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Lincoln, United Kingdom

The University of Lincoln is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, England. The university has origins tracing back to 1861, and after gaining university status in 1992, was known as the University of Humberside until 1996 and the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside until 2001, when it adopted its present name.Lincoln is one of two universities in the city, alongside Bishop Grosseteste University. Lincoln's main campus is adjacent to Brayford Pool, the site of urban regeneration in the city since the 1990s; further campuses are located in Riseholme and Holbeach.The Independent described the university as "the best thing to happen to Lincoln since the Romans". Lincoln has rapidly moved up in the university rankings, having risen 60 places in 4 years. The Sunday Times newspaper, responsible for The Times Good University Guide, has described the university's progression as "the most dramatic transformation of a university in recent times." In 2012, the university ranked in the top 50 of The Guardian University Guide for the first time.It is the University of Lincoln's annual tradition for student graduation ceremonies to take place at the medieval Lincoln Cathedral. Wikipedia.

Slee A.D.,University of Lincoln
Nutrition and Metabolism

Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabolic factors may play key roles in CKD development and pathogenesis. These incluDe raised proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and -6, tumor necrosis factor, altered hepatic acute phase proteins, including reduced albumin, increased C-reactive protein, and perturbations in normal anabolic hormone responses with reduced growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis activity. Others incluDe hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), with angiotensin II and aldosterone implicated in hypertension and the promotion of insulin resistance, and subsequent pharmacological blockaDe shown to improve blood pressure, metabolic control and offer reno-protective effects. Abnormal adipocytokine levels including leptin and adiponectin may further promote the insulin resistant, and proinflammatory state in CKD. Ghrelin may be also implicated and controversial studies suggest activities may be reduced in human CKD, and may proviDe a rationale for administration of acyl-ghrelin. Poor vitamin D status has also been associated with patient outcome and CVD risk and may indicate a role for supplementation. Glucocorticoid activities traditionally known for their involvement in the pathogenesis of a number of disease states are increased and may be implicated in CKD-associated hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes risk and cachexia, both directly and indirectly through effects on other systems including activation of the mineralcorticoid receptor. Insight into the multiple factors altered in CKD may proviDe useful information on disease pathogenesis, clinical assessment and treatment rationale such as potential pharmacological, nutritional and exercise therapies. © 2012 Slee; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Smith M.F.,University of Lincoln
Sports Medicine

The attainment of consistent high performance in golf requires effective physical conditioning that is carefully designed and monitored in accordance with the on-course demands the player will encounter. Appreciating the role that physiology plays in the attainment of consistent performance, and how a players physicality can inhibit performance progression, supports the notion that the application of physiology is fundamental for any player wishing to excel in golf. With cardiorespiratory, metabolic, hormonal, musculoskeletal and nutritional demands acting on the golfer within and between rounds, effective physical screening of a player will ensure physiological and anatomical deficiencies that may influence performance are highlighted. The application of appropriate golf-specific assessment methods will ensure that physical attributes that have a direct effect on golf performance can be measured reliably and accurately. With the physical development of golf performance being achieved through a process of conditioning with the purpose of inducing changes in structural and metabolic functions, training must focus on foundation whole-body fitness and golf-specific functional strength and flexibility activities. For long-term player improvement to be effective, comprehensive monitoring will ensure the player reaches an optimal physical state at predetermined times in the competitive season. Through continual assessment of a players physical attributes, training effectiveness and suitability, and the associated adaptive responses, key physical factors that may impact most on performance success can be determined. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source

Anaerobic batch digestion of four feedstocks was conducted at 35 and 50 °C: switchgrass; Spirulina platensis algae; and two mixtures of both switchgrass and S. platensis. Mixture 1 was composed of 87% switchgrass (based on volatile solids) and 13% S. platensis. Mixture 2 was composed of 67% switchgrass and 33% S. platensis. The kinetics of methane production from these feedstocks was studied using four first order models: exponential, Gompertz, Fitzhugh, and Cone. The methane yields after 40. days of digestion at 35 °C were 355, 127, 143 and 198. ml/g VS, respectively for S. platensis, switchgrass, and Mixtures 1 and 2, while the yields at 50 °C were 358, 167, 198, and 236. ml/g VS, respectively. Based on Akaike's information criterion, the Cone model best described the experimental data. The Cone model was validated with experimental data collected from the digestion of a third mixture that was composed of 83% switchgrass and 17% S. platensis. © 2013. Source

Ruta M.,University of Lincoln
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society

Adaptive radiations are central to macroevolutionary theory. Whether triggered by acquisition of new traits or ecological opportunities arising from mass extinctions, it is debated whether adaptive radiations are marked by initial expansion of taxic diversity or of morphological disparity (the range of anatomical form). If a group rediversifies following a mass extinction, it is said to have passed through a macroevolutionary bottleneck, and the loss of taxic or phylogenetic diversity may limit the amount of morphological novelty that it can subsequently generate. Anomodont therapsids, a diverse clade of Permian and Triassic herbivorous tetrapods, passed through a bottleneck during the end-Permian mass extinction. Their taxic diversity increased during the Permian, declined significantly at the Permo-Triassic boundary and rebounded during the Middle Triassic before the clade's final extinction at the end of the Triassic. By sharp contrast, disparity declined steadily during most of anomodont history. Our results highlight three main aspects of adaptive radiations: (i) diversity and disparity are generally decoupled; (ii) models of radiations following mass extinctions may differ from those triggered by other causes (e.g. trait acquisition); and (iii) the bottleneck caused by a mass extinction means that a clade can emerge lacking its original potential for generating morphological variety. Source

Pike T.W.,University of Lincoln
Behavioral Ecology

Chromaticity diagrams-Cartesian plots that depict the multidimensional subjective relationship between perceived colors, independent of intensity-are widely used in studies of animal color vision, as they allow direct links to be made between color discrimination and color vision-mediated behaviors. However, because these diagrams are invariant to the differences in noise levels between photoreceptor classes that underlie some models of color discrimination thresholds, the distance between colors in chromaticity space is not necessarily related to their perceptual distance. The geometric interpretation of color data from chromaticity diagrams may therefore lead to misleading conclusions. This paper describes a method of plotting visual perceptual distances derived from the noise-corrected model of Vorobyev and Osorio (Vorobyev M, Osorio D. 1998. Receptor noise as a determinant of color thresholds. Proc R Soc B. 265:351-358) such that the perceptual distance between them is exactly preserved. It also describes how both chromatic (color) and achromatic (brightness) contrasts can be visualized within the same diagram. The potential benefits of this approach over commonly used triangular and tetrahedral chromaticity diagrams are discussed with regards to the study of animal visual ecology. © 2012 The Author. Source

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