Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research and University of Leeds | Date: 2015-03-19
This document provides methods and materials for treating cancer. For example, methods and materials for treating cancer using combinations of antigens are provided. For example, VSV vectors designed to express a GNAQ antigen, a TYRP1 antigen, and an N-RAS antigen can be used to reduce the number of cancer cells (e.g., uveal melanoma cells) within a mammal (e.g., a human). In some cases, VSV vectors designed to express a BRAF antigen, a TOPO-lla antigen, and a YB-I antigen can be used to reduce the number of cancer cells (e.g., skin melanoma cells) within a mammal (e.g., a human). The composition can comprise less than 50 separate nucleic acid molecules.
Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research and University of Leeds | Date: 2015-03-19
This document provides methods and materials for treating cancer. For example, methods and materials for identifying antigens and combinations of antigens that can be used to treat cancer as well as combinations of antigens having the ability to reduce established tumors (e.g., gliomas) within a mammal (e.g., a human) are provided. In general, one aspect of this document features a composition comprising, or consisting essentially of, nucleic acid encoding HIF-2a, SOX-10, C-MYC, and TYRP-1, wherein the composition comprises less than 100 separate nucleic acid molecules.
University of Leeds | Date: 2015-04-16
There is described variegin for use as a medicament in the treatment of disease or condition characterised in that the variegin is administered in an amount of at least about 0.1 mg/kg (mass of drug compared to mass of patient).
University of Leeds | Date: 2017-01-04
The present invention is concerned with a dye system for application to a substrate, the dye system comprising: (a) at least one dye precursor; (b) an oxidising agent; and (c) a catalyst, wherein the catalyst is a homogenous catalyst or a heterogeneous catalyst. Preferably, the catalyst comprises at least one metal-containing compound. The invention also envisages a method for the coloration of a substrate, the method comprising treating the substrate with the dye system of the invention. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the substrate comprises human hair, natural or synthetic polymers, or textile fibres. In further preferred embodiments, the at least one dye precursor is an organic precursor, the at least one metal derivative for use as a catalyst comprises at least one inorganic metal compound or at least one metal complex comprising at least one organic ligand, and the oxidising agent is hydrogen peroxide.
Dyer C.,University of Leeds
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2016
Experiences of mobile pastoralists often attest to a wide range of contradictions about the presumed advantages of formal education. While effort to 'reach' pastoralists has intensified under the global Education for All movement, there remain considerable difficulties in finding ways to make formal education relate to pastoralist livelihoods and complement endogenous knowledge. This paper examines how these dynamics play out across models of formal and non-formal education service provision, and identifies innovations that offer promising ways forward: Alternative Basic Education, Open and Distance Learning, and Pastoralist Field Schools.
Kee T.P.,University of Leeds |
Monnard P.-A.,University of Southern Denmark
Elements | Year: 2016
Protocells are envisaged as encapsulated networks of catalytic polymers, such as RNAs, which are thought to have existed on the prebiotic Earth as precursors to contemporary biological cells. Such protocells were not "alive" in the way this word would apply to a contemporary unicellular organism. Rather, protocells represent a necessary evolutionary step toward those first forms of cellular life. In this review, we explore how chemicals synthesized by minerals or delivered by meteorites could have contributed to the emergence of the first protocells and could have supported these protocell's evolution towards primitive cellular life.
Morris J.V.,University of Leeds
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2017
OBJECTIVES:: To compare outcomes of children receiving noninvasive ventilation with those receiving invasive ventilation as first-line mode of mechanical ventilation following unplanned intensive care admission. DESIGN:: Propensity score-matched cohort study analyzing data prospectively collected by the Pediatric Intensive Care Audit Network over 8 years (2007–2014). SETTING:: Thirty-one PICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland; twenty-one of whom submitted Pediatric Critical Care Minimum Dataset data for the entire study period. PATIENTS:: Children consecutively admitted to study PICUs. Planned admissions following surgery, unplanned admissions from other hospitals, those on chronic ventilation, and those who did not receive mechanical ventilation on the day of PICU admission were excluded. INTERVENTIONS:: Use of noninvasive ventilation, rather than invasive ventilation, as the first-line mode of mechanical ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: PICU mortality, length of ventilation, length of PICU stay, and ventilator-free days at day 28. During the study period, there were 151,128 PICU admissions. A total of 15,144 admissions (10%) were eligible for analysis once predefined exclusion criteria were applied: 4,804 (31.7%) received “noninvasive ventilation first,” whereas 10,221 (67.5%) received “invasive ventilation first”; 119 (0.8%) admissions could not be classified. Admitting PICU site explained 6.5% of the variation in first-line mechanical ventilation group (95% CI, 2.0–19.0%). In propensity score-matched analyses, receiving noninvasive ventilation first was associated with a significant reduction in mortality by 3.1% (95% CI, 1.7–4.6%), length of ventilation by 1.6 days (95% CI, 1.0–2.3), and length of PICU stay by 2.1 days (95% CI, 1.3–3.0), as well as an increase in ventilator-free days at day 28 by 3.7 days (95% CI, 3.1–4.3). CONCLUSIONS:: Use of noninvasive ventilation as first-line mode of mechanical ventilation in critically ill children admitted to PICU in an unplanned fashion may be associated with significant clinical benefits. Further high-quality evidence regarding optimal patient selection and timing of initiation of noninvasive ventilation could lead to less variability in clinical care between institutions and improved patient outcomes.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. Copyright © by 2017 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Pankhurst M.J.,University of Leeds
Geology | Year: 2017
Clouds and aerosols have a large, yet highly uncertain, effect on changes in Earth's climate. A factor of particular note is the role played by ice-nucleating particles, which remains poorly understood. The mineral K-feldspar (Kfs) has recently been shown by a number of independent studies to nucleate ice in mixed-phase cloud conditions far more efficiently than other common minerals. Here, global atmospheric Kfs flux through geologic time is estimated; constrained by records of secular continental crust and biosphere evolution, plate tectonics, volcanism, glaciation, and attendant trends in land surface stability. The analysis reveals that Kfs flux today is at neither extreme of the range estimated across geological time. The present-day Kfs flux, however, is likely to be among the most spatially and temporally variable due to land surface change. The concept of an ice-nucleation efficiency factor that can be calculated from rocks, and also eolian sediments and soils, is proposed. This allows the impact of paleo-atmospheric dust to be estimated through the rock record alongside meteorological and atmospheric composition considerations. With the reasonable assumption that the ice-nucleating properties of Kfs are themselves independent of the background climate state, a better understanding of Kfs flux across a range of spatial and temporal scales will advance understanding of climate processes and interactions. © 2017 The Authors.
Dickinson E.,University of Leeds
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2017
We consider the essential compositional and molecular structural features controlling the formation and stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by hydrocolloid ingredients. The theoretical principles underlying adsorption of polymers and steric stabilization by polymer layers are outlined with particular reference to copolymer morphology and chain branching. These basic concepts are used to interpret at the molecular level the experimental interfacial functionality of three classes of biopolymer emulsifying agents: gum arabic, pectin, and hydrophobically modified starch (OSA starch). Some inferences are made concerning the mechanistic significance of certain generic features in relation to the surface activity and emulsification characteristics of hydrocolloids - the presence of covalently bound protein, the diversity of carbohydrate polymer structure, and the heterogeneity of natural ingredients. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
News Article | April 25, 2017
Emotional eating -- eating when you feel sad or upset or in response to another negative mood -- is not uncommon in children and adolescents, but why youth eat emotionally has been unclear. Now a new longitudinal study from Norway has found that school-age children whose parents fed them more to soothe their negative feelings were more likely to eat emotionally later on. The reverse was also found to be the case, with parents of children who were more easily soothed by food being more likely to feed them for emotional reasons. The findings come from researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, King's College London, University College London, and the University of Leeds. They appear in the journal Child Development. "Understanding where emotional eating comes from is important because such behavior can increase the risk for being overweight and developing eating disorders," according to the study's lead author, Silje Steinsbekk, associate professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. "If we can find out what influences the development of emotional eating in young children, parents can be given helpful advice about how to prevent it." When children eat to soothe their negative feelings, their food tends to be high in calories (e.g., sweets) so they consume more calories. If they emotionally overeat often, they are also more likely to be overweight. Emotional eating is also tied to the development of later eating disorders (e.g., bulimia and binge eating). This study sought to determine why children eat emotionally and is the first research to consider the issue in school-age children. Researchers examined emotional feeding and eating in a representative group of 801 Norwegian 4-year-olds, looking at these issues again at ages 6, 8, and 10. They sought to determine whether parents involved in the study (mostly mothers) shaped their children's later behavior by offering food to make them feel better when they were upset (emotional feeding), and whether parents whose children were easily soothed by food (those who calmed when given food) were more likely to offer them more food for comfort at a subsequent time. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires describing their children's emotional eating and temperament (how easily they became upset, how well they could control their emotions), as well as their own emotional feeding. Approximately 65% of the children displayed some emotional eating. The study found that young children whose parents offered them food for comfort at ages 4 and 6 had more emotional eating at ages 8 and 10. But the reverse was also true: Parents whose children were more easily comforted with food were more likely to offer them food to soothe them (i.e., to engage in emotional feeding). Thus, emotional feeding increased emotional eating, and emotional eating increased emotional feeding. The findings held even after accounting for children's body-mass index and initial levels of feeding and eating. Moreover, higher levels of negative affectivity (i.e., becoming angry or upset more easily) at age 4 increased children's risk for emotional eating and feeding at age 6. And this contributed to the bidirectional relation between emotional feeding and emotional eating. "We know that children who are more easily upset and have more difficulty controlling their emotions are more likely to eat emotionally than calmer children, perhaps because they experience more negative emotions and eating helps them calm down," notes Lars Wichstrøm, professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, who coauthored the study. "Our research adds to this knowledge by showing that children who are more easily upset are at highest risk for becoming emotional eaters." The authors suggest that instead of offering children food to soothe them when they are sad or upset, parents and other caregivers try to calm youngsters by talking, offering a hug, or soothing in ways that don't involve food. "Food may work to calm a child, but the downside is teaching children to rely on food to deal with negative emotions, which can have negative consequences in the long run," adds Steinsbekk. The authors caution that because the study was conducted in Norway, which has a relatively homogenous and well-educated population, the findings should not be generalized to more diverse populations or to cultures with other feeding and eating practices without further study.
News Article | May 3, 2017
An apparent hiatus in global warming that spawned a decade-long controversy has had no impact on long-term climate projections, a detailed analysis has concluded. The slower rise in temperatures from 1998 to 2012 has repeatedly been cited by climate sceptics as a sign that the climate is less sensitive to greenhouse gases than previously thought – or even that global warming has stopped. The latest study rejects this view, suggesting that there was ultimately no meaningful deviation between what climate models predicted and what was observed. Iselin Medhaug, who led the work at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, said: “In the beginning there seemed to be some sort of discrepancy and some people concluded we can’t use these models for anything. That isn’t true.” The analysis also aims to reconcile a series of seemingly contradictory findings on whether the so-called pause even took place. At times this has created the perception that scientists disagree on the basics of what the data show – let alone what is projected to happen in the future. The new paper, which takes a retrospective look at data and model predictions covering the early 2000s, suggests that this has been largely a false controversy caused by competing research groups applying different criteria for what a “pause” constitutes – how much levelling off and for how long – to a variety of datasets. “They’ve used different definitions and different time periods,” said Medhaug. “It sounds very controversial, but when you compare like with like it’s not as controversial as it might seem.” None of the air surface temperature datasets shows a negative trend lasting more than five years, for instance, but the Met Office’s HadCRUT4 dataset, which combines air and sea surface temperatures, shows a negative trend for the 12 years following 2001. All the major datasets show 15-year periods starting after 1997 where warming was, at the very least, slower than the previous 60 years. The paper, published in Nature, said that this short-term slowdown could be mostly accounted for by known climate phenomena. These include the higher than average wind-speeds over the Pacific Ocean during the hiatus, which meant that although heat was still being deposited into the world’s largest ocean, this was not reflected in measurements taken at the surface. “The heat is still there, it’s just stuck underneath,” said Medhaug. Weaker solar radiation during the period may also have played a role and the cooling effect of small volcanic eruptions – which were particularly frequent during the early 2000s – had also been underestimated. Prof Piers Forster, a climate scientist at the University of Leeds, described the paper as a “great comprehensive summary”, but said the question of whether long-term projections had changed remained open. “There is other work that shows the cool east Pacific that occurred during the hiatus reduced the climate sensitivity and this might affect longer-term trends,” he said. Unusually for a scientific paper, the authors delve into the social and political drivers of a controversy that continues to linger, despite 2015 and 2016 being the two warmest years on record. “In a time coinciding with high-level political negotiations on preventing climate change, sceptical media and politicians were using the apparent lack of warming to downplay the importance of climate change,” the paper states. “But a few years of additional data are unlikely to overturn the vast body of evidence that supports anthropogenic climate change.” Forster argues that scientists may also have set themselves up for a fall. “In the early 2000s some scientists were talking about accelerating global warming and either for simplicity, or forgetting to, we did not mention that share prices can go down as well as up,” he said. He added that he was worried by the fanfare around the release of annual global temperature figures by the Met Office and others, which may have shifted attention onto the short-term trend. Michael Mann, a climate scientist at Penn State University, said that the latest paper would contain few “bombshells” for those working in the field. “Models and observations are consistent in terms of long-term warming, and that this warming — and recent extreme warmth — can only be explained by anthropogenic activity, namely the burning of fossil fuels,” he said. “The fact that there is substantial internal variability that can mask this warming on decadal and multi-decadal timescales is also something established by us in previous work.”
