The University of Limoges is a French public research university, based in Limoges. The semiotician Jacques Fontanille, a senior member of the "Institut Universitaire de France", is the president. Its chancellor is the rector of the Academy of Limoges . It counts more than 14,000 students and near 1,000 scholars and researchers. It offers complete curricula up to the doctorates and beyond in the traditional areas of knowledge and continues to develop new courses in line with the evolution of the postmodern and postcolonial society. It is a member of the Center Atlantic University PRES with the University of Poitiers, the University of La Rochelle and several engineering schools. Wikipedia.
Thales Alenia, French Atomic Energy Commission, University of Limoges and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2015-04-17
A power switching cell with normally on field-effect transistors comprises a current switch receiving the control input signal over an activation input and a power transistor for switching a high voltage VDD applied to its drain, to its source that is connected to the output port of the cell. The control of the gate of the power transistor whose source is floating, according to the input signal, is provided by a self-biasing circuit connected between its gate and source. The current switch is connected between the self-biasing circuit and a zero or negative reference voltage. The self-biasing circuit comprises a transistor whose source or drain is connected to the gate or source of the power transistor. The gate of this transistor is biased by a resistor connected between its gate and source, and between the current switch and the source. The transistors are HEMT transistors using GaN or AsGa technology.
French National Center for Scientific Research and University of Limoges | Date: 2017-06-21
The invention relates to a method for the synthesis of a nanocomposite compound comprising TiO2 nanoparticles bound to carbon nanostructures, characterised in that it comprises the following steps: a) mixing carbon nanostructures and at least one TiO2 precursor in a first liquid in order to form a stock suspension; b) nebulising said stock suspension and transporting it into a reaction chamber by means of a gaseous flow; and c) carrying out laser pyrolysis of said stock suspension in said reaction chamber in order to simultaneously form TiO2 nanoparticules and graft them onto the nanostructures.
Champion E.,University of Limoges
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2013
Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-15-2015 | Award Amount: 12.00M | Year: 2015
Sepsis is defined as a systemic inflammatory response to infection, while severe sepsis (SS) is a sepsis complicated by acute organ dysfunction. Lung infections, in particular community-acquire pneumonia (CAP), are the leading cause of SS. The pathophysiologic mechanism of CAP-mediated SS is the complete dysregulation of the patients immune system. In an initial phase, the systemic hyperactivation of the host immune response against infection leads to high levels of inflammatory mediators, systemic vasodilatation, micro-vascular thrombosis and organ failure. In a second phase, the exaggerated activation of the immune response leads to a state of immunoparalysis, which is characterized by the occurrence of secondary, opportunistic infections. This makes CAP-mediated SS a life-threatening condition with mortality rates as high as 28-50%. The current standard of care (infection removal and control, functional support) does not improve the high mortality and, thus, CAP-mediated SS represents a major unmet medical need with a huge social burden. Therefore, treatments with the potential to modulate both the initial exacerbated immunoactivation and the subsequent immunosuppression are needed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), are known for their broad range of immunomodulatory properties, targeting multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways, and possess antimicrobial capacities (releasing bactericidal peptides and promoting the phagocytosis by immune cells). Indeed, therapeutic benefit of MSC treatment in in vivo experimental models of sepsis has been extensively reported. The SEPCELL consortium believes that cell therapy with allogeneic ASCs may be an innovative therapeutic approach in order to re-establish the normal immune homeostasis of CAP-mediated SS patients, reducing organ injury and restoring organ functionality. A phase Ia/IIb clinical trial will be performed to test this possibility.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMP-24-2015 | Award Amount: 7.95M | Year: 2016
Shortage of fresh water has become one of the major challenges for societies all over the world. Water desalination offers an opportunity to significantly increase the freshwater supply for drinking, industrial use and irrigation. All current desalination technologies require significant electrical or thermal energy, with todays Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination units consuming electric energy of at least 3 kWh/m3 in extensive tests about ten years ago, the Affordable Desalination Collaboration (ADC) in California measured 1.6 kWh/m3 for RO power consumption on the best commercially available membranes, and total plant energy about twice as high. To overcome thermodynamical limitations of RO, which point to 1.09 kwh/m3 for seawater at 50 % recovery, Microbial Desalination Cells (MDC) concurrently treat wastewater