The University of Lille Nord de France , located in Lille, France, is a center for higher education, academic research and doctoral studies located over multiple campuses in the Academie de Lille.It includes a doctoral college that federates university institutes, engineering schools and research centres. With more than one hundred thousand students, the Université Lille Nord de France is one of the five largest university federations in France. Wikipedia.
Popescu C.I.,University of Lille Nord de France
Biology of the cell / under the auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization | Year: 2010
HCV (hepatitis C virus) represents a major global health problem. A consistent body of evidence has been accumulating, suggesting a peculiar overlap between the HCV life cycle and lipid metabolism. This association becomes evident both for the clinical symptoms of HCV infection and the molecular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis and entry process of this virus. The HCV core-lipid droplets association seems to be central to the HCV morphogenesis process. Moreover, the biogenesis pathway of very-low-density lipoproteins has been shown to be involved in HCV morphogenesis with MTP (microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein), ApoB (apolipoprotein B) and ApoE (apolipoprotein E) as essential elements in the production of infectious HCV particles. HCV infectivity also correlates with the lipidation status of the particles. Furthermore, some HCV cellular receptors and the regulation of the entry process are also connected to lipoproteins and lipid metabolism. Specifically, lipoproteins modulate the entry process and the cholesterol transporter SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B type I) is a cellular entry factor for HCV. The present review aims to summarize the advances in our understanding of the HCV-lipid metabolism association, which may open new therapeutic avenues.
Breton C.,University of Lille Nord de France
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2013
Epidemiological studies initially demonstrated that maternal undernutrition leading to low birth weight may predispose for energy balance disorders throughout life. High birth weight due to maternal obesity or diabetes, inappropriate early post-natal nutrition and rapid catch-up growth may also sensitise to increased risk of obesity. As stated by the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease concept, the perinatal perturbation of foetus/neonate nutrient supply might be a crucial determinant of individual programming of body weight set point. The hypothalamus-adipose axis plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of energy homoeostasis controlling the nutritional status and energy storage level. The perinatal period largely corresponds to the period of brain maturation, neuronal differentiation and active adipogenesis in rodents. Numerous dams and/or foetus/neonate dietary manipulation models were developed to investigate the mechanisms underlying perinatal programming in rodents. These models showed several common offspring hypothalamic consequences such as impaired neurogenesis, neuronal functionality, nuclei structural organisation and feeding circuitry hardwiring. These alterations led to a persistent reprogrammed appetite system that favoured the orexigenic pathways, leptin/insulin resistance and hyperphagia. Impaired hypothalamic sympathetic outflow to adipose tissue and/or reduced innervation may also account for modified fat cell metabolism. Thus, enhanced adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis capacities may predispose the offspring to fat accumulation. Abnormal hypothalamus-adipose axis circadian rhythms were also evidenced. This review mainly focuses on studies in rodents. It highlights hormonal and epigenetic mechanisms responsible for long-lasting programming of energy balance in the offspring. Dietary supplementation may provide a therapeutic option using a specific regimen for reversing adverse programming outcomes in humans. © 2013 Society for Endocrinology.
Bako L.,University of Lille Nord de France
Automatica | Year: 2011
The work presented in this paper is concerned with the identification of switched linear systems from input-output data. The main challenge with this problem is that the data are available only as a mixture of observations generated by a finite set of different interacting linear subsystems so that one does not know a priori which subsystem has generated which data. To overcome this difficulty, we present here a sparse optimization approach inspired by very recent developments from the community of compressed sensing. We formally pose the problem of identifying each submodel as a combinatorial ℓ0 optimization problem. This is indeed an NP-hard problem which can interestingly, as shown by the recent literature, be relaxed into a (convex) ℓ1-norm minimization problem. We present sufficient conditions for this relaxation to be exact. The whole identification procedure allows us to extract the parameter vectors (associated with the different subsystems) one after another without any prior clustering of the data according to their respective generating-submodels. Some simulation results are included to support the potentialities of the proposed method. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez-Hilarion S.,University of Lille Nord de France
Orphanet journal of rare diseases | Year: 2012
Nonsense mutations are at the origin of many cancers and inherited genetic diseases. The consequence of nonsense mutations is often the absence of mutant gene expression due to the activation of an mRNA surveillance mechanism called nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Strategies to rescue the expression of nonsense-containing mRNAs have been developed such as NMD inhibition or nonsense mutation readthrough. Using a dedicated screening system, we sought molecules capable to block NMD. Additionally, 3 cell lines derived from patient cells and harboring a nonsense mutation were used to study the effect of the selected molecule on the level of nonsense-containing mRNAs and the synthesis of proteins from these mutant mRNAs. We demonstrate here that amlexanox, a drug used for decades, not only induces an increase in nonsense-containing mRNAs amount in treated cells, but also leads to the synthesis of the full-length protein in an efficient manner. We also demonstrated that these full length proteins are functional. As a result of this dual activity, amlexanox may be useful as a therapeutic approach for diseases caused by nonsense mutations.
Skrzypczyk C.,University of Lille Nord de France
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVE:: To assess the relevance of the International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS) definition of posthepatectomy liver failure compared with 2 well-established criteria, 50–50 and PeakBili >7, as early predictors of posthepatectomy outcome.BACKGROUND:: There is limited data on the postoperative use of ISGLS definition of posthepatectomy liver failure as early predictor of outcome.METHODS:: Between 2007 and 2012, a total of 680 hepatectomies were analyzed from a prospective database. The value of each definition for prediction of 3-month major complications (Clavien III–V) and mortality was assessed either within 10 days of surgery or on postoperative day 5.RESULTS:: Three-month major morbidity and mortality rates were 16.5% and 4.4%, respectively. Within 10 days, 79 patients fulfilled ISGLS definition compared with 24 for 50–50 and 44 for PeakBili >7 criteria. Sensitivities of ISGLS definition and 50–50 and PeakBili >7 criteria for prediction of major morbidity and mortality were 35.8, 17.4, 24.8% and 56.7, 36.7, 56.7%, respectively. Patients with no positive score had a risk of death or major complication below 5% and 15%, respectively. In patients with a positive score, the ISGLS definition was the least relevant to predict major complications and mortality (positive predictive values of 49.4% and 21.8% vs 79.2% and 47.8% for 50–50 and 61.4% and 40.5% for PeakBili >7 criteria). The relative risk of death was 6.9 (95% confidence interval, 3.1–15.4) if the ISGLS definition was evaluated on postoperative day 5 versus 21.1 (95% confidence interval, 7.7–57.7) for 50–50 and 21.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.4–63.3) for PeakBili >7 criteria.CONCLUSIONS:: ISGLS definition was less discriminatory than 50–50 and PeakBili >7 criteria in identifying patients at risk of posthepatectomy major complications or death. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.