News Article | March 14, 2017
Imagine the Earth's atmosphere some 2.4 billion years ago, when it was completely uninhabitable and filled with toxic gases, which increased the surface temperatures abnormally. A new research from the University of St. Andrews, the University of Leeds, University of Maryland, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as the Blue Marble Space Institute of science suggests that millions of years ago, our planet's atmosphere was filled with a haze rich in methane. As a result of this, a larger amount of hydrogen was driven from the atmosphere by the methane-haze, thus making the way for Oxygen that filled up the air. It was due to this phenomenon that an atmosphere supporting the life forms on Earth was created. The final result of the research generated a new analysis to the Great Oxidation Episode, occurring 2.4 billion years ago, as a result of the increased oxygen concentration in our planet's atmosphere . "The transformation of Earth's air from a toxic mix to a more welcoming, oxygen-rich atmosphere happened in a geological instant," says James Farquharm, co-author of the study. Farquharm also noted that thanks to the above research, one can get insight on the complete scenario of how the above-mentioned processes occurred due to the methane-haze. To recreate the atmospheric procedure before the Great Oxidation episode, the researchers required many of the comprehensive chemical records as well as atmospheric models. According to the analysis, the single life form on Earth present during that time was the ancient bacteria, which resulted in the formation of methane. This methane further filled up the atmosphere with thick haze, which looks similar to Titan, Saturn's moon. However, though many of the early studies conducted by various other researchers spotted many such hazes, this research focuses on how fast they began and the time they lasted for. The methane-haze was there in the Earth's atmosphere for around more than a million years. It was only after that a great amount of hydrogen left the planet's atmosphere. There was the right kind of chemical condition which resulted in the creation of all types of life forms. One of the main points of the research was the finding of strange patterns of sulfur isotopes found in the geochemical records during those times. However, sulfur isotopes were generally used for proxy for recreating older atmospheric conditions. The scientists surmised that the recreation of the atmospheric chemistry was the primary aim for all geochemical researchers. The research was published on March 13, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | April 25, 2017
Emotional eating - eating when you feel sad or upset or in response to another negative mood - is not uncommon in children and adolescents, but why youth eat emotionally has been unclear. Now a new longitudinal study from Norway has found that school-age children whose parents fed them more to soothe their negative feelings were more likely to eat emotionally later on. The reverse was also found to be the case, with parents of children who were more easily soothed by food being more likely to feed them for emotional reasons. The findings come from researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, King's College London, University College London, and the University of Leeds. They appear in the journal Child Development. "Understanding where emotional eating comes from is important because such behavior can increase the risk for being overweight and developing eating disorders," according to the study's lead author, Silje Steinsbekk, associate professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. "If we can find out what influences the development of emotional eating in young children, parents can be given helpful advice about how to prevent it." When children eat to soothe their negative feelings, their food tends to be high in calories (e.g., sweets) so they consume more calories. If they emotionally overeat often, they are also more likely to be overweight. Emotional eating is also tied to the development of later eating disorders (e.g., bulimia and binge eating). This study sought to determine why children eat emotionally and is the first research to consider the issue in school-age children. Researchers examined emotional feeding and eating in a representative group of 801 Norwegian 4-year-olds, looking at these issues again at ages 6, 8, and 10. They sought to determine whether parents involved in the study (mostly mothers) shaped their children's later behavior by offering food to make them feel better when they were upset (emotional feeding), and whether parents whose children were easily soothed by food (those who calmed when given food) were more likely to offer them more food for comfort at a subsequent time. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires describing their children's emotional eating and temperament (how easily they became upset, how well they could control their emotions), as well as their own emotional feeding. Approximately 65% of the children displayed some emotional eating. The study found that young children whose parents offered them food for comfort at ages 4 and 6 had more emotional eating at ages 8 and 10. But the reverse was also true: Parents whose children were more easily comforted with food were more likely to offer them food to soothe them (i.e., to engage in emotional feeding). Thus, emotional feeding increased emotional eating, and emotional eating increased emotional feeding. The findings held even after accounting for children's body-mass index and initial levels of feeding and eating. Moreover, higher levels of negative affectivity (i.e., becoming angry or upset more easily) at age 4 increased children's risk for emotional eating and feeding at age 6. And this contributed to the bidirectional relation between emotional feeding and emotional eating. "We know that children who are more easily upset and have more difficulty controlling their emotions are more likely to eat emotionally than calmer children, perhaps because they experience more negative emotions and eating helps them calm down," notes Lars Wichstrøm, professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, who coauthored the study. "Our research adds to this knowledge by showing that children who are more easily upset are at highest risk for becoming emotional eaters." The authors suggest that instead of offering children food to soothe them when they are sad or upset, parents and other caregivers try to calm youngsters by talking, offering a hug, or soothing in ways that don't involve food. "Food may work to calm a child, but the downside is teaching children to rely on food to deal with negative emotions, which can have negative consequences in the long run," adds Steinsbekk. The authors caution that because the study was conducted in Norway, which has a relatively homogenous and well-educated population, the findings should not be generalized to more diverse populations or to cultures with other feeding and eating practices without further study. The study was funded by the Research Council of Norway. Summarized from Child Development, Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity by Steinsbekk, S (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Barker, ED (King's College London), Llewellyn, C (University College London), Fildes, A (University of Leeds), and Wichstrøm, L (Norwegian University of Science and Technology). Copyright 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. All rights reserved.
News Article | April 21, 2017
Friendships play a vital role in helping people get through substantial challenges in life, according to a new study Friendships play a vital role in helping people get through substantial challenges in life, according to a new study. Until now, little research has been carried out into the role friends and, in particular, best friends play in building resilience to adversity -- surviving and thriving in the face of difficult times. The new preliminary study, by Dr Rebecca Graber, University of Brighton Senior Lecturer in Psychology, for the first time provides long-term statistical evidence of the enormous benefit these valued social relationships have on adults. Dr Graber, who carried out the research whilst at the University of Leeds, recruited 185 adults through online social networking sites, university events and community organisations supporting socially-isolated adults. Some 75 adults completed the questionnaire. Participants completed assessments on psychological resilience, best friendship quality, coping behaviours and self-esteem. Participants then completed the same assessments one year later, to see how best friendship quality had impacted resilience processes over this period. Dr Graber said: "These findings reveal that best friendships are a protective mechanism supporting the development of psychological resilience in adults, although the mechanisms for this relationship remain unclear. "The study provides long-term statistical evidence, for the first time, of the vital role of these valued social relationships for developing resilience in a community-based adult sample, while posing open questions for just how best friendships facilitate resilience in this way." These findings support previous research by Dr Graber, published last year, revealing that best friends facilitate resilience processes in socioeconomically vulnerable children. Dr Graber, from the University of Brighton's Centre for Health Research, will present a paper 'Do best friends promote psychological resilience in adults?' at the British Psychological Society Annual Conference in May. For more information on Dr Graber's research, go to: https:/
News Article | May 2, 2017
Scientists have found a genetic cheat switch in mice, through which they can give a big boost to the animals' endurance without a lot of training. What if people who had diabetes, or were recovering from an operation, or were just too frail to go out running could get the same health benefits of exercise? Scientists are working to develop a drug for humans that could tap into the body's response to exercise without having to go through all the hard work and training to get there. Trending: Scientists reveal the first ever map of the bipolar brain A study on the latest version of the exercise pill, conducted in mice, has dramatically increased their performance on the treadmill. The mice who were given the pill could run for about four and a half hours straight – 70% longer than mice who weren't given the pill. The active ingredient of the exercise pill was a chemical compound called GW1516. It acted on a gene known to be involved in exercise called PPARD. Previous experiments have shown that mice that have a permanently activated PPARD gene are excellent long-distance runners. GW1516 was effectively doing the same thing, switching on the PPARD gene directly and making the mice much better runners. "It's well known that people can improve their aerobic endurance through training," said study author Ronald Evans of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. "The question for us was: how does endurance work? And if we really understand the science, can we replace training with a drug?" It's thought that the exercise pill works by making the mice much better at burning fat. This happens naturally in athletes who train hard, although exactly how it happens still isn't fully understood. But it wasn't just PPARD that was altered by the exercise pill. A total of 975 genes were changed when the mice took a high dose of GW1516. Genes for breaking down fats for burning got a boost, and genes for using carbohydrates were suppressed. "This study suggests that burning fat is less a driver of endurance than a compensatory mechanism to conserve glucose," said Michael Downes, also a study author at Salk. "PPARD is suppressing all the points that are involved in sugar metabolism in the muscle so glucose can be redirected to the brain, thereby preserving brain function." The mice in both cases collapsed from exhaustion when their blood sugar dropped to a certain level – 70 mg/dl. The mice on the exercise pill simply managed to keep up their blood sugar levels for much longer before hitting rock bottom. "Exercise activates PPARD, but we're showing that you can do the same thing without mechanical training. It means you can improve endurance to the equivalent level as someone in training, without all of the physical effort," said Weiwei Fan, a Salk scientist and also an author of the paper. Exercise physiologist Stuart Egginton of the University of Leeds, who was not involved in the research, said that the drug could have a lot of potential as a therapy in humans. "There are a lot of pathologies that involve dysregulation of the metabolism. So it's quite possible that you could use this for people with lots of metabolic diseases," Egginton told IBTimes UK. The action on the PPARD system also appeared to be relatively isolated from a lot of other related metabolic functions, he said. This makes it a good target for a drug, as there may be fewer unintended negative effects. "I think there will always be the potential for off-target effects, but possibly less so in this regard than some of the other interventions that have been tried. The only way to tell that is long-term studies. Their study suggests no acute response, they only point out the benefits," Egginton said. "But all of this is a delicate balance. Biology is always a balance." The research is published in the journal Cell Metabolism. You may be interested in:
University of Leeds | Date: 2017-02-22
There is described variegin for use as a medicament in the treatment of disease or condition characterised in that the variegin is administered in an amount of at least about 0.1 mg/kg (mass of drug compared to mass of patient).
News Article | May 8, 2017
EAST LANSING, Mich. -- When it comes to research warning us about the latest health risks or touting the latest cure, a new Michigan State University study indicates that many people won't trust the findings when an industry partner, even with a good reputation, is involved. The study, now published in PLOS ONE, could present scientists with the additional dilemma of finding alternative funding sources, especially during a time when federal funding may be scarce, that won't jeopardize the perceived integrity of their research. "People have a hard time seeing research related to health risks as legitimate if done with a corporate partner," said John Besley, lead author and an associate professor who studies the public's perception of science. "This initial study was meant to understand the scope of the problem. Our long-term goal though is to develop a set of principles so that quality research that's tied to a company will be better perceived by the public." Using research about genetically modified foods and trans fats, study participants were randomly assigned to evaluate one of 15 different partnership scenarios that included varying combinations of scientists from a university, a government agency, a non-governmental organization and a large food company. The results clearly showed that the public's skepticism increased substantially when a food company was in the mix. In fact, in one portion of the study, 77 percent of participants who were asked to describe their views about this type of partnership scenario had something negative to say about it and questioned whether it could produce good results. When the partnership didn't include a corporate partner, only 28 percent of participants said something negative. The research also indicated that this unfavorable perception didn't change much, even if other entities, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were included as additional partners. "This tells us that you can't just add organizations from various sectors and hope people will expect these partners to balance each other out," Besley said. According to Besley, scientists often spend a good portion of their time trying to find the resources to pay for things like equipment, data collection and staff for their research projects. And as federal and state funding continues to hang in the balance, along with ever-increasing competition for grant dollars, this makes looking for alternative funding sources a priority. "Ultimately, the hope is to find some way to ensure quality research isn't rejected just because of who is involved," Besley said. "But for now, it looks like it may take a lot of work by scientists who want to use corporate resources for their studies to convince others that such ties aren't affecting the quality of their research." Additional MSU contributors include Nagwan Zahry, in the College of Communication Arts and Sciences; Aaron McCright and Kevin Elliott, Lyman Briggs College; Norbert Kaminski, Institute for Integrative Toxicology; as well as Joseph Martin, University of Leeds, United Kingdom. MSU's Science and Society at State, or S3, funded the study. Michigan State University has been working to advance the common good in uncommon ways for more than 150 years. One of the top research universities in the world, MSU focuses its vast resources on creating solutions to some of the world's most pressing challenges, while providing life-changing opportunities to a diverse and inclusive academic community through more than 200 programs of study in 17 degree-granting colleges.
News Article | May 8, 2017
Biopharma and food businesses working with proteins now have access to better information about how a type of fluid flow commonly encountered in manufacturing processes can affect the quality of their products, following successful research. This process which can be highly damaging to bio-molecules, such as protein-based biopharmaceutical therapeutics, dissolved in the fluid, is known as 'extensional flow' and is occurs when the fluid rapidly accelerates its movement. An interdisciplinary research team from the University of Leeds and MedImmune, the global biologics research and development arm of AstraZeneca, developed a device that was able to apply extensional flow in the laboratory and used it to study the activity of proteins held in the fluid. The team found the method can lead to an increased likelihood that a wide-range of proteins including biopharmaceuticals would become less effective. Dr David Brockwell from the University of Leeds' Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology said while many tests existed to assess the effects of changes in temperature or pH on protein stability, this test gauged directly the effects of fluid flows used in manufacturing processes. Dr Brockwell said: "There are very few existing protein tests available to industry which actually examine how aggregation levels are related to manufacturing conditions. What we now have is a much more accurate way of predicting which proteins can be used in biopharmaceutical drug development and how processes could also be changed to improve their quality." Outside manufacturing, common examples of extensional flow include syringes administering liquefied drugs or the effect on water seen when gardeners put their finger over the end of a hosepipe. Proteins naturally fold into specific shapes in order to operate correctly, but extensional flow can cause them to stretch and unfold, making them less useful. Once they begin to unfold, proteins stick together, or aggregate, which can block sensitive factory equipment and decrease the effectiveness of the medicines they are contained in, and can even pose a danger to people. Preventing aggregation is thus an important criterion in the development and licensing of a new biopharmaceutical. To test the effects of extensional flow, engineers in the team (Professor Nik Kapur and PhD student John Dobson) developed a bench-top device able to very precisely control the strain exerted on proteins in fluid and the extent to which they unfolded. Using the new device to gather evidence, researchers (Dr Amit Kumar and Mr Leon Willis, led by Professor Sheena Radford and Dr Brockwell) were able to calculate exactly the extent of the protein aggregation, creating a new evidence base for industry. Dr Brockwell and his colleagues found the extent of aggregation was dependent on: The team also found that aggregation in a range of proteins was diverse and was particularly damaging to therapeutic proteins such as biopharmaceutical antibodies under conditions similar to those found in standard manufacturing processes. The evidence from the new device means the researchers and Medimmune can now demonstrate maximal levels of extensional flow which manufacturers could use for different processes, without damaging proteins. Dr Brockwell and his colleagues say that with their new evidence, companies could consider re-designing manufacturing techniques to reduce the pressures exerted on proteins through extensional flow, if they want to make their products reach market faster. Alternatively, instead of changing embedded production methods, the device could instead be used to identify individual protein groups which are resistant to the rigours of manufacture. "Biopharmaceutical drugs are a growing area of medical innovation, because of their success in treating a number of illnesses, but are very expensive to produce, so any innovation which drug companies can make to improve their costs will have a significant effect" he said. The results of the research, Inducing protein aggregation by extensional flow, are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal. Dr David Brockwell is available for interview, contact Peter Le Riche in the University of Leeds press office on 0113 3432049 or email firstname.lastname@example.org In contrast to the problems caused in manufacturing, extensional flow is beneficial in nature, where it triggers blood clotting and is used by spiders when they express the materials for their webs. The team's research also found that shear flow, another type of manufacturing process, did not cause proteins to unfold and lose their effectiveness.
