. BPH was the commonest prostatic lesion and accounted for 70.9% of all cases. The age range was 40 to 94 years with a mean of 67 years and a peak age group at 60-69 years. Stromoglandular pattern was the most common histological type of BPH accounting for 72.2 %( 393) of the cases. Malignant tumours constituted 28.9% of all prostatic biopsies. Most (93.7%) of these malignancies were seen in trucut biopsies. Adenocarcinoma accounted for 99.1% of the total 222 malignant tumours. It showed an age range of 40 to 98 years, a mean age of 66 years and peak prevalence in the 60-69 year age group. Gleason score nine was the most frequent (16.8%) in occurrence. Most adenocarcinomas were poorly differentiated (40%). Incidental carcinoma was seen in 4.2% of prostatectomy samples. High grade PIN was seen in 19.1% of adenocarcinoma cases. The most common inflammatory lesion was chronic non-specific prostatitis accounting for 76.4% of all inflammatory lesions. Malignant and benign lesions were accountable for PSA levels of 1 to 49.9ng/ml while values of 50ng/ml and above were seen exclusively in malignant lesions. Prostatic lesions constitute a significant source of morbidity among adult males in Lagos. Adenocarcinoma is the commonest histologic subtype of prostatic cancer and most are of poorly differentiated variety. Elevated levels of tPSA in Nigerian males may be as a result prostate cancer, BPH or BPH with prostatitis. PSA should in our opinion be used as a component of a strategy integrating multiple diagnostic approaches for prostate cancer screening and not to be used alone in our environment.


Aweto H.A.,University of Los Lagos
Nigerian quarterly journal of hospital medicine | Year: 2012

Objective:Arterial hypertension is a medical condition associated with increased risks of of death, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity including stroke, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and renal insufficiency. Regular physical exercise is considered to be an important part of the non-pharmacologictreatment of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) on selected cardiovascular parameters and estimated maximum oxygen consumption in hypertensive patients. Fifty (50) subjects with hypertension participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to 2 equal groups; A (DMT group) and B (Control group). Group A carried out dance movement therapy 2 times a week for 4 weeks while group B underwent some educational sessions 2 times a week for the same duration. All the subjects were on anti-hypertensive drugs. 38 subjects completed the study with the DMTgroup having a total of 23 subjects (10 males and 13 females) and the control group 15 subjects (6 males and 9 females). Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of paired and independentt-testwere used for data analysis. Following four weeks of dance movement therapy, paired t-test analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the Resting systolic blood pressure (RSBP) (p < 0.001*), Resting diastolic blood pressure (RDBP) (p < 0.001*), Resting heart rate (RHR) (p = 0.024*), Maximum heart rate (MHR) (p=0.002*) and Estimated oxygen consumption (VO2max) (p = 0.023*) in subjects in group A (p < 0.05) while there was no significant difference observed in outcome variables of subjects in group B (p > 0.05). Independent t-test analysis between the differences in the pre and post intervention scores of groups A and B also showed statistically significant differences in all the outcome variables (p <0.05). DMT was effective in improving cardiovascular parameters and estimated maximum oxygen consumption in hypertensive patients.


Colihueque N.,University of Los Lagos
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2010

Skin color is an important commercial trait in fish farming, given that this phenotype influences consumer acceptance, thereby determining the commercial value that fish can reach. This character is genetically determined, either by monogenetic or polygenetic control. Over the past few years, progress has been made in studies of quantitative genetic parameters for commercially important traits related to skin pigmentation and, in the molecular field, the mapping and cloning of some genes involved in fish color determination. This study reviews information regarding the genetic determination of salmonid skin color, along with different strategies to improve this character. Data collected in model fish (medaka and zebrafish) are also considered since this information contributes considerably towards improving understanding of the genes that may participate, and of the mechanisms involved in establishing skin coloration in salmonids. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard for female sex workers. Targeted interventions for this population can reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus, but barriers exists which can hinder effective implementation of such programs. This descriptive cross sectional study sought to assess the prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers. Three hundred and twenty three consenting female sex workers were surveyed using pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. More than half of the respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Only 13.9% were aware that sexually transmitted infections could be asymptomatic. The self reported prevalence of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 36.5%. About half of those with sexually transmitted infectionss sought treatment in a hospital or health centre while 32.5% from a patent medicine vendor. Most respondents (53.8%) mentioned the perceived quality of care as the main reason for seeking treatment in their chosen place. More of the respondents with good knowledge of sexually transmitted infections reported symptoms compared to those with fair and poor knowledge. The knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among these female sex workers is poor and the prevalence is relatively high. Efforts to improve knowledge promote and encourage preventive as well as effective treatment practices must be made for this population.


Balogun M.R.,University of Los Lagos
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2012

Cervical cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer in Nigeria and women of low socio-economic status are at high risk of this condition. A study was conducted on the awareness of cervical cancer, attitude towards the disease and screening practice of women residing in two urban slums of Lagos, Nigeria. It also determined the prevalence of major risk factors for cervical cancer among the women. Multistage sampling was used to select 240 women who were interviewed with a structured questionnaire and data collected was analyzed with Epi-info version 3.5.1 statistical software. Only 10 (4.2%) women in this study were aware of cervical cancer and none of them believed they were at risk of developing the disease. Most (73.3%) were willing to undergo a cervical cancer screening test. Age, education and previous history of vaginal examination were positively associated with willingness to undergo screening (p < 0.05). The respondents had a high prevalence of major risk factors for cervical cancer such as early age at sexual debut, multiple sexual partners and male partner with other female partners. Efforts need to be intensified to increase awareness of this condition and to promote low-cost cervical cancer screening among this underserved population.


Medina R.,University of Los Lagos
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2010

The stabilization problem for a class of infinite-dimensional discrete-time nonlinear systems is discussed. Under an appropriate growth condition on the nonlinear perturbation combined with the 'freezing' method to discrete-time systems on Banach spaces, we establish explicit conditions for global feedback exponential stabilizability, and these conditions are easy to construct and to verify. This approach will allow us to avoid the construction of Lyapunov's functions in some situations. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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