and generate energy to achieve desalination. MDCs can produce around 1.8 kWh of bioelectricity from the handling of 1 m3 of wastewater. Such energy can be directly used to i) totally remove the salt content in seawater without external energy input, or ii) partially reduce the salinity to lower substantially the amount of energy for a subsequent desalination treatment. MIDES aims to develop the Worlds largest demonstrator of an innovative and low-energy technology for drinking water production, using MDC technology either as stand-alone or as pre-treatment step for RO. The project will focus on overcoming the current limitations of MDC technology such as low desalination rate, high manufacturing cost, biofouling and scaling problems on membranes, optimization of the microbial-electrochemical process, system scaling up and economic feasibility of the technology. This will be achieved via innovation in nanostructured electrodes, antifouling membranes (using nanoparticles with biocide activity), electrochemical reactor design and optimization, microbial electrochemistry and physiology expertise, and process engineering and control.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-27-2015 | Award Amount: 4.44M | Year: 2016
Driven by the end-users requirements and needs, the main objective of the HIPERDIAS project is to demonstrate high throughput laser-based manufacturing using high-power, high-repetition rate sub-1ps laser. Although the laser system to be developed within HIPERDIAS can address other material processing applications, the focus here will be 3D structuring of silicon at high-speed, precision processing of diamond material and fine cutting of metal for the watch and the medical industry. Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) approach based on highly efficient compressors gratings will be implemented in order to minimize the overall losses of the laser system. The final targets of the project are to demonstrate:- a 10-times increase of ablation rate and productivity of large area 3D-structuring of silicon - a 10 times increase of speed in fine cutting metals - an increase of process speed (6-10 times) at a low processing tools cost of diamond machining Therefore, the laser parameters, as well as the beam shaping, beam guiding (based on Kagom fibers) and machine systems will be developed and optimized to fulfill the above manufacturing targets. The laser architecture will be based on fully passive amplifier stages combining hybrid (fiber-bulk) amplifier and thin-disk multipass amplifiers to achieve sub-500fs at an average output power of 500W and sub-1ps at an average output of 1kW, at a repetition rate of 1-2 MHz. Furthermore, second harmonic generation (SHG, 515 nm) and third harmonic generation (THG, 343 nm) will be implemented to allow processing investigation at these wavelengths. At 515 nm (respectively 343 nm) an average power of >=250W (respectively>=100W) shall be demonstrated.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: PCP | Phase: ICT-34-2016 | Award Amount: 4.44M | Year: 2017
European Water utilities environment is embedded in a context dealing with global issues such as water scarcity and technical-economic issues such as infrastructure aging. Management of drinking water supply is facing key challenges partly related to traditional water meter, such as managing capital and operational costs; water loss (also known as non-revenue water) due to leaks and other system failures; and water scarcity/conservation. The core of the solution lies in the renewed access and use of accurate data that Smart Water Metering can provide to decrease operating costs, identify performance issues, improve customer service and better prioritize infrastructure investments. SMART.MET strongly paves the way to a more efficient management providing for example automatic reading of the household meters and billing, real time assessment of water balance for leak detection, identification of abnormal behaviors and awareness-raising, ability to identify user-meters defaults. However, the lack of common European standards and lack of open technological platforms combined to the high transaction cost on the demand side create a lock-in situation in the market and determine a situation of long-term dependency of water operators on technology providers. This determines high average operating costs for water operators and users, as well as collective inefficiency related to the multiplication of different proprietary solutions on the offer side. The objective of the proposal is thus to drive the development of new technologies to manage smart metering data collection and management, driven by a group of 7 water utilities through a joint Pre Commercial Procurement (PCP). They are supported by 6 expert organizations for assessing the technologies, implement the new procurement procedures and disseminate the outcomes of the project to other utilities and solutions suppliers. The duration of the project is 48 months.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 877.50K | Year: 2017