News Article | April 5, 2017
The human body's peripheral nervous system could be capable of interpreting its environment and modulating pain, neuroscientists have established, after successfully studying how rodents reacted to stimulation. Until now, accepted scientific theory has held that only the central nervous system - the brain and spinal cord - could actually interpret and analyse sensations like pain or heat. The peripheral system that runs throughout the body was seen to be a mainly wiring network, relaying information to and from the central nervous system by delivering messages to the 'control centre' (the brain), which then tells the body how to react. In recent years there has been some evidence of a more complex role for the peripheral nervous system, but this study by the Hebei Medical University in China and the University of Leeds highlights a crucial new role for the ganglia, a collection of 'nodules'. Previously these were believed to act only as an energy source for messages being carried through the nervous system. In addition, researchers now believe they also have the ability to act as 'mini brains', modifying how much information is sent to the central nervous system. The five year study found that nerve cells within the ganglia can exchange information between each other with the help of a signalling molecule called GABA, a process that previously believed to be restricted to the central nervous system. The findings are published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation and have potential future implications for the development of new painkillers, including drugs to target backache and arthritis pain. Current pain relief drugs are targeted at the central nervous system and often have side effects including addiction and tolerance issues. The new research opens up the possibility of a route for developing non-addictive and non-drowsy drugs, targeted at the peripheral nervous system. Safe therapeutic dosage of these new drugs can also be much higher, potentially resulting in higher efficacy. Whilst the study showed a rodent's peripheral nervous system was able to interpret the type of stimulation it was sensing, further research is still needed to understand how sensations are interpreted and whether these results apply to humans. In addition, the theory would need to be adopted by drug development companies and extensively tested before laboratory and clinical trials of a drug could be carried out. Should the findings be adopted, a timescale of at least 15-20 years might be required to produce a working drug. Neuroscientist Professor Nikita Gamper, who led the research at both universities, said: "We found the peripheral nervous system has the ability to alter the information sent to the brain, rather than blindly passing everything on to the central nervous system. "We don't yet know how the system works, but the machinery is definitely in place to allow the peripheral system to interpret and modify the tactile information perceived by the brain in terms of interpreting pain, warmth or the solidity of objects. "Further research is needed to understand exactly how it operates, but we have no reason to believe that the same nerve arrangements would not exist in humans. "When our research team looked more closely at the peripheral system, we found the machinery for neuronal communication did exist in the peripheral nervous system's structure. It is as if each sensory nerve has its own 'mini-brain', which to an extent, can interpret incoming information." Co-author of the study, Professor Xiaona Du from Hebei Medical University, added: "This dramatically changes our understanding of pain medication because in theory it is now possible to target drugs at the peripheral nervous system which could widen the type of treatments available." Professor Gamper believes the findings may present a challenge to the accepted 'Gate Control Theory of Pain'. The theory holds that a primary 'gate' exists between the peripheral and central nervous systems, controlling what information is sent to the central system. The study now suggests the transmission of information to the central nervous system must go through another set of gates, or more accurately a process similar to a volume control, where the flow of information can be controlled by the peripheral nervous system. "Peripheral nerves have the ability to dial up or down the signal which goes through these gates to the brain", said Professor Gamper. "Importantly, we believe that these gates can be exploited for therapeutic control of pain." Dr Kathryn Adcock, Head of Neurosciences and Mental Health at the Medical Research Council, which part funded the work, said: "These findings are an interesting step in advancing scientists' understanding of the mechanisms underpinning pain perception. We are committed to supporting work such as this to aid the continued search for new and better pain treatments." Lishuang Cao, head of Membrane Physiology at GlaxoSmithKline R&D in Shanghai commented on this research: "This interesting finding could pave the way for developing novel pain medicines by targeting the peripheral GABA signaling pathway and at the same time avoiding or reducing the side effects of many existing pain killers. "Further work is needed to understand the physiological role of GABA in painful situations like inflammatory, neuropathic and chronic pain. More importantly we need to know if the same mechanism is present in human beings' peripheral nervous systems."
News Article | May 8, 2017
This process which can be highly damaging to bio-molecules, such as protein-based biopharmaceutical therapeutics, dissolved in the fluid, is known as 'extensional flow' and is occurs when the fluid rapidly accelerates its movement. An interdisciplinary research team from the University of Leeds and MedImmune, the global biologics research and development arm of AstraZeneca, developed a device that was able to apply extensional flow in the laboratory and used it to study the activity of proteins held in the fluid. The team found the method can lead to an increased likelihood that a wide range of proteins including biopharmaceuticals would become less effective. Dr David Brockwell from the University of Leeds' Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology said while many tests existed to assess the effects of changes in temperature or pH on protein stability, this test gauged directly the effects of fluid flows used in manufacturing processes. Dr Brockwell said: "There are very few existing protein tests available to industry which actually examine how aggregation levels are related to manufacturing conditions. What we now have is a much more accurate way of predicting which proteins can be used in biopharmaceutical drug development and how processes could also be changed to improve their quality." Outside manufacturing, common examples of extensional flow include syringes administering liquefied drugs or the effect on water seen when gardeners put their finger over the end of a hosepipe. Proteins naturally fold into specific shapes in order to operate correctly, but extensional flow can cause them to stretch and unfold, making them less useful. Once they begin to unfold, proteins stick together, or aggregate, which can block sensitive factory equipment and decrease the effectiveness of the medicines they are contained in, and can even pose a danger to people. Preventing aggregation is thus an important criterion in the development and licensing of a new biopharmaceutical product. To test the effects of extensional flow, Professor Nik Kapur and PhD student John Dobson from the Faculty of Engineering developed a bench-top device able to very precisely control the strain exerted on proteins in fluid and the extent to which they unfolded. Using the new device to gather evidence, researchers (Dr Amit Kumar and Mr Leon Willis, led by Professor Sheena Radford and Dr Brockwell) were able to calculate exactly the extent of the protein aggregation, creating a new evidence base for industry. Dr Brockwell and his colleagues found the extent of aggregation was dependent on: The team also found that aggregation in a range of proteins was diverse and was particularly damaging to therapeutic proteins such as biopharmaceutical antibodies under conditions similar to those found in standard manufacturing processes. The evidence from the new device means the researchers and Medimmune can now demonstrate maximal levels of extensional flow which manufacturers could use for different processes, without damaging proteins. Dr Brockwell and his colleagues say that with their new evidence, companies could consider re-designing manufacturing techniques to reduce the pressures exerted on proteins through extensional flow, if they want to make their products reach market faster. Alternatively, rather than changing embedded production methods, the device could instead be used to identify individual protein groups which are resistant to the rigours of manufacture. "Biopharmaceutical drugs are a growing area of medical innovation, because of their success in treating a number of illnesses, but are very expensive to produce, so any innovation which drug companies can make to improve their costs will have a significant effect," he said. The results of the research, Inducing protein aggregation by extensional flow, are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal. In contrast to the problems caused in manufacturing, extensional flow is beneficial in nature, where it triggers blood clotting and is used by spiders when they express the materials for their webs. The team's research also found that shear flow, another type of manufacturing process, did not cause proteins to unfold and lose their effectiveness. Explore further: Rapid screening machine can read and separate protein sequences More information: John Dobson et al. Inducing protein aggregation by extensional flow, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702724114
Gilbert H.J.,Northumbria University |
Knox J.P.,University of Leeds |
Boraston A.B.,University of Victoria
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013
Plant cell walls are complex configurations of polysaccharides that are recalcitrant to degradation. The enzymes deployed by microbes to degrade these materials comprise glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases and polysaccharide oxidases. Non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are found as discretely folded units within the multi-modular structures of these enzymes where they play critical roles in the recognition of plant cell wall components and potentiating the activity of the enzymes. Here we propose a refinement to the Types A, B, and C classification of CBMs whereby the Type A CBMs remain those that bind the surfaces of crystalline polysaccharides but the Type B CBMs are redefined as those that bind internally on glycan chains ( endo-type), CBMs that bind to the termini of glycan chains are defined as Type C modules ( exo-type). In this context, we discuss recent advances, primarily driven by structural studies, which reveal the molecular modes of CBM-sugar interactions and how this specifically underpins and influences the biological function of CBMs in cell wall recognition and degradation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.10 | Award Amount: 8.01M | Year: 2010
The Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA will be the first open facility for gamma-ray astronomy in the very-high-energy domain, with a performance which is dramatically improved over existing instruments in terms of sensitivity, energy coverage, survey capability and flexibility. CTA will probe non-thermal phenomena in the Universe known to have comparable energy content to other forms of energy such as thermal radiation both in our own Galaxy and at cosmological distances, addressing questions in astrophysics, astroparticle physics, particle physics, plasma physics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. The CTA preparatory phase CTA-PP will address a number of crucial prerequisites for the approval, construction and operation of CTA: > the set-up of a Project Office offering means for electronic communication as well as data storage and handling for documents of the whole consortium > the legal framework, governance schemes, and financial regulations for the following phases of CTA (pre-construction, construction and operation) > assuring funding for the pre-construction phase after termination of CTA-PP > the preparation of funding agreements between potential funding agencies > the preparation of negotiations with potential host countries for the CTA instrument > the detailed technical design and costing of the CTA observatory > the selection of sites for deployment negotiations, and detailing and cost-estimation of the required site infrastructure > the schemes for procurement and industry involvement in the technical design and construction of CTA > the required linking with relevant science communities regarding the detailed definition of the science program, the corresponding final optimisation of the observatory layout, and the definition of user services and data access. For CTA-PP, support is sought primarily for work on the legal, governance and financial issues, for the installation of a project office coordinating and supporting management of CTA-PP as well as the design of CTA and the planning of the implementation, and for studies regarding the optimisation and production of CTA components by industry. The ultimate delivery of CTA-PP will be a detailed implementation plan for the CTA infrastructure.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-1.2-1 | Award Amount: 9.98M | Year: 2011
The research programme will integrate diverse levels, methods and disciplinary traditions with the aim of developing a comprehensive policy agenda for changing the role of the financial system to help achieve a future which is sustainable in environmental, social and economic terms. The programme involves an integrated and balanced consortium involving partners from 14 countries that has unsurpassed experience of deploying diverse perspectives both within economics and across disciplines inclusive of economics. The programme is distinctively pluralistic, and aims to forge alliances across the social sciences, so as to understand how finance can better serve economic, social and environmental needs. The central issues addressed are the ways in which the growth and performance of economies in the last 30 years have been dependent on the characteristics of the processes of financialisation; how has financialisation impacted on the achievement of specific economic, social, and environmental objectives?; the nature of the relationship between financialisation and the sustainability of the financial system, economic development and the environment?; the lessons to be drawn from the crisis about the nature and impacts of financialisation? ; what are the requisites of a financial system able to support a process of sustainable development, broadly conceived?
