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Liverpool, United Kingdom

The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded in 1881 as a university college, it is also one of the six original "red brick" civic universities. It comprises three faculties organised into 35 departments and schools.It is a founding member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities, the N8 Group for research collaboration and the University Management school is AACSB accredited.The university has produced nine Nobel Prize winners and offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects. It was the world's first university to establish departments in Oceanography, civic design, architecture, and biochemistry at the Johnston Laboratories.In 2006 the university became the first in the UK to establish an independent university in China making it the world's first Sino-British university.It has an annual turnover of £410 million, including £150 million for research.Graduates of the University are styled with the post-nominal letters Lpool, to indicate the institution. Wikipedia.

Parker G.A.,University of Liverpool
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

We give a historic overview and critical perspective of polyandry in the context of sexual selection. Early approaches tended to obfuscate the fact that the total matings (copulations) by the two sexes is equal, neglecting female interests and that females often mate with (or receive ejaculates from) more than one male (polyandry). In recent years, we have gained much more insight into adaptive reasons for polyandry, particularly from the female perspective. However, costs and benefits of multiple mating are unlikely to be equal for males and females. These must be assessed for each partner at each potential mating between male i and female j, and will often be highly asymmetric. Interests of i and j may be in conflict, with (typically, ultimately because of primordial sex differences) i benefitting and j losing from mating, although theoretically the reverse can also obtain. Polyandry reduces the sex difference in Bateman gradients, and the probability of sexual conflict over mating by: (i) reducing the potential expected value of each mating to males in inverse proportion to the number of mates per female per clutch, and also often by (ii) increasing ejaculate costs through increased sperm allocation. It can nevertheless create conflict over fertilization and increase conflict over parental investment. The observed mean mating frequency for the population (and hence the degree of polyandry) is likely, at least in part, to reflect a resolution of sexual conflict. Immense diversity exists across and within taxa in the extent of polyandry, and views on its significance have changed radically, as we illustrate using avian polyandry as a case study. Despite recent criticisms, the contribution of the early pioneers of sexual selection, Darwin and Bateman, remains generally valid, and should not, therefore, be negated; as with much in science, pioneering advances are more often amplified and refined, rather than replaced with entirely new paradigms. Source

Pirmohamed M.,University of Liverpool
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Drug response varies between individuals owing to disease heterogeneity, environmental factors, and genetic factors. Genetic factors can affect both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug, leading to changes in local and systemic drug exposure and/or changes in the function of the drug target, altering drug response. Several pharmacogenetic biomarkers are already utilized in clinical practice and have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. However, a large number of other biomarkers have never made it beyond the discovery stage. Concerted effort is needed to improve the translation of pharmacogenetic biomarkers into clinical practice, and this will involve the use of standardized phenotyping and genotyping strategies, collaborative work, multidisciplinary approaches to identifying and replicating associations, and cooperation with industry to facilitate translation and commercialization. Acceptance of these approaches by clinicians, regulators, patients, and the public will be important in determining future success. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Trayhurn P.,University of Liverpool | Trayhurn P.,The University of Buckingham
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2013

The rise in the incidence of obesity has led to a major interest in the biology of white adipose tissue. The tissue is a major endocrine and signaling organ, with adipocytes, the characteristic cell type, secreting a multiplicity of protein factors, the adipokines. Increases in the secretion of a number of adipokines occur in obesity, underpinning inflammation in white adipose tissue and the development of obesity-associated diseases. There is substantial evidence, particularly from animal studies, that hypoxia develops in adipose tissue as the tissue mass expands, and the reduction in PO2 is considered to underlie the inflammatory response. Exposure of white adipocytes to hypoxic conditions in culture induces changes in the expression of >1,000 genes. The secretion of a number of inflammation-related adipokines is upregulated by hypoxia, and there is a switch from oxidative metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis. Glucose utilization is increased in hypoxic adipocytes with corresponding increases in lactate production. Importantly, hypoxia induces insulin resistance in fat cells and leads to the development of adipose tissue fibrosis. Many of the responses of adipocytes to hypoxia are initiated at PO2 levels above the normal physiological range for adipose tissue. The other cell types within the tissue also respond to hypoxia, with the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes being inhibited and preadipocytes being transformed into leptin-secreting cells. Overall, hypoxia has pervasive effects on the function of adipocytes and appears to be a key factor in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source

Cooper A.I.,University of Liverpool
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Molecular solids go porous: An imine-linked organic cage exhibits exceptional surface area (SABET=1375 m2ag-1) and selective gas sorption, suggesting that porous molecular organic solids could compete in the future with porous networks such as polymers and metal-organic frameworks. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

De Magalhaes J.P.,University of Liverpool
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2013

The ageing of populations worldwide is leading to an unprecedented increase in cancer cases and fatalities. Understanding the links between cancer and ageing is therefore more important than ever. How the interplay of ageing-associated changes affects cancer initiation and progression is complex, however, and some ageing processes probably foster cancer development whereas others hinder it, possibly in a tissue-specific manner. In the emerging age of cancer, how can our growing understanding of the biology of ageing inform cancer biology? © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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