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Lima, Peru

Not be confused with the National University of San Marcos, known colloquially as the "University of Lima' from 1551 until 1946.The University of Lima is a private university in Lima, the capital of Peru. It was founded in 1962. The decision to create the University of Lima was made in the early 1960s by a group of university professors, along with important commerce and industry representatives. It was after two years of effort that they managed to start it. It officially started operating the 25th of April 1962. At the beginning only accounted with 120 students in a small campus in the Jesús María District. Due to the university's quick growth, the campus in the Monterrico area of Surco was inaugurated to serve the university's space needs.Today, the University of Lima has 14,000 students, eleven majors, a postgraduate school, a general studies program and a scientific research institute, along with many services for students, faculty, and the community at large. Wikipedia.

D'Amato A.,University of Lima | Zijlstra F.,Maastricht University
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Objective: People who have been on long-term absence from work because of ill health usually have reduced chances to resume work again. Nevertheless, little is known about its causal factors. The aim of this study is to present and test an empirical model to predict return to work of employees who are long-term absent for physical- or mental ill health reasons. Method: A longitudinal study has been performed with a sample of long-term absents in five European countries (N = 1460). Results: Health improvement is necessary but it alone not sufficient as precondition for return to work. Psychological factors (ie, self-efficacy, depression) and organizational factors have the highest impact. Conclusions: A climate for work resumption and its implications for personnel management practices to reduce/prevent workers to remain in absence leave when the medical symptoms have disappeared are discussed. Copyright © 2010 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Source

In this paper the simplest quasi-3D HSDT with four unknowns is presented. The elegancy of this theory is on its simple displacement field which is similar to the one developed by Reddy but with thickness stretching capabilities, i.e. quasi-3D nature, and just four unknowns. For validation, the principle of virtual work and Navier-type closed-form technique were utilized to formulate and solve the bending problem of functionally graded plates. The results are in concordance with the ones found in the literature. Consequently, it is recommended to be utilized in several physical and case study problems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

BACKGROUND: Few studies have described patterns of transmission of viral acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children in developing countries. We examined the spatial and temporal spread of viral ARI among young children in rural Peruvian highland communities. Previous work has described intense social interactions in those communities, which could influence the transmission of viral infections. METHODS: We enrolled and followed children <3 years of age for detection of ARI during the 2009-2011 respiratory seasons in a rural setting with relatively wide geographic dispersion of households and communities. Viruses detected included influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (MPV), and parainfluenza 2 and 3 viruses (PIV2; PIV3). We used geospatial analyses to identify specific viral infection hot spots with high ARI incidence. We also explored the local spread of ARI from index cases using standard deviational ellipses. RESULTS: Geospatial analyses revealed hot spots of high ARI incidence around the index cases of influenza outbreaks and RSV outbreak in 2010. Although PIV3 in 2009 and PIV2 in 2010 showed distinct spatial hot spots, clustering was not in proximity to their respective index cases. No significant aggregation around index cases was noted for other viruses. Standard deviational ellipse analyses suggested that influenza B and RSV in 2010, and MPV in 2011 spread temporally in alignment with the major road network. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the geographic dispersion of communities in this rural setting, we observed a rapid spread of viral ARI among young children. Influenza strains and RSV in 2010 had distinctive outbreaks arising from their index cases. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

The right to health is recognized as a fundamental human right. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rights discourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. A health rights discourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities' organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health rights. There are new efforts to promote and protect health rights in Peru, probably inspired by the achievements of organizations of people living with HIV (PLHA). The public health sector must consolidate the participation of affected communities' organizations in decision-making processes and implementation of health programs. PLHA organizations have become a key political and social actor in Peruvian public health policy. Source

Scott G.J.,University of Lima | Suarez V.,International Potato Center
Potato Journal

Potato production in the developing countries in Asia now accounts for a greater share of global output than all the industrialized countries combined. This paper examines the divergent peaks, valleys, and spikes in output that characterized the 120 million t expansion in potato production in Asia during the last half century. New technology, improvements in production and postharvest infrastructure, and government policy along with the inherent traits of the crop itself all contributed to these trends. A shift toward more diverse diets and the cash income derived from potato production played an equally, if not more important role. After assessing alternative scenarios for future development of the potato sector in the region, the paper concludes by highlighting opportunities for industry before identifying some key topics for future research. Source

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