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-29-2015 | Award Amount: 6.33M | Year: 2016
The HISENTS vision is to address the problem of the dearth of high-quality tools for nano-safety assessment by introducing an innovative multimodular high throughput screening (HTP) platform including a set of individual modules each representing a critical physiological function connected and integrated in a hierarchical vectorial manner by a microfluidic network. The increase of the capacity to perform nano-safety assessment will be realised by innovative instrumentation developments for HTP and high content analysis (HCA) approaches. Toxicogenomics on chip is also one embedded objective. Our interdisciplinary approach focuses on tools to maximise the read-across and to assess applicable endpoints for advanced risk assessment of nanomaterials (NM). The main goal is thus to establish individual chip-based microfluidic tools as devices for (nano)toxicity screening which can be combined as an on-line HTP platform. Seven different chip-based sensor elements will be developed and hierarchically combined via a flow system to characterise toxicity pathways of NM. The HISENTS platform allows the grouping and identifying of NM. Parallel to the screening, the pathway and interaction of NM in biological organisms will be simulated using the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Using the different sensor modules from the molecular to cell to organ level, HISENTS can input quantitative parameters into the PBPK model resulting in an effective pathway analysis for NM and other critical compounds. The developed platform is crucial for realistic nano-safety assessment and will also find extensive application in pharmaceutical screening due to the flexible modifications of the HTP platform. The specific objective is the development of a multimodular HTP platform as new a screening tool for enhancing the efficiency of hazard profiling. Currently, no such flexible, easy-to-use screening platform with flexibly combinable chip-based sensors is available on the market.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: HCO-06-2015 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2015
We aim to reduce the burden of tobacco-related lung diseases. Our approach is to integrate inexpensive tobacco cessation strategies of proven efficacy into TB control programmes. This has three advantages: a) Preventing non-communicable diseases as well as reducing TB-related deaths; b) TB patients are more likely to quit tobacco than healthy smokers teachable moments; and c) in the absence of specialist infrastructure, an approach to piggyback cessation on existing programmes is a desirable policy imperative. We will first assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tobacco cessation strategies in helping TB patients to quit and improving their TB outcomes - the effectiveness goal; and then explore how best these strategies can be delivered, sustained and scaled-up the implementation goal. We propose six work packages for Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan - high TB and tobacco burden countries. WP1 Development & Feasibility: To optimise the delivery of tobacco cessation strategies within TB programmes (focus group discussions [FGD], interviews, surveys, expert panel workshops) WP2 & 3 Effect and economic evaluation: To assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cytisine with behavioural support vs. behavioural support alone on tobacco cessation and TB outcomes (randomised controlled trial [RCT]) WP4 Process evaluation: To study the design and delivery of the tobacco cessation strategies (FGD, observations, exit interviews) WP5 Context evaluation: To study the influence of contextual factors on the RCT outcomes (lit. review, interviews, surveys, analysis) WP6 Scale up & Sustainability: To assess sustainability of the cessation strategies and identify the likely costs, obstacles and opportunities for scaling these up (FGD, interviews, cost and outcomes analysis) Our ambition is that by studying the real world influences on the implementation and success of tobacco cessation we will be able to translate our findings into benefits for patients.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.2 | Award Amount: 10.16M | Year: 2010
With the challenges of service and infrastructure providers as the point of departure, OPTIMIS focuses on open, scalable and dependable service platforms and architectures that allow flexible and dynamic provision of advanced services.\nThe OPTIMIS innovations can be summarized as a combination of technologies to create a dependable ecosystem of providers and consumers that will be the foundation of an efficacious operation of services and infrastructures. This includes innovations for optimizing the whole service lifecycle, starting from service construction. Trust, risk, eco-efficiency and cost are all crucial for optimizing deployment and execution, capturing the essence of the optimized cloud ecosystem produced by the trust on consumers and providers and the risk of not accomplishing specific ecological or economical goals. Adaptive self-preservation is key to meet predicted and unforeseen changes in resource requirements. Identification of new market roles and value activities calls for new business models and investigations of legal and regulatory aspects for governing cloud operation.\nPart of the OPTIMIS outcome will be architectures, an open specification, and a software toolkit for provisioning of sustainable IT services capable of satisfying key societal and economical needs. OPTIMIS will support the requirements of a variety of scenarios central to the next generation cloud service ecosystem by providing a toolkit with a set of key tools accompanied by reference architectures illustrating their use in a few scenarios of broad interest. The scenarios in focus are (1) service providers utilizing cloud bursting to complement local capacity for peak loads, (2) service providers making use of multiple clouds, and (3) infrastructure providers subcontracting resources in a cloud federation. A core of the OPTIMS Toolkit is the OPTIMIS Base Toolkit comprising tools for assessing and managing aspects of trust, risk, eco-efficiency, and cost.\nBy addressing the whole service lifecycle, taking into account the multitude of future cloud architectures, and a by taking a holistic approach to sustainable service provisioning, OPTIMIS provides a revolutionizing foundation for a reliable, sustainable, and trustful cloud market.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-26-2014 | Award Amount: 4.95M | Year: 2015
Most adults who try to lose weight fail to maintain it. Obesity is a key economic and healthcare challenge for Europe. Effective interventions and commercial programmes for weight loss are widely available, but most people re-gain their lost weight. Currently few comprehensive solutions exist to help Europeans manage weight loss maintenance (WLM). Current research suggests the most promising evidence-based behaviour change techniques for WLM are self-monitoring, goal setting, action control, building self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Recent research also suggests that stress management and emotion regulation skills are key enablers of relapse prevention and weight-regain. Information technology offers attractive tools for teaching and supporting these techniques, some of which are currently delivered through resource-intensive face-to-face therapies. ICT-delivery includes networked-wireless tracking technologies, weighing-scales and activity sensors, online tools and smart-phone apps, multi-media resources and internet-based support. A broad choice of tools is most likely to be acceptable to users, who can pick and choose their own preferred technologies. The NoHoW project tests whether ICT-based delivery of the most promising evidence-based behavior change techniques is effective for WLM. We will carry out a large-scale international 3-centre trial of information technology tools that implement the most up-to-date behavioural science research. This trial will establish the effectiveness of these ICT tools in supporting WLM, linked to studies of European consumer needs and behaviour. Impact: The project will directly feed results into development of new products and services from the UKs largest commercial weight-loss provider, Slimming World providing immediate benefit to 500,000\ consumers. Commercialisation of project results will provide much needed WLM services that promote health education and long-term weight management programmes.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 285.60K | Year: 2014
As software becomes ever more ubiquitous in our lives, the need to ensure it runs without error becomes ever more important. Restarting a phone is a simple, if inconvenient task; restarting an aeroplane in mid-flight is not an option! Correct by construction programming offers a revolutionary approach to program verification where programs can contain not just computations as is normal, but also logical proofs of the correctness of these computations. The simple fact that such programs compile provides formal, i.e. mathematical, guarantees of the correctness of the program. In particular, there is no need for post-hoc testing of software etc. Fundamental to the implicit marriage of computation and logic inherent within correct by construction programming is the choice of the right logical systems and concepts upon which programming languages ought to be built. This reflects the symbiotic relationship between logic, programming, and the design of programming languagesany attempt to sever this connection will diminish each component. This proposal brings together internationally leading researchers from both inside Europe and outside Europe to work on exactly what logical structures are needed for correct by construction programming and how those logical structures can then by turned into concrete programming artefacts. In order to produce fundamental work which stands the test of time, we work not with specific programming languages but with mathematical abstractions of them. The recent development of dependently typed programming languages capable of supporting correct by construction programming makes this a very timely proposal, while the billions spent on software every year makes the potential impact of this proposal very significant.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-01-2014 | Award Amount: 14.97M | Year: 2015
The goal of PRIMAVERA is to deliver novel, advanced and well-evaluated high-resolution global climate models (GCMs), capable of simulating and predicting regional climate with unprecedented fidelity, out to 2050. This capability will deliver innovative climate science and a new generation of advanced Earth System Models. Sector-specific end-users in policy and business will be identified and engaged individually, with iterative feedback, to ensure that new climate information is tailored, actionable and strengthening societal risk management decisions. These goals will be achieved through the development of coupled GCMs from seven groups across Europe, with sufficient resolution to reproduce realistic weather and climate features (~25km mesh size), in addition to enhanced process parameterisation. Thorough assessment will use innovative process-based metrics and the latest observational and reanalysis datasets. Targeted experimental design will reduce inter-model spread and produce robust projections, forming the European contribution to the CMIP6 High-Resolution Model Intercomparison Project, led by PRIMAVERA. It is the first time that high-resolution coupled GCMs will be used under a single experimental protocol. Coordination, and the underlying process-understanding, will significantly increase the robustness of our findings. Our new capabilities will be used to improve understanding of the drivers of variability and change in European climate, including extremes, since such regional changes continue to be characterised by high uncertainty. We will also explore the frontiers of climate modelling and of high performance computing to produce simulations with a reduced reliance on physical parameterisations. These will explicitly resolve key processes such as ocean eddies, and will include new stochastic parameterisations to represent sub-grid scale processes. These frontiers simulations will further our understanding of the robustness of climate projections.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2013
The CO2-REACT ITN has been created to address twin objectives: (1) to provide urgently needed training in CO2 storage preparing candidates for critical roles in the coming years and (2) to significantly advance our understanding of the fate and consequences of CO2 injection into the subsurface during carbon storage efforts. The CO2-REACT ITN addresses these objectives through a balanced combination of 6 academic and 6 industrial teams. The academic partners have been selected for their unique and diverse expertise in the reactivity of carbonate phases at scales ranging from the atomic to the field scale. The six industry partners were selected to represent a spectrum of the largest stakeholders in CO2 storage. By formally joining these teams, we are creating a training/research platform that is unique in the world in its ability to understand the fate and consequences of CO2 injected into subsurface reservoirs using an impressive array of experimental and modeling techniques. CO2-REACT aims to train 13 ESRs and 1 ER, through an integrated and coherent set of research and training activities that will significantly improve our understanding of the consequences of injecting CO2 into the subsurface. We chose this technical focus because: (1) new knowledge is essential for solving a critical societal problem, (2) the problem is interdisciplinary, requiring input from chemistry, geology, physics, chemistry, hydrology and engineering, (3) producing solutions that industry can implement will promote tight academia-industry collaboration, a true plus for the trainees and and 4) by focusing on a single theme, close interaction and collaboration among the CO2-REACT teams is fostered. An additional societal objective of CO2-REACT is help to raise public awareness to the needs, challenges and safety issues in subsurface CO2 storage through public outreach efforts.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-16-2014 | Award Amount: 15.99M | Year: 2015
Terrestrial and marine ecosystems provide essential services to human societies. Anthropogenic pressures, however, cause serious threat to ecosystems, leading to habitat degradation, increased risk of collapse and loss of ecosystem services. Knowledge-based conservation, management and restoration policies are needed to improve ecosystem benefits in face of increasing pressures. ECOPOTENTIAL makes significant progress beyond the state-of-the-art and creates a unified framework for ecosystem studies and management of protected areas (PA). ECOPOTENTIAL focuses on internationally recognized PAs in Europe and beyond in a wide range of biogeographic regions, and it includes UNESCO, Natura2000 and LTER sites and Large Marine Ecosystems. Best use of Earth Observation (EO) and monitoring data is enabled by new EO open-access ecosystem data services (ECOPERNICUS). Modelling approaches including information from EO data are devised, ecosystem services in current and future conditions are assessed and the requirements of future protected areas are defined. Conceptual approaches based on Essential Variables, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions allow for a deeper understanding of the Earths Critical Zone. Open and interoperable access to data and knowledge is assured by a GEO Ecosystem Virtual Laboratory Platform, fully integrated in GEOSS. Support to transparent and knowledge-based conservation and management policies, able to include information from EO data, is developed. Knowledge gained in the PAs is upscaled to pan-European conditions and used for planning and management of future PAs. A permanent stakeholder consultancy group (GEO Ecosystem Community of Practice) will be created. Capacity building is pursued at all levels. SMEs are involved to create expertise leading to new job opportunities, ensuring long-term continuation of services. In summary, ECOPOTENTIAL uses the most advanced technologies to improve future ecosystem benefits for humankind.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: NMP-31-2014 | Award Amount: 996.48K | Year: 2014
The SeeingNano project will create Novel Visualisation Tools for Enhanced Nanotechnology Awareness through a coordinated collaborative approach conducted by leading experts in the relevant fields: the target audiences identified in the proposal will be analysed by the consortiums socio-economic sciences and humanities, who - in collaboration with the consortiums state-of-the-art information visualisation partners - will elaborate and agree on the most appropriate tool to address the respective audiences. The scientific and technical content to be communicate through each tool to the respective audiences will be provided by experts from the nano-phenomena research community in collaboration with experts from the risk-communication and nanotoxicology community, in order to provide the key audiences with an ability to seeing at the nanoscale, and an understanding and awareness for the breadth of nanotechnologies, and the uncertainties and potential risks connected to them. The resulting tools are flexibly designed for customisation by the nanotechnology stakeholder community, and supported by guidance documents on (a) the socio-economic aspects of awareness-building exercises on nanotechnologies, (b) the science- and technology content and story boards on the nanotechnology-phenomena and their potential risks, and (c) the technical customisation of the tools provided. The It is the ultimate goal of the SeeingNano project to make available a public online SeeingNano exchange with visualisation tools, guidance and content for the enhancement of nanotechnology awareness-building exercises conducted by the nanotechnology stakeholder community. The backbone of this repository is formed by the SeeingNano output: a set of good-communication practices, developed and stress-tested within the project, supported by captivating customisable visualisation tools, to demonstrate the raising of awareness and understanding.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 534.06K | Year: 2014
The development of implantable prosthetics has revolutionised medicine. Where joint injury or destruction would once have once significantly reduced quality of life, to the detriment of a patients fitness and health, we can now almost fully restore function. The manufacturing methods used for the production of prosthetics are quite crude and often require the casting of metal into a mould before finishing by hand. As a consequence they are usually made to only a few different sizes and the resulting structures must be made to fit by the surgeon. This is acceptable for the majority of patients who require joint replacement, but there are some medical conditions that require very irregularly shaped (customised) structures to enable an adequate repair. For example, bone cancers often require extensive cutting away of the bone and this can leave a very large and irregular defect. Similarly the bone structure of the face and skull is very specific to an individual and when bone must be removed, again due to cancer or following physical damage. To restore physical appearance, it would be best if a clinician were able to generate a plate that could allow them to replace like for like. In this project, we will refine an Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technology called selective laser meeting (SLM) to allow us to produce implants that are individual to a patient. These technologies use lasers to fuse powder and create a three dimensional object in a layer by layer fashion. By taking three dimensional images (MRI and CT) from a patient, operators can design structures that will be able to directly replace tissue with the optimum shaped implant. In this project, we will work with doctors from the Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine to develop a process that we hope will eventually allow these clinicians to produce implants in their own hospitals or even on the front-line of a conflict and enable better treatment for their patients. As well as allowing the production of complex-shaped parts, ALM has another significant advantage over casting in that it allows the production of very complex porous structures within a material. This means that we can modify the physical properties of the material by incorporating holes or structured porosity into the structure. These holes can be sealed from the surface of the prosthesis, or can be linked to the surface using a network of even narrower holes. We would like to explore the use of this added manufacturing capability to make prosthetics with a very closely defined internal structure that is completely interconnected. A second, cement like, material can then be injected into the pore structure and will harden in place. This second phase can be used to modify mechanical properties or could be used as a carrier for drugs that may stop infection or help the tissue to heal. It is hoped that this modification could help us eliminate implant-based infections, which is the leading cause of failure following prosthetic implantation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: SPA.2011.1.5-02 | Award Amount: 27.65M | Year: 2011
MACC II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate Interim Implementation) is designed to meet the requirements that have been expressed for prototype operational GMES services for the atmospheric domain. From late-2011 MACC II will continue the operation and development of the GMES service lines established by the MACC project and prepare for its transition in 2014 to become the atmospheric monitoring component of GMES Operations. MACC II will prepare for full operations in terms of continuity, sustainability and availability. It will maintain and further develop the efficiency and resilience of its end-to-end processing system, and will refine the quality of the products of the system. It will adapt the system to make use of observations from new satellites, in particular the first of the atmospheric Sentinels, and will interface with FP7 RTD projects that contribute towards long-term service improvement. MACC II will ensure that its service lines best meet both the requirements of downstream-service providers and end users, and the requirements of the global scientific user community. The service lines will cover air quality, climate forcing, stratospheric ozone and solar radiation. MACC II will deliver products and information that support the establishment and implementation of European policy and wider international programmes. It will acquire and assimilate observational data to provide sustained real-time and retrospective global monitoring of greenhouse gases, aerosols and reactive gases such as tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide. It will provide daily global forecasts of atmospheric composition, detailed air-quality forecasts and assessments for Europe, and key information on long range transport of atmospheric pollutants. It will provide comprehensive web-based graphical products and gridded data. Feedback will be given to space agencies and providers of in situ data on the quality of their data and future observational requirements.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.23M | Year: 2013
WALL is a training network on the topic of domain walls in nanoscale magnetic structures, which will provide the next generation of researchers in this area of advanced technology. Domain walls (DWs) are the interfaces separating magnetic domains, their high speed manipulation in nanostructures will lead to the next generation of new and low power functional devices for computation and communication. The consortium that has come together to deliver this training is uniquely qualified to do so, consisting of world-leading experts on condensed matter physics and leading private companies, along with a range of associated partners spanning basic research, instrumentation development, industrial and consumer electronic products, and technology policy. The consortium provides a rich training environment that is both international and intersectoral, where our fellows will both study the cutting edge of science and technology in depth, but also come to appreciate the breadth of the field in terms of its intellectual challenges, commercial concerns, and relationship to societys need for ever more powerful information technologies with a reduced environmental footprint. This will enable them, in their future careers, to contribute to the strengthening of both the European Research Area and the European Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry, particularly GreenIT, an especially important and growing sector for EU development.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.8.1 | Award Amount: 12.60M | Year: 2012
Learning Layers develops a set of modular and flexible technological layers for supporting workplace practices in SMEs that unlock peer production and scaffold learning in networks of SMEs, thereby bridging the gap between scaling and adaptation to personal needs. By building on recent advances in contextualized learning, these layers provide a meaningful learning context when people interact with people, digital and physical artefacts for their informal learning, thus making learning faster and more effective. Building on mobile learning research, we situate learning into physical work places and practices to support situated, faster and more meaningful learning. Learning Layers provide a shared conceptual foundation independent of the tools people use and the context they are in. Learning Layers are based on a common light-weight, distributed infrastructure that allows for fast and flexible deployment in highly distributed and dynamic settings. We apply these technologies in sectors that have been particularly hesitant to take up learning technologies, i.e. health care and building and construction. Involving two representative and large-scale regional SME clusters allows us to involve end users in co-design of the system and later scale up the approach to more than 1,000 learners within 4 years. By inviting a larger set of stakeholders to adapt and build on our solutions and through research in sustainable business training models, the project will generate significant impact by boosting the ability of regional innovation systems to adapt to change and thereby remain competitive, on the individual, organisational and regional level. We demonstrate the impact in the two chosen sectors, but widen the scope to other sectors and regions towards the end of the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.82M | Year: 2012
Parasites exact a devastating toll on health and economic productivity, infecting man and also domestic livestock. Drugs used to combat parasitic diseases are deficient in many ways and new, better drugs are needed to establish sustainable means to combat diseases caused by protozoan parasites that include malaria, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis in man, and coccidiosis among others in animals. This ITN will train a new generation of European scientists in the requisites of preclinical drug discovery, combining academic excellence in innovation with industrial rigor and thus providing training from an industrial and academic perspective. The programme works on the premise that parasite metabolism offers a multitude of potential targets that can be exploited for drug design. Advances in genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and protein chemistry, alongside computational systems biology are integral to the activities of the network. The programme is populated with projects at all levels of the preclinical drug discovery cascade to ensure ESRs and ERs are exposed to requirements and aspects of every step of this process. Therefore aspects of drug design, medicinal chemistry and small molecule screening will also be central to the programme. ESRs will perform research in two different laboratories providing them with multidisciplinary intersectoral training that we consider essential for the development of a highly skilled, knowledgeable new generation of researchers capable of innovation and application of research in a research area of global importance to human health..
