Kortenberg, Belgium
Kortenberg, Belgium

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Solmi M.,University of Padua | Solmi M.,Local Health Unit ULSS 17 | Solmi M.,Institute of Clinical Research and Education in Medicine IREM | Veronese N.,University of Padua | And 15 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2016

Background and Aims: Cigarette smoking is associated with severe mental illness, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and with morbidity and mortality, but the association with anorexia (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) is unclear. This meta-analysis compared the odds of smoking in eating disorders (ED) (ED = AN or BN or BED) versus healthy controls (HC) and calculated the prevalence of smokers in people with ED. Methods: Three independent authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE and Scopus from database inception until 31 December 2015 for studies reporting data on life-time or current smoking prevalence in BED, BN and AN with or without control group. Meta-analyses were undertaken, calculating odds ratios (ORs) of life-time smoking in BED, BN, AN versus healthy controls (HCs) or prevalence of smoking in BED, BN and AN with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Thirty-one studies (ED = 8517, controls = 68 335) were meta-analysed. Compared with HCs, there were significantly more smokers among people with BN (life-time OR = 2.165) and BED (life-time OR = 1.792) but not AN (life-time OR = 0.927). BED was associated with smoking the most (life-time prevalence = 47.73%) followed by BN (life-time prevalence = 39.4%) and AN (life-time prevalence = 30.8%). In BN, life-time smoking prevalence was highest in Europe. In AN, higher age moderated both life-time and current smoking prevalence, and body mass index moderated higher life-time smoking prevalence. In BN, female sex moderated higher life-time smoking prevalence. Conclusions: People with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa are significantly more likely to be life-time smokers than healthy controls, which is not the case for anorexia nervosa. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction


Beerten J.,University of Leuven Leuven | Van Hertem D.,University of Leuven Leuven
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2015

In a droop-controlled High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) grid, the line voltage drops throughout the system influence the voltage control. This paper introduces and compares five distinct methods for establishing droop setpoints in order to restore the voltage profile after a contingency and evaluates the ability of these methods to track the setpoints. Furthermore, the influence of the network and of the droop characteristics on the offsets is derived analytically. To ensure accurate setpoint tracking, the problem can be circumvented by redefining the redispatch as an optimization aiming at minimizing the changes in converter powers whilst achieving a predefined average system voltage. In order to avoid the need for solving the non-linear power flow problem, the voltage deviations from the post-contingency operation can also be scaled to obtain an approximate solution. Simulations on a 4-terminal meshed HVDC grid demonstrate the degree to which the different methods allow to track the setpoints. © 2015 IEEE.


PubMed | University Utrecht and University of Leuven Leuven
Type: Journal Article | Journal: i-Perception | Year: 2014

Exocentric pointing in the visual field involves the setting of a pointer so as to visually point to a target, where both pointer and target are objects in the visual field. Phenomenologically, such pointings show systematic deviations from veridicality of several degrees. The errors are very small in the vertical and horizontal directions, but appreciable in oblique directions. The magnitude of the error is largely independent of the distance between pointer and target for stretches in the range 2-27. A general conclusion is that the visual field cannot be described in terms of one of the classical homogeneous spaces, or, alternatively, that the results from pointing involve mechanisms that come after geometry proper has been established.


PubMed | University of Leuven Leuven
Type: Journal Article | Journal: i-Perception | Year: 2012

In the physical environment familiar size is an effective depth cue because the distance from the eye to an object equals the ratio of its physical size to its angular extent in the visual field. Such simple geometrical relations do not apply to pictorial space, since the eye itself is not in pictorial space, and consequently the notion distance from the eye is meaningless. Nevertheless, relative size in the picture plane is often used by visual artists to suggest depth differences. The depth domain has no natural origin, nor a natural unit; thus only ratios of depth differences could have an invariant significance. We investigate whether the pictorial relative size cue yields coherent depth structures in pictorial spaces. Specifically, we measure the depth differences for all pairs of points in a 20-point configuration in pictorial space, and we account for these observations through 19 independent parameters (the depths of the points modulo an arbitrary offset), with no meaningful residuals. We discuss a simple formal framework that allows one to handle individual differences. We also compare the depth scale obtained by way of this method with depth scales obtained in totally different ways, finding generally good agreement.


PubMed | University of Leuven Leuven
Type: Journal Article | Journal: i-Perception | Year: 2012

Five experiments examined preferences for horizontal positions in multiobject pictures. In Experiment 1, each picture contained a fixed object and an object whose position could be adjusted to create the most (or least) aesthetically pleasing image. Observers placed the movable object closer to the fixed object when the objects were related than when they were unrelated (a relatedness bias) but almost never overlapped them (a separation bias). Experiment 2 showed that these results were not due to demand characteristics by replicating them almost exactly in a between-participants design. In Experiment 3, preference rankings revealed a strong relatedness bias together with an inward bias toward the spatial envelope of objects to point into the frame. A weak balance effect was evident in a multiple regression analysis. Experiment 4 replicated the inward bias for the spatial envelope using multiobject groups. Experiment 5 generalized the above findings for different objects when observers had to choose between image pairs that differed only in interobject distance or degree of balance. Strong relatedness effects were again present, but there was no evidence of any preference for balance.


PubMed | University Utrecht and University of Leuven Leuven
Type: Journal Article | Journal: i-Perception | Year: 2013

SFS (Shape From Shading) theory is based upon the Lambertian paradigm. Our visual demonstrations imply that this paradigm fails to apply to the conventional stimuli used to probe vision.

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