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science, Norway

Amstaetter K.,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | Eek E.,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | Cornelissen G.,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | Cornelissen G.,University of Life science | Cornelissen G.,University of Stockholm

The addition of activated carbon (AC) is an increasingly popular method for pollutant immobilization, and the AC material can be made of biomass or coal/fossil feedstock. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are differences between pollutant sorption to biomass and coal-based AC in the presence and absence of sediment. Through N 2 and CO 2 adsorption to probe surface area and pore size it was shown that the biomass-based AC had a stronger dominance of narrow pores in the size range 3.5-15å than the anthracite-based material. In the absence of sediment, sorption isotherms for the probe compounds pyrene and PCB-101 showed stronger sorption for the biomass-based AC (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 8.15 for pyrene; 9.91 for PCB-101) than for the anthracite-based one (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 7.20 and 9.70, respectively). In the presence of sediment, the opposite trend was observed, with the stronger sorption for anthracite-based AC. Thus, the presence of competing and/or pore-blocking sediment constituents reduces sorption to a larger extent for biomass-derived AC (factor of 5 for pyrene to almost 100 for PCB-101) than for anthracite-based AC (no reduction for pyrene to factor of 5 for PCB-101). This difference is tentatively attributed to the difference in pore size distribution, narrow pores being more prone to clogging, and could have implications for remediation feasibility with AC from different sources. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yakovlev I.A.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute | Fossdal C.G.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute | Johnsen O.,University of Life science
New Phytologist

•Norway spruce expresses a temperature-dependent epigenetic memory from the time of embryo development, which thereafter influences the timing bud phenology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs)are endogenous small RNAs, exerting epigenetic gene regulatory impacts. We have tested for their presence and differential expression.•We prepared concatemerized small RNA libraries from seedlings of two full-sib families, originated from seeds developed in a cold and warm environment. One family expressed distinct epigenetic effects while the other not. We used available plant miRNA query sequences to search for conserved miRNAs and from the sequencing we found novel ones; the miRNAs were monitored using relative real time-PCR.•Sequencing identified 24 novel and four conserved miRNAs. Further screening of the conserved miRNAs confirmed the presence of 16 additional miRNAs. Most of the miRNAs were targeted to unknown genes. The expression of seven conserved and nine novel miRNAs showed significant differences in transcript levels in the full-sib family showing distinct epigenetic difference in bud set, but not in the nonresponding full-sib family. Putative miRNA targets were studied.•Norway spruce contains a set of conserved miRNAs as well as a large proportion of novel nonconserved miRNAs. The differentially expression of specific miRNAs indicate their putative participation in the epigenetic regulation. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010). Source

Glomsrod S.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | Wei T.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | Aune J.B.,University of Life science
Ecological Economics

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is supposed to provide both carbon mitigation and poverty reduction. This article reports from a model based study of market related carbon leakage and poverty reduction in the wake of a CDM tree-planting project in Tanzania. A tree plantation was incorporated in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with income differentiated household segments. The study focused on sensitivity of carbon leakage and income distribution to different project ownerships and carbon premium allocations. It turned out that the project value in terms of carbon premium has clear shortcomings as indicator of induced GDP growth and poverty alleviation. The non-poor rural and urban households benefit considerably more than the poor households. However, rising household income in all domestic project ownership arrangements increases demand for food, raises use of fertilizer and crop yields. A carbon cycle module for agricultural land use was incorporated in the CGE model, showing an increased carbon sequestration in agricultural soil, representing a negative leakage through markets in the range of 60-120% of the certified emissions reductions as registered in the CDM tree plantation project. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Andersen T.,University of Life science | Andersen T.,Fisheries and Aquaculture Research
Marine Genomics

Hemoglobin is one of the most studied proteins in nature, and evolutionary modifications of the interacting subunits seem to have refined the oxygen binding properties in the wide range of land- and/or water-living vertebrates. The adaptation of fish to varying environments seems to involve multiple hemoglobins, and polymorphic variants may further increase the diversity of functional properties. The pioneering study of Knud Sick on the hemoglobin polymorphisms in Atlantic cod fifty years ago was accompanied by multiple population genetic, physiological and behavioral studies before the recent identification of the genetic basis of the protein variants. The Met-Lys and Val-Ala substitutions in the cod β1 globin subunit provided the link between genotype and physiological functions, and the geographical distribution of the variants in temperate and Arctic waters strongly indicate that hemoglobin is under adaptive evolution in Atlantic cod. The structural and regulatory polymorphisms of the cod β1 globin highlight the relationship between temperature and functional molecular variation in the hemoglobin system. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Woolliams J.A.,University of Life science | Woolliams J.A.,Roslin Institute | Meuwissen T.H.E.,University of Life science
Genetics Selection Evolution

Background: In the past, pedigree relationships were used to control and monitor inbreeding because genomic relationships among selection candidates were not available until recently. The aim of this study was to understand the consequences for genetic variability across the genome when genomic information is used to estimate breeding values and in managing the inbreeding generated in the course of selection on genome-enhanced estimated breeding values. Methods. These consequences were measured by genetic gain, pedigree- and genome-based rates of inbreeding, and local inbreeding across the genome. Breeding schemes were compared by simulating truncation selection or optimum contribution selection with a restriction on pedigree- or genome-based inbreeding, and with selection using estimated breeding values based on genome- or pedigree-based BLUP. Trait information was recorded on full-sibs of the candidates. Results: When the information used to estimate breeding values and to constrain rates of inbreeding were either both pedigree-based or both genome-based, rates of genomic inbreeding were close to the desired values and the identical-by-descent profiles were reasonably uniform across the genome. However, with a pedigree-based inbreeding constraint and genome-based estimated breeding values, genomic rates of inbreeding were much higher than expected. With pedigree-instead of genome-based estimated breeding values, the impact of the largest QTL on the breeding values was much smaller, resulting in a more uniform genome-wide identical-by-descent profile but genomic rates of inbreeding were still higher than expected based on pedigree relationships, because they measure the inbreeding at a neutral locus not linked to any QTL. Neutral loci did not exist here, where there were 100 QTL on each chromosome. With a pedigree-based inbreeding constraint and genome-based estimated breeding values, genomic rates of inbreeding substantially exceeded the value of its constraint. In contrast, with a genome-based inbreeding constraint and genome-based estimated breeding values, marker frequencies changed, but this change was limited by the inbreeding constraint at the marker position. Conclusions: To control inbreeding, it is necessary to account for it on the same basis as what is used to estimate breeding values, i.e. pedigree-based inbreeding control with traditional pedigree-based BLUP estimated breeding values and genome-based inbreeding control with genome-based estimated breeding values. © 2012 Sonesson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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