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: SPIRE-08-2015 | Award Amount: 11.09M | Year: 2015
IbD will create a holistic platform for facilitating process intensification in processes in which solids are an intrinsic part, the cornerstone of which will be an intensified-by-design (IbD). The IbD approach is hinged on the use of robust data about a process to redesign, modify, adapt and alter that process in a continuous, intensified system, and will be the new paradigm in the intensification of processes based on statistical, analytical and risk management methodologies in the design, development and processing of high quality safe and tailored chemicals, pharmaceuticals, minerals, ceramics, etc. under intensified processes. The IbD Project will deliver the EU process industry with an affordable and comprehensive devices-and-processes design-platform endeavoured to facilitate process intensification (PI), which specially targets -but is not limited to- solid materials processing. Five PI industry case studies will be implemented in mining, ceramics, pharmaceutical, non-ferrous metals and chemical processes using the IbD approach and to validate the IbD methodologies, tools, PI modules, control and fouling remediation strategies and the ICT Platform itself for the industrial implementation of PI in processes involving solids. The Platform includes design modules for the commonest intensified reactors-Rotating fluidized beds, micro-structured reactor and spinning disk, among others, as well as a generic Module Builder -equipped with a set of both proprietary and third-parties design tools- for designs carried out on the basis of radically novel ideas. The IbD Platform output is basically a data set that comprises the intensified reactor design -ready to be built or assembled-, an optimised whole process design including the upstream/downstream intensified unit operations and their solids handling capability, as well as cleaning methods, etc. and the expected economic and environmental quantitative impacts.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.3-1 | Award Amount: 13.58M | Year: 2013
SUN (Sustainable Nanotechnologies) is the first project addressing the entire lifecycle of nanotechnologies to ensure holistic nanosafety evaluation and incorporate the results into tools and guidelines for sustainable manufacturing, easily accessible by industries, regulators and other stakeholders. The project will incorporate scientific findings from over 30 European projects, national and international research programmes and transatlantic co-operations to develop (i) methods and tools to predict nanomaterials exposure and effects on humans and ecosystems, (ii) implementable processes to reduce hazard and exposure to nanomaterials in different lifecycle stages, (iii) innovative technological solutions for risk management in industrial settings, and (iv) guidance on best practices for securing both nano-manufacturing processes and nanomaterials ultimate fate, including development of approaches for safe disposal and recycling. In summary, SUN stands for an integrated approach for the long-term sustainability of nanotechnologies through the development of safe processes for production, use and end-of-life processing of nanomaterials and products, as well as methods reducing both adverse effects and exposure to acceptable levels.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SPIRE-06-2015 | Award Amount: 5.91M | Year: 2015
To pave the way forward for IS as a solution for more efficient processing and energy systems for the process industry, we will develop a secure ICT platform (SHAREBOX) for the flexible management of shared process resources that will provide plant operations and production managers with the robust and reliable information that they need in real-time in order to effectively and confidently share resources (plant, energy, water, residues, and recycled materials) with other companies in a symbiotic eco-system. A suite of new analysis and optimisation tools for flexible energy use and material flow integration will be developed for optimising symbiosis among companies. These tools will be based on input-output (IO) modelling for resource (waste and energy) supply-demand matching and process efficiency analysis (to understand physical and technological conditions), game theoretical (GT) approach for integrating company behaviour in cost-, benefit-, and resource-sharing (to understand economic conditions), and agent-based modelling (ABM) for designing the (economic, environmental, and social) optimal symbiotic network (to have the holistic optimum). The outputs from the SHAREBOX controller will provide plant and operations managers with commands for actions to be taken and/or recommendations for decision support. It will be ensured that all commands and recommendations a) fulfil plant operations requirements, b) are within the constraints of any contractual obligations, c) are in compliance with all regulatory thresholds, and d) deliver optimal impacts in terms of cost/savings and ecological footprints. The historical data that is generated by the SHAREBOX platform will be processed by data mining tools that will provide the production/process BIG DATA for symbiotic shared resources optimisation. The platform will be co-created, implemented and tested at 4 demo locations in EU, using realistic industrial streams and process conditions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-3-2015 | Award Amount: 31.03M | Year: 2015
The nations of Europe are distributed around some of the most complex and dynamic geological systems on the planet and understanding these is essential to the security of livelihoods and economic power of Europeans. Many of the solutions to the grand challenges in the geosciences have been led by European scientists the understanding of stratigraphy (the timing and distribution of layers of sediment on Earth) and the discovery of the concept of plate tectonics being among the most significant. Our ability to monitor the Earth is rapidly evolving through development of new sensor technology, both on- and below-ground and from outer space; we are able to deliver this information with increasing rapidity, integrate it, provide solutions to geological understanding and furnish essential information for decision makers. Earth science monitoring systems are distributed across Europe and the globe and measure the physico-chemical characteristics of the planet under different geological regimes. EPOS will bring together 24 European nations and combine national Earth science facilities, the associated data and models together with the scientific expertise into one integrated delivery system for the solid Earth. This infrastructure will allow the Earth sciences to achieve a step change in our understanding of the planet; it will enable us to prepare for geo-hazards and to responsibly manage the subsurface for infrastructure development, waste storage and the use of Earths resources. With a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) to be located in Rome (Italy), EPOS will provide an opportunity for Europe to maintain world-leading European Earth sciences and will represent a model for pan-European federated infrastructure.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.5. | Award Amount: 10.83M | Year: 2012
ECRIN is a distributed ESFRI-roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and it now applies for an ERIC status by 2011. The ERIC budget will be restricted to core activities required to enable provision of services, and the ECRIN-IA project is designed to expand ECRIN partnerships and impact beyond this core activity. Networking activities will promote pan-European expansion, capacity building, and partnership with other world regions, and address the funding issue (WP2). ECRIN-IA will develop e-services, education material to train professionals and patients associations, and communication with users, patients, citizens and policymakers (WP3). It will support the structuring and connection to ECRIN of disease-, technology-, or product-oriented investigation networks and hubs focusing on specific areas: rare diseases (WP4), medical device (WP5), nutrition (WP6). Transnational access activities will support the cost of multinational extension of clinical trials on rare diseases, medical device and nutrition selected by the ECRIN scientific board (WP7). Joint research activities are designed to improve the efficiency of ECRIN services, through the development of tools for risk-adapted monitoring (WP8), and the upgrade of the VISTA data management tool (WP9). This project will build a consistent organisation for clinical research in Europe, with ECRIN developing generic tools and providing generic services to multinational studies, and supporting the construction of pan-European disease-oriented networks, that will in turn act as ECRIN users and provide the scientific content. Such organisation will improve Europes attractiveness for industry trials, boost its scientific competitiveness, and result in better healthcare for European citizens.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: GV-6-2015 | Award Amount: 5.39M | Year: 2016
The automotive industry has made a substantial effort in recent years in developing powertrain technologies to improve fuel efficiency on Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs). Due to increasing road freight traffic, however, projections indicate that total HDV energy use and CO2 emissions are expected to remain stable at the current level over the long term, if no policy action is taken. This is clearly incompatible with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport by around 60% below 1990 levels by 2050. The overall objective of optiTruck is to further improve energy efficiency by at least 20% on Euro VI HDVs (40t). To achieve this, optiTruck will develop a global optimiser which brings together the most advanced technologies from powertrain control and intelligent transport systems, with a number of innovative and complementary elements to maximise the potential utilisation of individual innovations. Through real driving trials, optiTruck will demonstrate this objective, taking account road topography, traffic and weather condition, vehicle configuration and transport mission. optiTruck will develop a comprehensive impact assessment methodology to extend this local and small-scale demonstration to a wider evaluation to explore potential benefits of using the rich cloud data sources and powerful computing facilities for fast-than-real-time modelling and simulation. It will also take account of social equity, economic, and environmental factors in the assessment to address the main societal challenges for the sector. optiTruck will facilitate the creation of a global platform not only for exchanging existing knowledge between automotive industries, but also for promoting horizontal collaboration in new ways essential for wider uptake of energy saving solutions across the sector, Europe and the world, which is the ultimate goal the optiTruck partners strive to achieve within and beyond this project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.17 | Award Amount: 9.41M | Year: 2010
EXPEER will bring together, major observational, experimental, analytical and modelling facilities in ecosystem science in Europe. By uniting these highly instrumented ecosystem research facilities under the same umbrella and with a common vision, EXPEER will form a key contribution to structuring and improving the European Research Area (ERA) within terrestrial ecosystem research. EXPEER builds on an ambitious plant for networking research groups and facilities. The joint research activities will provide a common framework and roadmap for improving the quality, interaction and individual as well as joint performance of these infrastructures in a durable and sustainable manner. EXPEER will provide a framework for increased use and exploitation of the unique facilities through a strong and coordinated programme for Transnational Access to the infrastructures. Extensive outreach and collaboration with related networks, infrastructures as well as potential funding bodies will ensure that EXPEER will contribute with its key experiences to the shaping and designing of future research networks and infrastructures, and that it has full support from all stakeholders in reaching its long-term objectives. The establishment of the EXPEER Integrated Infrastructure will enable integrated studies of the impacts of climate change, land use change and loss of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems through two major steps: 1. Bringing together the EXPEER Infrastructures to enable collaboration and integration of observational, experimental and modelling approaches in ecosystem research (in line with the concept developed in ANAEE); 2. Structuring existing network of ecosystem observational, monitoring and experimental sites across Europe (LTER-Europe). Through its integrated partnership, uniting both the experimental, observational, analytical and modelling research communities, EXPEER has the multidisciplinary expertise and critical mass to integrate and structure the European long-term ecosystem research facilities providing improved services and benefits to the whole research community as well as the society in general.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.80M | Year: 2012
The MINSC Initial Training Network (ITN) is comprised of partners from first-rate universities and high-level industrial partners located in the United Kingdom, France, Denmark, Iceland, Germany, Norway, and Italy. The prime aims of this network is to provide research and training opportunities to a new generation of young fellows in fundamental and collaborative research projects related to the nucleation and growth of a series of relevant scale mineral systems in the absence or presence of inhibitors agents. The training will combine molecular level research with studies linked to clear industrial processes at the field-level. The ultimate goal is to better understand one of the highly relevant problems in oil, geothermal and food industrial processes: pipe clogging and surface corrosion by mineral scale precipitates during production. To achieve this, the network will combine training of early stage and experienced researchers in state-of-the-art techniques of mineral formation and characterization both in laboratory and industrial settings with research objectives that aim at quantifying the nucleation and growth of several mineral systems: carbonates, sulphates/sulphides, oxalates and silicates. Scaling can often be retarded via inhibitors but their role in affecting rates of formation of these minerals in solution, on surfaces as well as in real-world industrial settings (i.e., pipes, cores etc.) are unknown. We will determine these rates in laboratory experiments and implement and test these novel findings directly in industrial power plant systems. The prime industrially-driven science goal is twofold (a) to better understand what leads to the precipitation of a series of mineral scales causing a massive decrease in efficiency and increased cost for industrial processes (i.e., oil and gas production, geothermal energy, beer) and (b) to develop processes/inhibitors that can help mitigate and / or prevent scale formation in such environments.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 9.29M | Year: 2016
Atmospheric simulation chambers are the most advanced tools for elucidating processes that occur in the atmosphere. They lay the foundations for air quality and climate models and also aid interpretation of field measurements. EUROCHAMP-2020 will further integrate the most advanced European atmospheric simulation chambers into a world-class infrastructure for research and innovation. A co-ordinated set of networking activities will deliver improved chamber operability across the infrastructure, as well as standard protocols for data generation and analysis. Outreach and training activities will foster a strong culture of cooperation with all stakeholders and users. Collaborative links will be established with other environmental research infrastructures to promote integration and sustainability within the European Research Area. Cooperation with private sector companies will be actively promoted to exploit the innovation potential of the infrastructure by supporting development of scientific instruments, sensor technologies and de-polluting materials. Trans-national access will be extended to sixteen different chambers and four calibration centres. A new, upgraded data centre will provide virtual access to a huge database of experimental chamber data and advanced analytical resources. Joint research activities will enhance the capability of the infrastructure to provide improved services for users. Measurement techniques and experimental protocols will be further developed to facilitate new investigations on climate change drivers, impacts of air quality on health and cultural heritage, while also stimulating trans-disciplinary research. Advanced process models will be developed for interpretation of chamber experiments and wider use in atmospheric modelling. Overall, EUROCHAMP-2020 will significantly enhance the capacity for exploring atmospheric processes and ensure that Europe retains its place as the world-leader in atmospheric simulation chamber research.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-03-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.31M | Year: 2016
