Monrovia, Liberia
Monrovia, Liberia

The University of Liberia is a publicly funded institution of higher learning located in Monrovia, Liberia. Authorized by the national government in 1851, the school opened in 1863 as Liberia College and became a university in 1951. The school is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in West Africa and is accredited by the Liberian Commission on Higher Education. Civil wars have disrupted and damaged the school over the last three decades.The University of Liberia has six colleges, three professional schools , and three graduate programs with a total of approximately 18,000 students at its three campuses in and around the country's capital city. UL also has five institutes for study in areas such as the Chinese language and population research. The law school is the only one in Liberia. Graduates have gone on to leadership roles in Liberian politics including former President Arthur Barclay. Wikipedia.

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Lin B.,Minjiang University | Lin B.,Xiamen University | Wesseh P.K.,Xiamen University | Wesseh P.K.,University of Liberia
Energy Economics | Year: 2013

The chemical sector is a key driver of China's remarkable growth record and accounts for about 10% of the country's GDP. This has made the industry energy-intensive and consequently a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and other pollutants. This study has attempted to investigate the potential for inter-fuel substitution between coal, oil, natural gas and electricity in Chinese chemical sector by employing a translog production and cost function. Ridge regression procedure was adopted to estimate the parameters of the function. Estimation results show that all energy inputs are substitutes. In addition, the study produces evidence that the significant role of coal in the Chinese chemical fuel mix converges over time, albeit slowly. These results suggest that price-based policies, coupled with capital subsidy programs can be adopted to redirect technology use towards cleaner energy sources like electricity and natural gas; hence, retaining the ability to fuel the chemical sector, while also mitigating GHG emissions. Notwithstanding, one must understand that the extent to which substituting electricity for coal will be effective depends on the extent to which coal or oil is used in generating electricity. The findings of this study provide general insights and underscore the importance of Chinese government policies that focus on installed capacity of renewable electricity, energy intensity targets as well as merger of enterprises. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lin B.,Minjiang University | Lin B.,Xiamen University | Wesseh Jr. P.K.,Xiamen University | Wesseh Jr. P.K.,University of Liberia
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

This paper is an effort to investigate claims concerning Granger causality relationship from energy consumption to economic growth in South Africa. We adopt a nonparametric bootstrap method to reassess evidence supporting Granger causality and unravel findings of long-run unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to economic growth. This implies that energy conservation policies will negatively impact economic growth in South Africa. In addition, the results of this study have implications on CO2 emissions in South Africa given that coal accounts for about 72% of energy. This suggests that energy use would have a long run effect of raising the country's CO2 emission levels. Hence, there might be a need to develop a more balanced energy structure which will include higher share of renewable energy. A further Monte Carlo experiment performed reveals that asymptotic Granger causality test suffers size distortion problem for South African data. These findings provide support for use of a bootstrap methodology and also imply that the results presented in this study are likely to be more reliable. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Lin B.,Minjiang University | Lin B.,Xiamen University | Wesseh P.K.,Xiamen University | Wesseh P.K.,University of Liberia | And 2 more authors.
Energy Economics | Year: 2014

