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Rivas, Nicaragua

Bucardo F.,University of Leon Leon | Mercado J.,National Center for Diagnostic and Reference | Reyes Y.,University of Leon Leon | Gonzalez F.,University of Leon Leon | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of severe diarrhoea in young children. Nicaragua introduced routine immunization with the pentavalent RV vaccine (RV5) in 2006, which greatly reduced the incidence of diarrhoea. A remaining concern has been the possible emergence of new RV strains to which the vaccination has less effect. In this study, 837 children with diarrhoea in hospital settings were investigated for RV between May 2011 and July 2013. RVs were subsequently typed by multiplex PCR and/or sequencing. Fecal anti-RV IgA titres for a subset of RV-infected (n = 137) and noninfected children (n = 52) were determined with an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The RV detection rate was 8% in 2011, followed by a sharp increase to 29% in 2012 and 19% in 2013. This was associated with emergence and predominance of genotype G12 RV, from 0% in 2011 to 66% in 2012 and 82% in 2013, infecting children from 1 month to 10 years of age. Two sequenced G12 strains showed a Wa-like genome with genotype G12-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, similar to the globally emerging G12 strains. Fecal anti-RV IgA analysis showed that most G12-infected and noninfected children had been in contact with either vaccine or wild RV strains, but such antibodies did not prevent symptomatic G12 infection. A marked increase of RV was evident in the hospital setting associated with a nationwide emergence and predominance of RV G12 genotype in a population with high RV5 vaccine coverage. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


Bucardo F.,University of Leon Leon | Reyes Y.,University of Leon Leon | Svensson L.,Linkoping University | Nordgren J.,Linkoping University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Despite significant reduction of rotavirus (RV) infections following implementation of RotaTeq vaccination in Nicaragua, a large burden of patients with diarrhea persists. Methods: We conducted a community- and hospital-based study of the burden of RV, norovirus (NV) and sapovirus (SV) infections as cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (GE) among 330 children ≤ 5 years of age between September 2009 and October 2010 in two major cities of Nicaragua with a RotaTeq coverage rate of 95%. Results: We found that NV, SV and RV infections altogether accounted for 45% of cases of GE. Notably, NV was found in 24% (79/330) of the children, followed by SV (17%, 57/330) and RV (8%, 25/330). The detection rate in the hospital setting was 27%, 15% and 14% for NV, SV and RV respectively, whereas in the community setting the detection rate of RV was < 1%. Among each of the investigated viruses one particular genogroup or genotype was dominant; GII.4 (82%) for NV, GI (46%) for SV and G1P[8] (64%) in RV. These variants were also found in higher proportions in the hospital setting compared to the community setting. The GII.4.2006 Minerva strain circulating globally since 2006 was the most common among genotyped NV in this study, with the GII.4-2010 New Orleans emerging in 2010. Conclusions: This study shows that NV has become the leading viral cause of gastroenteritis at hospital and community settings in Nicaragua after implementation of RV vaccination. © 2014 Bucardo et al.

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