Joining up Users for Maximising the Profile, the Innovation and the Necessary Globalisation of JIVE (JUMPING JIVE) aims to prepare and position European Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) for the SKA era, and to secure the role of JIV-ERIC in the European and global landscape of Research Infrastructures. On a European scale, the proposed activities will raise the profile of JIVE among scientists and operators of radio-astronomical facilities, by widely advocating its science capabilities and its role as research infrastructure provider within the international radio astronomy community. These activities will focus on outreach and on reinforcing science cases for the next decade. New partnerships will be pursued, and in addition JIVE will expand its potential user base by offering geodetic and enhanced astrometric processing. Finally, the possibility of the International LOFAR Telescope using the same ERIC governance structure in the future will be investigated. With respect to global VLBI, the aim is to place JIV-ERIC in a leading role in the definition of scientific and technical standards in the SKA era. JIVE will take charge of a number of operational interfaces that will be essential for truly global VLBI, and establish close connections with the African VLBI Network and the SKA as the main strategic partners for the next decade.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.3-3 | Award Amount: 7.70M | Year: 2011
Modern lifestyle has dramatically changed the daily rhythms of life. Physical activity, diet and light exposure are no longer restricted to daytime hours, as technical and economical de-mands fuel the necessity to work outside usual working hours. Recent studies show that al-tered light exposure, shifted exercise patterns and untimely food intake following extended active periods into the night disturb the circadian clocks and severely disrupt endocrine and metabolic processes, contributing to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes/obesity. Especially shift workers constituting 20% of the European working population are affected by this prob-lem. Until now only few studies investigating circadian rhythm disturbances in the context of type 2 diabetes/obesity have been conducted in man. Within EuRhythDia a consortium of leading scientists supported by research-intensive SMEs aims to close this gap. The objective of the project is to achieve breakthroughs in the understanding of the causality between inner clock rhythm disturbances and the development of type 2 diabetes/obesity, and to verify whether re-setting the circadian clock through lifestyle interventions (exercise, diet, light exposure and melatonin intake) alters cardiometabolic risk to a clinically relevant degree. The project is based on shift workers as a model and combines genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, metabolomic, physiological, and clinical approaches. The consortium has direct access to well characterised human data incl. individuals predisposed to type 2 diabetes via LUPS co-hort. Additional small interventional and validation cohorts of shift workers and high risk juveniles will be recruited, and supportive animal studies will be conducted. Through the de-velopment of novel diagnostic assays enabling identification of patients at risk and elaboration of targeted prevention guidelines focusing on shift workers and juveniles, EuRhythDia will contribute to a positive impact on European citizens` health.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.4.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 8.67M | Year: 2011
Today, countries use a wide variety of methods to monitor the carbon cycle and it is difficult to compare data from country to country and to get a clear global picture. The current global observational and modelling capabilities allow us to produce estimates of carbon budget at different level (from local to global) but many uncertainties still remain. Decision makers need now more than ever systematic, consistent and transparent data, information and tools for an independent and reliable verification process of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. Therefore higher quality and quantity of CO2 and CH4 data, from different domains and with an enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, need to be collected by a globally integrated observation and analysis system. This can be obtained by the coordinated Global Carbon Observation and Analysis System that this project aims at designing, addressing the climate targets of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) toward building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for carbon. Specific objectives of the GEOCARBON project are: Provide an aggregated set of harmonized global carbon data information (integrating the land, ocean, atmosphere and human dimension) Develop improved Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation Systems (CCDAS) Define the specifications for an operational Global Carbon Observing System Provide improved regional carbon budgets of Amazon and Central Africa Provide comprehensive and synthetic information on the annual sources and sinks of CO2 for the globe and for large ocean and land regions Improve the assessment of global CH4 sources and sinks and develop the CH4 observing system component Provide an economic assessment of the value of an enhanced Global Carbon Observing System Strengthen the effectiveness of the European (and global) Carbon Community participation in the GEO system
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.4-2 | Award Amount: 3.79M | Year: 2012
The current approach to diagnosis and management of the rare disease systemic sclerosis (SSc) is based on American College of Rheumatology criteria with low sensitivity and few validated recommendations for the therapy of the disease and its manifold organ manifestations. To overcome these shortcomings, the DeSScipher project will use the multinational, prospective and open EUSTAR (Scleroderma Trials and Research group of the European League Against Rheumatism) SSc cohort based on the established MEDSonline database which covers >30 data items and will evolve into a multimodular tool to answer step-by-step all immanent questions in a long-term setting according to the nature of the disease. The resulting progress will address functionally disabling manifestations affecting the hands (digital ulcers and arthritis), and compare the efficacy and safety of off-label drugs in the treatment of vital organ manifestations. Specifically, the DeSScipher project will evaluate (i) the utility of a combination of easy-to-perform clinical and laboratory investigations in combination with capillaroscopy for identifying SSc patients at risk for the development of digital ulcers at an early stage (ii) the prevention and treatment of digital ulcers and hand arthritis in order to improve long-term disability and quality of life, (iii) the efficacy of different immunosuppressive agents in attenuating or inhibiting pulmonary fibrosis, (iv) the optimal treatment options for reducing morbidity and mortality of pulmonary hypertension and severe heart disease in SSc. Based on the results of these observational trials, the DeSScipher project will develop evidence-based clinical guidelines for the future management of adult and juvenile SSc to be disseminated widely and rapidly to physicians and patients. Novel outcome measures will also be provided as a basis for future clinical trials.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 14.94M | Year: 2010
AIM: To identify the molecular mechanisms characterizing cilium function, and the discrete perturbations associated with dysfunction caused by mutations in inherited ciliopathies, applying a systems biology approach. BACKGROUND: Cilia are microtubule-based, centriole-derived projections from the cell surface. They transduce extracellular signals and regulate key processes in which signals of the extracellular environment are translated into a cellular response, such as cell cycle control, Wnt signalling, Shh signalling and planar cell polarity. Disruption of cilium-based processes by mutations can cause very severe disorders. Many of these ciliopathies have overlapping phenotypes. There is evidence, that ciliary proteins are organized in cell/context specific complexes and/or in shared regulatory circuits in cilia of affected tissues. Yet, knowledge of the composition, wiring, dynamics and associated signaling pathways of the corresponding molecular building blocks and associated protein networks remains very limited. APPROACH: We propose here that ciliopathies can be considered systemically as specific perturbations in a versatile dynamically regulated multifunctional molecular machine. Mainly based on the comprehensive description of the ciliary interactome, quantitative functional assays as well as human genetic data derived from ciliopathy patients, we will generate a comprehensive stream of content-rich quantitative data towards systemic analysis of ciliar function. These data will be used to generate and validate discrete models that describe functional modules and regulatory circuits in the ciliome as well as predicting biological context specific features of cilia as well as perturbations leading to ciliopathies. This will enable us to 1) understand the systemic features of discrete ciliary functions, 2) scrutinize the molecular disease mechanisms of different overlapping ciliopathies, and 3) develop therapeutic strategies towards improved treatment.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: ICT-2013.9.9 | Award Amount: 72.73M | Year: 2013
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest challenges facing 21st century science. If we can rise to the challenge, we can gain profound insights into what makes us human, develop new treatments for brain diseases and build revolutionary new computing technologies. Today, for the first time, modern ICT has brought these goals within sight. The goal of the Human Brain Project, part of the FET Flagship Programme, is to translate this vision into reality, using ICT as a catalyst for a global collaborative effort to understand the human brain and its diseases and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The Human Brain Project will last ten years and will consist of a ramp-up phase (from month 1 to month 36) and subsequent operational phases.\nThis Grant Agreement covers the ramp-up phase. During this phase the strategic goals of the project will be to design, develop and deploy the first versions of six ICT platforms dedicated to Neuroinformatics, Brain Simulation, High Performance Computing, Medical Informatics, Neuromorphic Computing and Neurorobotics, and create a user community of research groups from within and outside the HBP, set up a European Institute for Theoretical Neuroscience, complete a set of pilot projects providing a first demonstration of the scientific value of the platforms and the Institute, develop the scientific and technological capabilities required by future versions of the platforms, implement a policy of Responsible Innovation, and a programme of transdisciplinary education, and develop a framework for collaboration that links the partners under strong scientific leadership and professional project management, providing a coherent European approach and ensuring effective alignment of regional, national and European research and programmes. The project work plan is organized in the form of thirteen subprojects, each dedicated to a specific area of activity.\nA significant part of the budget will be used for competitive calls to complement the collective skills of the Consortium with additional expertise.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.37M | Year: 2012
The main aim of the ENTICE proposal is to provide professional development in the multidisciplinary field of ENgineering Tribochemistry and Interfaces for IC Engines, capable to develop the new generation of clean and energy-efficient engines. It aims to train the next generation of researchers to work in diverse teams, to cross disciplinary and sectoral boundaries and apply advanced communication and information technologies to work across many scales of time and space. Detailed project objectives are: 1. To provide scientific and professional development to a highly motivated group of early stage researchers (ESRs) to address a number of key interdisciplinary research issues of great importance to the future of transport industries. 2. To facilitate and support scientific and professional development of two experienced researchers (ERs) to enable them to become the research leaders in two challenging interdisciplinary research areas. 3. To disseminate the knowledge and products developed through scientific research to industry, policy makers and the wider academic community for maximum impact of the research. 4. To initiate a sustainable long-term research, training and educational collaboration between the partners involved. Here we propose the development of a training network that brings together some of the key active research groups in Europe, with a leading international reputation, in complementary areas relevant to the fields of tribochemistry and interface design. A number of leading industrial companies, comprising of SMEs and LEs, will engage in training and facilitate the Transfer of Knowledge (ToK) to and from the industrial partner through research programmes for 12 ESRs and 2 ERs. The training programme proposed comprises two key elements; generic training to cover aspects of training required for future research leaders in academia and industry and on-the-job training which will include specialised project-specific skills and development.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.35M | Year: 2011
The focus of modern solid-state technology is currently shifting from the single property (electric, magnetic, and elastic) to a coupling of different fields where a coupled materials response can be either used for their characterization or as a basis of novel applications. In the last few years, it became clear that the coupled electromechanical response of the materials (i.e., mechanical deformation under applied electric bias) can be not only used as an universal tool for studying diverse materials classes at the nanoscale but is becoming indispensable for the development of next generation of multifunctional materials (piezoelectrics, ferroelectrics, multiferroics, ionic conductors, and polar biomaterials) and composites on their base. Novel nanoelectromechanical tools (Piezoresponse Force Microscopy - PFM, Electrochemical Strain Microscopy - ESM, and as well their combination with traditional Scanning Probe Microscopies - SPM) have been introduced for studying emergent materials and applications. This has recently led to the substantial progress in the development of novel multiferroics, photovoltaic, biopiezoelectrics and battery materials. The emergent field of nanoelectromechanics requires coordinated action at the European level as further progress in this field largely relies on the education and dissemination of best practices in application of PFM/ESM to a large number of functional materials NANOMOTION is intended to train the next generation of engineers and technologists in the fundamental aspects of the nanoelectromechanics, to apply advanced PFM/ESM tools to study a wide range of functional materials in collaboration with interested industrial partners and to create a European-based pool of researchers in this area.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.2.1.4-2 | Award Amount: 7.72M | Year: 2012
The aim of CASCADE is to obtain a better understanding of sudden ecosystem shifts that may lead to major losses in biodiversity and ecosystem services, and to define measures that can be used to prevent such shifts. The focus of CASCADE is explicitly on drylands as being one of the most fragile and threatened ecosystems in Europe. CASCADE will investigate the historical evolution of dryland ecosystems in six Mediterranean study sites, and improve understanding of the biogeochemical mechanisms underlying sudden and catastrophic shifts through a combination of experimentation and modeling. Experiments in laboratory and field will be used to assess the biogeochemical processes that are thought to underlie regime shifts in drylands, to study the interplay between competition and facilitation, and to assess the effects of biotic and abiotic processes on vegetation structure and composition. Field surveys will identify changes in ecosystem structure and functions that indicate approaching or crossing of tipping points, link these findings to experimental results, and assess potentials for restoration. Models will be developed to describe regime shifts in the studied drylands in terms of changes in vegetation composition, abundance and spatial patterning. Based on both experimentation and modelling, CASCADE will develop management schemes for sustainable resource use and conservation of ecosystem services. By combining physical with socio-economic modeling, measures will be defined that work from an ecological as well as a socio-economic perspective. The results of CASCADE will be made accessible to natural resource and biodiversity managers, policy makers, and other audiences, using a variety of dissemination methods such as reports, booklets, newsletters, meetings, videos, and TV. All project results and recommendations will be stored and made accessible to the public by developing a web-based harmonized CASCADE information system (CASCADIS).