This study attempts to contribute to the literature on stock markets and energy prices by examining the dynamic volatility and volatility transmission between oil and Ghanaian stock market returns in a multivariate setting using the recently developed VAR-GARCH, VAR-AGARCH and DCC-GARCH frameworks. In turn, the models' results are used to compute and analyze the optimal weights and hedge ratios for oil-stock portfolio holdings. For comparison purposes and to put the paper more in the perspective of West Africa, the Nigerian stock market is also included in the analysis. Our findings point to the existence of significant volatility spillover and interdependence between oil and the two stock market returns. While spillover effects are stronger for Nigeria, the transmission of volatility is much more apparent from oil to stock than from stock to oil in the case of Ghana. Also, the study demonstrates evidence of short-term predictability in oil and stock price changes through time and reveals that conditional volatility changes more rapidly as result of substantial effects of past volatility rather than past news/shocks for all market returns. Moreover, we show that there is a slightly more effective hedge in the two stock markets under the DCC-GARCH framework (our preferred model) compared to the other two models, although hedging effectiveness is much greater for Ghana. On the whole, our findings for optimal hedge ratios are consistent with other studies and particularly the view that oil assets should be an integral part of a diversified portfolio of stocks and suggest that a better understanding of volatility links is crucial for portfolio management in the presence of oil price risk. Finally, the existence of multivariate asymmetric effects and dynamic conditional correlations as revealed by the VAR-AGARCH and DCC-GARCH models make it clear that the assumptions of symmetric effects and constant conditional correlations are not supported empirically. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Lin B.,Minjiang University | Lin B.,Xiamen University | Wesseh Jr. P.K.,Xiamen University | Wesseh Jr. P.K.,University of Liberia
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Combustion of coal accounts for about 75% of total power generation in China. The global call for CO2 emissions reduction, exposure to oil risks and their bearing on energy security, require China to properly determine its future energy policies. This study has attempted to quantify the benefits provided by current Chinese feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for solar power generation by using real option pricing approach to estimate the value of solar energy technologies in the face of uncertain fossil fuel prices and learning effects in solar technologies. The optimal solution as calculated renders the government′s FIT effort as a sufficient mechanism to make solar an economically competitive alternative in China′s energy future. In addition, options values in terms of internalized external costs and variation in the level of FIT are also compared. Simulation results reveal the options value to be significantly greater when external costs are internalized. Nevertheless, it was found that the average current FIT level is non-optimal, and should be increased to between 1.5 RMB/KWh and 1.7 RMB/KWh to ensure maximum investment incentive with minimal government expenditures. Furthermore, given solar to be an attractive alternative for the future, his study hypothesizes that solar power use in China can potentially reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 1.3% by 2020 compared to the 2005 level. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kruk M.E.,Columbia University | Rockers P.C.,Harvard University | Williams E.H.,John Snow Inc | Varpilah S.T.,Social Republic | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2010

Objective To assess the availability of essential health services in northern Liberia in 2008, five years after the end of the civil war. Methods We carried out a population-based household survey in rural Nimba county and a health facility survey in clinics and hospitals nearest to study villages. We evaluated access to facilities that provide index essential services: artemisinin combination therapy for malaria, integrated management of childhood illness, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counselling and testing, basic emergency obstetric care and treatment of mental illness. Findings Data were obtained from 1405 individuals (98% response rate) selected with a three-stage population-representative sampling method, and from 43 of Nimba county's 49 health facilities selected because of proximity to the study villages. Respondents travelled an average of 136 minutes to reach a health facility. All respondents could access malaria treatment at the nearest facility and 55.9% could access HIV testing. Only 26.8%, 14.5%, and 12.1% could access emergency obstetric care, integrated management of child illness and mental health services, respectively. Conclusion Although there has been progress in providing basic services, rural Liberians still have limited access to life-saving health care. The reasons for the disparities in the services available to the population are technical and political. More frequently available services (HIV testing, malaria treatment) were less complex to implement and represented diseases favoured by bilateral and multilateral health sector donors. Systematic investments in the health system are required to ensure that health services respond to current and future health priorities.

Khalifa A.,RMIT University | Khalifa A.,University of Liberia | Tan L.,RMIT University | Date A.,RMIT University | Akbarzadeh A.,RMIT University
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2015

This study presents a thermal network model for evaluating heat transfer enhancement in a high-temperature latent heat storage unit incorporating finned heat pipes. The objective of this heat enhanced latent heat storage system was to improve the thermal performance of concentrating solar power plants. In this proposed design, finned heat pipes are used in the heat storage unit as effective heat spreaders. The finned heat pipes are kept in suspension and are adjacent to the heat transfer channel in order to increase the overall heat conductance of the phase change material (PCM). The feasibility of the proposed design was established by conducting experimental measurements of the solidification process. The results have shown that the performance was significantly improved by adding finned heat pipes, especially at the later stage of PCM solidification. The performance enhancement was quantified based on heat pipe effectiveness. It was found that the effectiveness of the twelve-heat pipe configuration reached 2.4 after 5 h of simulated operation. In addition, a preliminary system sizing was conducted in order to estimate the system size required for 50 MW electrical power output. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chander R.,University of Liberia
JK Science | Year: 2013