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and overall numerical fabrication methods have been recognized by stakeholders as the next industrial revolution bringing customers needs and suppliers offers closer. It cannot be dissociated to the present trends in increased virtualization, cloud approaches and collaborative developments (i.e. sharing of resources). AM is likely to be one good option paving the way to Europe re-industrialization and increased competitiveness. AMITIE will reinforce European capacities in the AM field applied to ceramic-based products. Through its extensive programme of transnational and intersectoral secondments, AMITIE will promote fast technology transfer and enable as well training of AM experts from upstream research down to more technical issues. This will provide Europe with specialists of generic skills having a great potential of knowledge-based careers considering present growing needs for AM industry development. To do that, AMITIE brings together leading academic and industrial European players in the fields of materials science/processes, materials characterizations, AM technologies and associated numerical simulations, applied to the fabrication of functional and/or structural ceramic-based materials for energy/transport, and ICTs applications, as well as biomaterials. Those players will develop a new concept of smart factory for the future based on 3D AM technologies (i.e. powder bed methods, robocasting, inkjet printing, stereolithography, etc.) and their possible hybridization together or with subtractive technologies (e.g. laser machining). It will allow for the production of parts whose dimensions, shapes, functionality and assembly strategies may be tailored to address todays key technological issues of the fabrication of high added value objects following a fully-combinatorial route. This is expected to lead to a new paradigm for production of multiscale, multimaterial and multifunctional components and systems
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.98M | Year: 2017
SUMCASTEC explores radically new approach for cancer stem cells (CSCs) real time isolation (i.e. within minutes vs current 40 days) and neutralization. A novel micro-optofluidic lab-on-chip (LOC) platform will be developed through a joint and iterative effort by biologists, clinicians and engineers. For the first time, a single LOC will be capable of delivering ultra-wide broadband radiation to compare cell spectral signatures, image subcellular features, and hence modulate CSCs microenvironment conditions with unprecedented space and time resolution. It will be driven to isolate CSCs from heterogeneous differentiated and stem cell populations, and force CSCs differentiation, ultimately inducing sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Extensive in vitro and in vivo testing along with biophysical modelling will validate the approach and establish the proof-of-principle within the project life-time, while laying the groundwork for further development of future electrosurgical tools that will be capable CSCs neutralization in tissue. This will not only establish a new line of treatment for brain cancers such as Glioblastoma Multiforme and Medulloblastoma, whose initiation and recurrence were linked to CSCs, and that claim tremendous human and economic tolls, worldwide; it will also push the current boundaries of microbiological analysis by enabling microenvironment characterization/manipulation and real-time ionic channels monitoring without cytotoxic patch-clamping or electron microscopy. By investing in efforts such as SUMCASTECs, Europe will stand at the forefront of global biomedical innovation and push through a similar miniaturization trend as the one that propelled mobile communications, yet with much deeper societal impact. All the required competences are gathered within this consortium. The ambitious objectives of the project are planned over 42 months with a requested grant of 3 978 517,5 .
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 9.66M | Year: 2015
The Modern2020 project aims at providing the means for developing and implementing an effective and efficient repository operational monitoring programme, taking into account the requirements of specific national programmes. The work allows advanced national radioactive waste disposal programmes to design monitoring systems suitable for deployment when repositories start operating in the next decade and supports less developed programmes and other stakeholders by illustrating how the national context can be taken into account in designing dedicated monitoring programmes tailored to their national needs. The work is established to understand what should be monitored within the frame of the wider safety cases and to provide methodology on how monitoring information can be used to support decision making and to plan for responding to monitoring results. Research and development work aims to improve and develop innovative repository monitoring techniques (wireless data transmission, alternative power supply sources, new sensors, geophysical methods) from the proof of feasibility stage to the technology development and demonstration phase. Innovative technical solutions facilitate the integration and flexibility of required monitoring components to ease the final implementation and adaptation of the monitoring system. Full-scale in-situ demonstrations of innovative monitoring techniques will further enhance the knowledge on the operational implementation of specific disposal monitoring and will demonstrate the performance of the state-of-the-art, the innovative techniques and their comparison with conventional ones. Finally, Modern2020 has the ambition to effectively engage local citizen stakeholders in the R&D monitoring activity by involving them at an early stage in a repository development programme in order to integrate their concerns and expectations into monitoring programmes.