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Tavano R.,University of Padua | Segat D.,University of Padua | Reddi E.,University of Padua | Kos J.,University of Ljubijana | And 9 more authors.

Aims: Undesired alterations of the blood clotting balance may follow the intravascular injection of nanotherapeutics/diagnostics. Here, we tested the procoagulant activity of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) and organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles (NPs) and whether a high-density polyethylene glycol coating minimizes these effects. Materials & methods: Hageman factor- and tissue factor-dependent activation of human blood/plasma coagulation, and binding to human monocytes, endothelial cells and platelets were quantified in vitro using naked and PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs. Their effects were compared with those of SAS-NPs, present in many industrial products, and of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)- and small unilamellar vesicles-NPs, already approved for use in humans. Results: Both SAS-NPs and ORMOSIL-NPS presented a significant procoagulant activity. However, highly PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs were particularly averse to the interaction with the soluble factors and cellular elements that may lead to intravascular blood coagulation. Conclusion: Stealth, highly PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs with a poor procoagulant activity can be used as starting blocks to design hemocompatible nanomedical-devices. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Segat D.,University of Padua | Tavano R.,University of Padua | Donini M.,University of Verona | Selvestrel F.,University of Padua | And 9 more authors.

Aims: We wanted to test the proinflammatory effects of vinyltriethoxysilane-based organically modified silica nanoparticles (ORMOSIL-NPs) in vitro on blood leukocytes. Materials & Methods: Cell selectivity, cytokines/chemokines and O 2 - production were analyzed using nonpolyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated and PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-NPs and small unilamellar vesicles (SUV)-NPs. Results: ORMOSIL-NPs mostly bound to monocytes while other NPs to all leukocyte types similarly. Cell capture of PEGylated-NPs decreased strongly (ORMOSIL), moderately (PLGA) and weakly (SUV). Bare ORMOSIL-NPs effectively stimulated the production of IL-1β/IL-6/TNF-α/IL-8 by monocytes and of IL-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). NP PEGylation inhibited such effects only partially. Formyl-methionine-leucine phenylalanine (f-MLP) further increased the release of cytokines/chemokines by monocytes/PMNs primed with bare and PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs. PEGylated SUV-NPs, bare and PEGylated ORMOSIL- and PLGA-NPs sensitize PMNs and monocytes to secrete O 2 - upon f-MLP stimulation. Conclusion: ORMOSIL-NPs are preferentially captured by circulating monocytes but stimulate both monocytes and PMNs per se or by sensitizing them to another agonist (f-MLP). PEG-coating confers stealth effects but does not completely eliminate leukocyte activation. Safe nanomedical applications require the evaluation of both intrinsic and cooperative proinflammatory potential of NPs. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

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