This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence and determinants of Low birth weight neonates in Sirte city of Libya. This was a crossectional study including 269 newborn babies delivered in Ibnsena hospital, (which caters the Sirte city for deliveries). The study was conducted in the first fortnight of January 2011. Out of 269 neonates 11 were VLBW < 1.5kgs 74 were with low birth weight (1.5 kg to 2.5 kg). The mean weight, standard deviation, standard error and variance was 2.63, 0.59, 0.036 and 0.35 respectively. Association of mothers age with birth weight was insignificant p >.05; but highly significant with hypertension, p <.01 at 99% CI. Similarly association of LBW with different variable of mother like anemia, smoking, life style, birth spacing, BMI, parity,and toxemia of pregnancy was in between significant and highly significant (p <.05 to<.01 at 95/99% CI at respective DF's. The variables of LBW are addressable to reduce this menace in developing and under developed countries.

Mijarsh M.J.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mijarsh M.J.A.,University of Liberia | Megat Johari M.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ahmad Z.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2015

In this work, the compressive strength of treated palm oil fuel ash (TPOFA) based geopolymer mortar was studied. The geopolymer mortar was prepared using mixtures of TPOFA and mineral additives ((Ca(OH)2, Al(OH)3, and silica fume (SF)). The alkaline activator was prepared from NaOH and Na2SiO3. The samples with different total oxide molar ratios (Al2O3:SiO2, CaO:SiO2, Al2O3:Na2O, and SiO2:H2O) were tested for compressive strength. Moreover, the influence of unreacted mineral additives in the final geopolymer products was also evaluated. The results showed that the early age compressive strength of TPOFA-based geopolymer mortar improved significantly when the source material (TPOFA) was substituted with Ca(OH)2, exhibiting a relative compressive strength of 188.45% at 3 days. Furthermore, the modification of TPOFA with Al(OH)3 and SF caused significant improvement, demonstrating a relative compressive strength of 200.90% and 175.22% at 3 and 28 days, respectively. The C-S-H and N-A-S-H binding gels formed at 28 days were transformed over time to C-A-S-H type gel at 120 days which was the most stable product. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Creagh S.C.,University of Nottingham | Hamdin H.B.,University of Liberia | Tanner G.,University of Nottingham
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013

We propose a reformulation of the boundary integral equations for the Helmholtz equation in a domain in terms of incoming and outgoing boundary waves. We obtain transfer operator descriptions which are exact and thus incorporate features such as diffraction and evanescent coupling; these effects are absent in the well-known semiclassical transfer operators in the sense of Bogomolny. It has long been established that transfer operators are equivalent to the boundary integral approach within semiclassical approximation. Exact treatments have been restricted to specific boundary conditions (such as Dirichlet or Neumann). The approach we propose is independent of the boundary conditions, and in fact allows one to decouple entirely the problem of propagating waves across the interior from the problem of reflecting waves at the boundary. As an application, we show how the decomposition may be used to calculate Goos-Hänchen shifts of ray dynamics in billiards with variable boundary conditions and for dielectric cavities. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Svoronos T.,Harvard University | Macauley R.J.,University of Liberia | Kruk M.E.,Columbia University
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2015

Background Following a protracted civil war, Liberia is rebuilding its health system. One of the aims of reconstruction is to expand access to health care to a previously underserved rural population. Objective This study analysed the determinants of Liberians' confidence in their ability to obtain needed care for themselves or their children in case of serious illness. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1435 adults in Nimba County, Liberia was conducted. Logistic regression models were estimated with reported ability to obtain needed health services for serious illness as the dependent variable, and demographics, health need, health system characteristics and informal health care as independent variables. Results Overall, 50.56% of respondents reported that they could obtain needed services for themselves or their children. Confidence in the ability to obtain care increased with education [odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.21] and poor physical health in the past 30 days (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.88), and decreased with poverty (OR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47-0.93), exposure to previous trauma (OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.36-0.71), dissatisfaction with respondent's last formal health visit (OR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.91) and high utilization of the informal health sector (OR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.96). No correlation was found between health system confidence and being female, being 35 years old or younger, formal health sector use, being within an hour of a clinic and the closest clinic having basic capabilities. Conclusions Respondents' experiences with the health care system had a greater correlation with their confidence in obtaining needed health care than proximity or quality of medical equipment in health clinics. Despite pro-poor policies guiding health system reconstruction, poor and less educated individuals have less confidence that the health system can meet their health needs. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

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