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-2-4-02 | Award Amount: 7.82M | Year: 2010
Plant food supplements, or botanicals, have high acceptance by European consumers. Potentially, they can deliver significant health benefits, safely, and at relatively low costs. New regulations and EFSA guidance are also now in. However, concerns about safety, quality and efficacy of these products remain, and bottle-necks in risk and benefit assessments need to be solved. PlantLIBRA (PLANT food supplements: Levels of Intake, Benefit and Risk Assessment) aims to foster the safe use of food supplements containing plants or herbal extracts, by increasing science-based decision-making by regulators and food chain operators. To make informed decisions, competent authorities and food businesses need more quality-assured and accessible information and better tools (e.g., metadatabanks). PlantLIBRA is structured to develop, validate and disseminate data and methodologies for risk and benefit assessment and implement sustainable international cooperation. International cooperation, on-spot and in-language capacity building are necessary to ensure the quality of the plants imported in the EU. PlantLibra spans 4 continents and 23 partners, comprising leading academics, Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises, industry and non-profit organizations. Through its partners it exploits the databases and methodologies of two Network of Excellences, EuroFIR and Moniqa. Plantlibra will also fill the gap in intake data by conducting harmonized field surveys in the regions of the EU and apply consumer sciences to botanicals. Existing composition and safety data will be collated into a meta-databank and new analytical data and methods will be generated. The overarching aim is to integrate diverse scientific expertise into a single science of botanicals. PlantLIBRA works closely with EFSA since several PlantLIBRA partners or experts are involved in the relevant EFSA Working Groups, and also plans shoulder-to-shoulder cooperation with competent authorities and stakeholders.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-AG | Phase: ERC-AG-PE9 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2013
Stars like our Sun and planets like our Earth form in dense regions within interstellar molecular clouds, called pre-stellar cores (PSCs). PSCs provide the initial conditions in the process of star and planet formation, but large uncertainties exist concerning basic astrophysical processes and parameters, such as surface chemistry, the cosmic-ray ionization rate, the H2 ortho-to-para ratio, the abundance of atomic Oxygen and metals. In current models, these parameters/processes are typically fixed to some canonical values and variations across PSCs are neglected. With the new generation of telescopes and the advances in radiative transfer and dynamical/chemical modelling, the time has now come to develop theoretical models without highly uncertain parameters. PCSs are dark, cold and quiescent. They are the simplest units in the process of star formation. Thus, they provide a unique opportunity for the study of fundamental astrophysical processes in a calm environment, just before the battering of the protostellar storm. For this reason, PSCs can be used as ideal laboratories to refine our understanding of how stars and planets form. With this advanced grant fellowship, I plan to connect state of the art dynamical and chemical models and test them against detailed observations of prototypical PCSs to first deliver parameters and processes that are needed to understand basic physical mechanisms. I will then explore in detail the formation, evolution and physical/chemical structure of PSCs in different environments. Finally, with the help of ALMA data, I will focus on the central few thousands AU and study the first steps toward the formation and early evolution of proto-planetary disks (PPDs). This is sorely needed to enable us to understand the initial conditions in the process of star and planet formation and to link PSCs with PPDs, currently studied by different communities, with the ultimate aim of understanding our chemical/physical heritage.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.4.1-3 | Award Amount: 14.22M | Year: 2011
ENCCA aims to establish a durable, European Virtual Institute clinical and translational research in childhood and adolescent cancers that will define and implement an integrated research strategy and will facilitate the necessary investigator-driven clinical trials to introduce the new generation of biologically targeted drugs into standard of care for children and adolescents with cancer. This will lead to more efficacious and less toxic therapies that will maximise the quality of life of the increasing number of survivors of cancer at a young age in Europe and allow them to assume their proper place in society. This biologically-driven research agenda will improve training of the clinical investigators and translational scientists of the future to spread excellence, increase capacity to participate in research and monitor outcomes across Europe. Patients and their families will be full partners and will be better informed about the need for and processes of clinical research. They will be in a better situation to care from their long term health risks for children. Drug development will be accelerated in partnership with industry through improved access to young patients with cancer, to academic expertise in care, clinical and biological research. All of this will be achieved with respect for the highest ethical and patient safety standards. ENCCA will bring all stakeholders to the table in a timely and efficacious manner. It will address the needs of all the current multinational clinical trial groups for the benefit of children with cancer. It will provide them with common tools and approaches to solve the bottlenecks in testing new therapeutic strategies for those rare diseases in a vulnerable age group and in running a competitive clinical research agenda. Ongoing efforts to coordinate EU and US clinical research will be reinforced. ENCCA will be led by the most active EU institutes in the field (31), recognised as being at the forefront of excellence.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-COG | Phase: ERC-CoG-2014 | Award Amount: 2.27M | Year: 2015
Severe droughts in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010 caused widespread loss of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere. This loss, almost twice the annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the EU, suggests a large sensitivity of the Amazonian carbon balance to a predicted more intense drought regime in the next decades. This is a dangerous inference though, as there is no scientific consensus on the most basic metrics of Amazonian carbon exchange: the gross primary production (GPP) and its response to moisture deficits in the soil and atmosphere. Measuring them on scales that span the whole Amazon forest was thus far impossible, but in this project I aim to deliver the first observation-based estimate of pan-Amazonian GPP and its drought induced variations. My program builds on two recent breakthroughs in our use of stable isotopes (13C, 17O, 18O) in atmospheric CO2: (1) Our discovery that observed C in CO2 in the atmosphere is a quantitative measure for vegetation water-use efficiency over millions of square kilometers, integrating the drought response of individual plants. (2) The possibility to precisely measure the relative ratios of 18O/16O and 17O/16O in CO2, called 17O. Anomalous 17O values are present in air coming down from the stratosphere, but this anomaly is removed upon contact of CO2 with leaf water inside plant stomata. Hence, observed 17O values depend directly on the magnitude of GPP. Both C and 17O measurements are scarce over the Amazon-basin, and I propose more than 7000 new measurements leveraging an established aircraft monitoring program in Brazil. Quantitative interpretation of these observations will break new ground in our use of stable isotopes to understand climate variations, and is facilitated by our renowned numerical modeling system CarbonTracker. My program will answer two burning question in carbon cycle science today: (a) What is the magnitude of GPP in Amazonia? And (b) How does it vary over different intensities of drought?
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.3-3 | Award Amount: 49.52M | Year: 2013
The innovative and economic potential of Manufactured Nano Materials (MNMs) is threatened by a limited understanding of the related EHS issues. While toxicity data is continuously becoming available, the relevance to regulators is often unclear or unproven. The shrinking time to market of new MNM drives the need for urgent action by regulators. NANoREG is the first FP7 project to deliver the answers needed by regulators and legislators on EHS by linking them to a scientific evaluation of data and test methods. Based on questions and requirements supplied by regulators and legislators, NANoREG will: (i) provide answers and solutions from existing data, complemented with new knowledge, (ii) Provide a tool box of relevant instruments for risk assessment, characterisation, toxicity testing and exposure measurements of MNMs, (iii) develop, for the long term, new testing strategies adapted to innovation requirements, (iv) Establish a close collaboration among authorities, industry and science leading to efficient and practically applicable risk management approaches for MNMs and products containing MNMs. The interdisciplinary approach involving the three main stakeholders (Regulation, Industry and Science) will significantly contribute to reducing the risks from MNMs in industrial and consumer products. NANoREG starts by analysing existing knowledge (from WPMN-, FP- and other projects). This is combined with a synthesis of the needs of the authorities and new knowledge covering the identified gaps, used to fill the validated NANoREG tool box and data base, conform with ECHAs IUCLID DB structure. To answer regulatory questions and needs NANoREG will set up the liaisons with the regulation and legislation authorities in the NANoREG partner countries, establish and intensify the liaisons with selected industries and new enterprises, and develop liaisons to global standardisation and regulation institutions in countries like USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Russia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.1-1 | Award Amount: 13.24M | Year: 2012
Recent advances in our understanding and forecasting of climate and climate change have brought us to the point where skilful and useful predictions are being made. These forecasts hold the potential for being of great value for a wide range of decision-makers who are affected by the vagaries of the climate and who would benefit from understanding and better managing climate-related risks. However, such climate information is currently under-used, mis-used, or not used at all. Therefore there exists the opportunity to develop new technologies to properly exploit emerging capability from the climate community, and more importantly, to engage with the users of such technologies to develop useful and useable tools. The EUPORIAS project will develop and deliver reliable predictions of the impacts of future climatic conditions on a number of key sectors (to include water, energy, health, transport, agriculture and tourism), on timescales from seasons to years ahead. The project will do this through a strong engagement with the forecast providers and the users/decision-makers, who are both represented within the project. EUPORIAS will develop climate services and tools targeted to the needs of the users, and will share knowledge to promote the technologies created within the project. EUPORIAS will also improve the users understanding of their vulnerability to varying climatic conditions as well as better prepare them to utilise climate forecasts, thereby reducing risks and costs associated with responding to varying climatic conditions. As a result businesses, governments, NGOs, and society in general will be able to better manage risks and opportunities associated with varying climatic conditions, thus becoming more resilient to the variability of the climate. The project will provide the basis for developing a strong climate service market within Europe, offering the opportunity for businesses to capitalise on improved management of weather and climate risks.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: IoT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 25.43M | Year: 2017
Automated driving is expected to increase safety, provide more comfort and create many new business opportunities for mobility services. The market size is expected to grow gradually reaching 50% of the market in 2035. The IoT is about enabling connections between objects or things; its about connecting anything, anytime, anyplace, using any service over any network. There is little doubt that these vehicles will be part of the IoT revolution. Indeed, connectivity and IoT have the capacity for disruptive impacts on highly and fully automated driving along all value chains towards a global vision of Smart Anything Everywhere. In order to stay competitive, the European automotive industry is investing in connected and automated driving with cars becoming moving objects in an IoT ecosystem eventually participating in BigData for Mobility. AUTOPILOT brings IoT into the automotive world to transform connected vehicles into highly and fully automated vehicle. The well-balanced AUTOPILOT consortium represents all relevant areas of the IoT eco-system. IoT open vehicle platform and an IoT architecture will be developed based on the existing and forthcoming standards as well as open source and vendor solutions. Thanks to AUTOPILOT, the IoT eco-system will involve vehicles, road infrastructure and surrounding objects in the IoT, with a particular attention to safety critical aspects of automated driving. AUTOPILOT will develop new services on top of IoT to involve autonomous driving vehicles, like autonomous car sharing, automated parking, or enhanced digital dynamic maps to allow fully autonomous driving. AUTOPILOT IoT enabled autonomous driving cars will be tested, in real conditions, at four permanent large scale pilot sites in Finland, France, Netherlands and Italy, whose test results will allow multi-criteria evaluations (Technical, user, business, legal) of the IoT impact on pushing the level of autonomous driving.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.39M | Year: 2011
Plant cell walls constitute a highly complex and dynamic entity of extreme importance in plant growth and development. Growing cell walls can be considered as fibre composites, where cellulose microfibrils are embedded in a matrix of complex glycans. It is becoming increasingly apparent (i) that cell wall glycans are diverse in structural terms, (ii) that these structures are developmentally regulated, and (iii) that not all cell walls in an organ are comprised of the same configurations of glycans. The architecture of plant cell walls is governed by the fine structure of their constitutive polymers, this fine structure having profound effects on polymers functional properties after extraction or in planta. The immense complexity and spatial & temporal versatility of cell wall glycans render a full understanding of their structure-function relationships extremely challenging for plant biology research and for the uses of cell wall-derived materials in industrial contexts. WallTraC has thereby two major interlinked strategic objectives: (i) To develop new molecular tools & techniques for the analysis of plant cell walls & their component polymers - mainly pectin and cellulose - with direct applicability to industrial end-users in the functional food ingredients & plant fibre sectors; (ii) To provide high quality, inter-sectorial & trans-disciplinary training in plant cell wall analysis & complementary skills with the aim of enabling young scientists to respond to future demands in both academic and private sectors thereby securing the future EU expertise base. The WallTraC consortium gathers leading researchers on plant cell walls from the private sector, universities & research centres and will provide world-class infrastructures for research & training. This network of scientists, from distinct but complementary disciplines, will collectively allow the dissection of plant cell wall structures as a prelude to their industrial exploitation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.3.1-5 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2012
The aim of the SME-driven COATIM consortium is to tackle the increasing problem of infections due to biofilms, groups of microorganisms that stick together on different surfaces within the human body and escape conventional antibiotic treatment. Biofilms are typically found on medical devices like implants. The most recent generation of implants with open porosity enable fast osseointegration, but also present an increased risk of microbial biofilm-associated infection. Biofilm-associated infections are responsible for 15-25% of implant failure, and necessitate burdensome and costly revision surgery. The latter is estimated to represent a supplementary medical cost of 800m/year in Europe without taking into account the pain and distress of the patients, indicating that any significant reduction of this type of implant failure is highly recommended. Until now, biocidal implant coatings have been developed that are based on either the release of silver ions, which are toxic upon accumulation, or on conventional antibiotics that have poor activity against microorganisms in biofilms. Therefore, COATIM aims to develop the next generation of implant coatings containing novel potent proprietary antibiofilm molecules (ABMs) with inhibitory activity against microbial biofilms. In COATIM, these ABMs are grafted or deposited on small titanium implant substrates, as a model for dental and orthopaedic implants. Next, the ABM-coated implants are evaluated for in vitro and in vivo activity in resisting microbial infection without compromising osseointegration. Finally, the ABM-coating is applied on complex orthopaedic and dental implants, allowing the exploitation of the results by industry. In parallel, the antibiofilm mode of action of the ABMs is unraveled. COATIM contributes to a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, sustainable development, and serves the needs of the SME-intensive medical technology products market in Europe.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 3.79M | Year: 2011
The proposal addresses the workforce deficit in sub-Saharan countries in Africa by improving the overall performance of the workforce. Management strengthening activities will be tested to identify what improvements can be made within available resources in decentralised management structures. The management strengthening activities will develop integrated approaches to improving workforce performance based on a situation analysis and monitor the impact on workforce performance and on unintended systems effects. New knowledge will be developed on the effectiveness of an action-based approach to management strengthening and what strategies improve health workforce performance in different contexts.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 4.57M | Year: 2011
Our knowledge of the causative links between subsurface processes, resulting unrest signals and imminent eruption is, today, wholly inadequate to deal effectively with crises of volcanic unrest. The VUELCO project consortium has come together for a multi-disciplinary attack on the origin, nature and significance of volcanic unrest from the scientific contributions generated by collaboration of ten partners in Europe and Latin America. Dissecting the science of monitoring data from unrest periods at six type volcanoes in Italy, Spain, the West Indies, Mexico and Ecuador the consortium will create global strategies for 1) enhanced monitoring capacity and value, 2) mechanistic data interpretation and 3) identification of reliable eruption precursors; all from the geophysical, geochemical and geodetic fingerprints of unrest episodes. Experiments will establish a mechanistic understanding of subsurface processes capable of inducing unrest and aid in identifying key volcano monitoring parameters indicative of the nature of unrest processes. Numerical models will help establish a link between the processes and volcano monitoring data to inform on the causes of unrest and its short-term evolution. Using uncertainty assessment and new short-term probabilistic hazard forecasting tools the scientific knowledge base will provide the crucial parameters for a comprehensive and best-practice approach to 1) risk mitigation, 2) communication, 3) decision-making and 4) crisis management during unrest periods. The VUELCO project consortium efforts will generate guidance in the definition and implementation of strategic options for effective risk mitigation, management and governance during unrest episodes. Such a mechanistic platform of understanding, impacting on the synergy of scientists, policy-makers, civil protection authorities, decision-makers, and the public, will place volcanic unrest management on a wholly new basis, with European expertise at its peak.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 11.46M | Year: 2013
Clouds are a very important, yet not well understood feedback factor in climate change and they contribute to the effective radiative forcing (ERF) from aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). The uncertainty in ERFaci is larger than for any other forcing agent. Also, feedbacks between the terrestrial and marine biosphere and the atmosphere involving ACI are thought to play an important role in regulating climate change but their relevance remains poorly quantified. BACCHUS proposes to quantify key processes and feedbacks controlling ACI, by combining advanced measurements of cloud and aerosol properties with state-of-the-art numerical modelling. The analysis of contrasting environments will be the guiding strategy for BACCHUS. We will investigate the importance of biogenic versus anthropogenic emissions for ACI in regions that are key regulators of Earths climate (Amazonian rain forest) or are regarded as tipping elements in the climate system (Arctic). BACCHUS will generate a unique database linking long-term observations and field campaign data of aerosol, cloud condensation and ice nuclei and cloud microphysical properties; this will enable a better quantification of the natural aerosol concentrations and the anthropogenic aerosol effect. BACCHUS will advance the understanding of biosphere aerosol-cloud-climate feedbacks that occur via emission and transformation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, primary biological aerosols, secondary organic aerosols and dust. Integration of new fundamental understanding gained in BACCHUS in Earth Systems Models allows to reduce the uncertainty in future climate projections. This will have a direct impact on decision-making addressing climate change adaptation and mitigation. BACCHUS brings together a critical mass of experimentalists and modellers with the required scientific expertise to address these complex topics and a high commitment to communicate their findings in many ways in order to ensure a high-impact project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-23-2014 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2015
ADVOCATE brings together top principal investigators from prestigious universities, the public sector, and the private sector to address the most common diseases affecting humanity, as measured by the recent Global Burden of Disease Study. ADVOCATE strives to optimise delivery of oral health and wellbeing to the population in EU Member States. This requires a change in oral health care delivery towards prevention. The change will be achieved by developing a model that promotes a preventive rather than restorative oral health care system: The oral health care model 2020. As the oral health care delivery system is not as overly complex as other health care systems, the oral health care model 2020 may serve as a blueprint for other health care system reforms. The development of this model requires intensive information exchange and engagement of stakeholders to establish a set of key-indicators. These indicators will be used to benchmark health care performance on practice as well as system level. Two types of evidence-based indicators will be selected: Quantitative and qualitative indicators that allow measuring and influencing of either intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation incentives towards a patient centred, resilient and prevention oriented oral health care system. ADVOCATE will test this model in a natural environment, and provide evidence-informed policy measures towards its implementation, both for oral health care systems as well as other health care systems. Given the comprehensiveness of the topic, ADVOCATE uses a targeted approach that is entirely focused on the five major root-causes underlying the current suboptimal performance of oral health care systems. Moreover, ADVOCATE has confirmed access to data of eight European oral health care databases; it is well connected to existing initiatives and networks, and has ample support from preventive oriented industry, as exemplified by the financial support provided for the final conference.
Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 636.76K | Year: 2014
Great advances have been made in the development of proto-cells based on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). However, one essential functional element of all living cells still to be incorporated into such systems is a glycocalyx. This coating of complex carbohydrates extends up to 100 nm from the cell membrane and provides an adhesive layer that mediates interactions between different cell types, viruses and signalling molecules. In most cases, these interactions involve specific carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) which may be either soluble or membrane-bound. For example, fertilisation is initiated by a specific carbohydrate on the surface of the egg adhering to a specific lectin on the head of the sperm. Protein-carbohydrate interactions also mediate the endocytosis of many bacteria, viruses and bacterial toxins which stick to specific glycolipids on the cell membrane. Protein-carbohydrate interactions thus present a general strategy for enabling cell adhesion and cell entry. In this project we will design and create a modular toolbox of synthetic glcocalyx components and engineered lectins that will be attached to lipid membranes to enable reversible proto-cell adhesion and incorporated into virus-like particles to mediate proto-cell entry. The methodology will be exemplified through the construction of proto-cells that contain proto-organelles and the assembly and remodelling of proto-tissues in which multiple types of proto-cells are brought together in a pre-defined fashion to create more complex systems.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SPACE | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2014
MACC-III is the last of the pre-operational stages in the development of the Copernicus Atmosphere Service. Its overall institutional objective is to function as the bridge between the developmental precursor projects - GEMS, PROMOTE, MACC and MACC-II- and the Atmosphere Service envisaged to form part of Copernicus Operations. MACC-III will provide continuity of the atmospheric services provided by MACC-II. Its continued provision of coherent atmospheric data and information, either directly or via value-adding downstream services, is for the benefit of European citizens and helps meet global needs as a key European contribution to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the encompassing Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Its services cover in particular: air quality, climate forcing, stratospheric ozone, UV radiation and solar-energy resources. MACC-IIIs services are freely and openly available to users throughout Europe and in the world. MACC-III and its downstream service sector will enable European citizens at home and abroad to benefit from improved warning, advisory and general information services and from improved formulation and implementation of regulatory policy. MACC-III, together with its scientific-user sector, also helps to improve the provision of science-based information for policy-makers and for decision-making at all levels. The most significant economic benefit by far identified in the ESA-sponsored Socio-Economic Benefits Analysis of Copernicus report published in July 2006 was the long-term benefit from international policy on climate change. Long-term benefit from air quality information ranked second among all Copernicus benefits in terms of present value. Immediate benefits can be achieved through efficiency gains in relation to current policies. The estimated benefits substantially outweigh the costs of developing and operating the proposed services.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.09M | Year: 2012
Eye research has often blazed a trail for other disciplines to follow, giving a lead in neuroscience, genetics, the development of gene- and stem-cell therapies and other important areas of medical research. In recent years, geneticists have made many remarkable discoveries of relevance both to normal human vision and the development of inherited retinal pathology. However the genes and mutations identified account for only a proportion of cases of inherited retinal degeneration, and recent discoveries hint at new classes of mutations which are either largely undetected or the significance of which is missed by conventional genetics. In addition, for those genes implicated there often remains a black box between mutations and disease; how do defects in a given protein manifest symptoms in the eye and what underlies the huge variation in symptoms, severity and response to treatment? The objectives of EyeTN are twofold; to address these knowledge gaps through cutting edge research using novel techniques, including transcriptomics analyses, whole genome and single target RNAi, the development of animal and cell-based disease models, stem cell biology, bioinformatics and hands on experience of pharmaceutical research with direct translational targets; and to give the next generation of European ophthalmic researchers unparalleled opportunities to train with a consortium of the best inherited blindness research labs in the world. The Network spans academic, healthcare and commercial research sectors and is already well established with many existing collaborations. All fellows will carry out one or more components of their research and training in a commercial environment and attend a workshop on translating ideas and discoveries into commercially viable Bioscience produces and therapies, fostering an entrepreneurial mindset and ensuring that we train a pool of researchers who are able to communicate effectively with both academic and commercial bioscience colleagues.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.30 | Award Amount: 9.70M | Year: 2011
The central objective of this ESMI proposal is to create a top-level interdisciplinary research infrastructure available to a broad European materials research community. This is of crucial importance to the EU in view of the European strategy for nanosciences and nanotechnology and its implementation report that identifies a lack of leading interdisciplinary infrastructures. ESMI offers the most important experimental and synthesis techniques and combines world-class infrastructures with cutting edge scientific expertise through a sophisticated networking programme. The anticipated JRA will further improve the existing infrastructure. Computer simulations being of increasing importance for the understanding and prediction of complex materials, ESMI offers access to simulation groups and their advanced tools. The availability of such an infrastructure will provide soft matter scientists with a broad choice of techniques to address their scientific objectives. It will result in a quantum leap in research opportunities and assure that European scientists have a world-class collaborative capability for their frontier research. ESMI will strongly contribute to a fundamental understanding, allowing the development of new, tailored smart materials. ESMI follows the FP6 experience of the NoE SoftComp. A key feature developed within SoftComp is the highly successful Research Platforms offered to its members, anticipating the spirit of the EU Integrated Infrastructure Initiative. ESMI will promote the SoftComp experience to the European materials community, reflecting the EU recommendations that FP6 collaborative projects may well lead to new European infrastructures. Together with a platform for disseminating the results and educating a new generation of young soft matter scientists, ESMI represents an important added value to the European Research Area in nanoscience, nanotechnology and materials science
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.83M | Year: 2013
Seed quality is of paramount importance to agriculture, food security and the conservation of wild species. Considerable economic losses result from sub-optimal seed performance, undermining food security and livelihoods. Seed quality is strongly influenced by the environmental stresses experienced by the mother plant. Climate change will further exacerbate economic losses and decrease the predictability of seed yield and quality for the farmer. The looming challenges of climate change and food security require new knowledge of how stress impacts on seed quality, as well as a re-appraisal of optimal storage conditions. EcoSeed addresses these challenges by bringing together a group of distinguished European experts in seed science and converging sciences to characterise seed quality and resilience to perturbation. EcoSeed combines state-of the-art omics, epigenetics, and post-omics approaches, such as nuclear and chromatin compaction, DNA repair, oxidative and post-translational modifications to macromolecules, to define regulatory switchboards that underpin the seed phenotype. Special emphasis is placed on the stress signalling hub that determines seed fate from development, through storage, germination and seedling development, with a particular focus on seed after-ripening, vigour, viability and storability. Translation of new knowledge gained in model to crop and wild species is an integral feature of EcoSeed project design, which will create a step-change in our understanding of the regulatory switchboards that determine seed fate. Novel markers for seed quality and new omics information generated in this project will assist plant breeders, advise the seed trade and conservationists alike. In this way, EcoSeed will not only be proactive in finding solutions to problems of ensuring seed quality and storability but also play a leading role in enabling associated industries to better capture current and emerging markets.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.1-3 | Award Amount: 7.56M | Year: 2012
Climate change can disrupt ecological, social and economic systems, with some regions and sectors suffering significantly. Therefore, adaptation plays a paramount role in responding to climate change. Progress has been made, but there are still important obstacles. Knowledge of the benefits and costs of adaptation is sparse, unsystematic and unevenly distributed across sectors and countries. Planning suffers from substantial uncertainties in terms of precise impacts. It is also difficult to reconcile the bottom-up nature of adaptation with top-down strategic policy making on adaptation. To address these challenges BASE will: Improve adaptation knowledge availability, integration and utilization Case studies will be used to understand facilitators of, and barriers to, adaptation. Over 20 cases have been selected to cover the diversity of adaptation, simultaneously paying attention to the need for generalization and comparability. The gap between top-down strategic assessments of costs and benefits and empirical context-sensitive bottom-up analyses will be bridged using novel combinations of models and qualitative analyses. Promote and strengthen stakeholder participation in adaptation BASE will support stakeholder involvement through novel participatory and co-design techniques. Successful bottom-up initiatives will be studied, and the use of knowledge, two-way learning, the role of social media and other awareness raising methods and tools will be explored. Support coherent, multi-level, multi-sector integrated adaptation policies BASE will provide policy guidelines by integrating lessons from past experiences, case studies, insights provided by modeling and stakeholder participation. Issues of multilevel, cross sectoral and inter-temporal governance that are presently weakly tackled will be highlighted. Potential conflicts and synergies of adaptation with other important policies will be explored to overcome constraints caused by context-related inertias.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT.2013.8-1. | Award Amount: 3.42M | Year: 2013
The PoLaRBEAR (Production and Analysis Evolution For Lattice Related Barrel Elements Under Operations With Advanced Robustness) project focuses on reliable novel composite aircraft structures based on geodesic technology aiming at a significant higher Robustness and Technology Readiness Level (TRL). While the global structural behavior of composite geodesic structures is investigated and understood in a top-down approach in EU-ALaSCA, PoLaRBEAR will follow up in a bottom-up approach on local level analyzing the geodesic structures in terms of in-operation demands for higher TRL. The main objectives of this research proposal are: Industrial highly automated process for cost efficient barrel manufacturing Advanced reliability of geodesic structures under operational loads Design rules for robust grid structures The aim is to promote a competent cooperation in the development of light, low-cost airframe fuselage structures made with a new generation of composite materials and based on geodesic / iso-grid technologies under operations. The proposal will enhance the cooperation in research and in innovation between the European Union and the Russian Federation in the field of civil transport aircraft.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.47M | Year: 2011
Regenerative Medicine (use of cells and tissue to replace or heal impaired functions in the body, RM) is one of the fastest growing areas in todays medicine, and has the potential to offer treatment to patients with diseases that are currently untreatable. In many new areas of RM there is however a need to improve the outcome of RM concepts and technologies for it to become a viable option to traditional medicine, or even to motivate the risk of clinical trials and treatments. One of the main problems in several RM areas is that a large portion of the cell and tissue material is lost or made dysfunctional during and shortly after transplantation and that the transplant does not connect to the host tissue as a functional new graft. The specific scientific objective of this project is twofold: 1) to clinically test and prove that Corline Heparin Surfaces (CHS) can be used to protect donated human insulin producing cells that are transplanted to severe cases of Diabetes Type 1 patients, and 2) to broaden the application of the technology and show that the CHS technology can function as a protective and revascularization promoting technology for other Regenerative Medicine areas. The goal is to show CHSs further applicability to Liver Cell therapy, Xeno transplantation of Islet of Langerhans and to Tissue Engineering In addition to the detailed scientific objective, this project has a specific technological objective. The technological objective of this project is to, in partnerships with the participating SMEs, improve European top grade clinical Regenerative Medicine products by combining them with the CHS technology, transferring the application knowledge and integrating the CHS technology into the partners cell and tissue production processes, and to set up a reliable sourcing chain with supply and production of reagents and tissue products to end-user.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-3.4-2014 | Award Amount: 5.01M | Year: 2015
Cyclists suffer a disproportionate share of serious injuries and fatalities, and indeed in recent years that disadvantage has been growing. At the same time they often are not treated equally by traffic systems (e.g. traffic signals frequently fail to register their approach or presence). XCYCLE has the aim of developing the means to equalise the treatment of cyclists in traffic and thus both encourage cycling and make cycling safer. XCYCLE will develop: technologies aimed at improving active and passive detection of cyclists; systems informing both drivers and cyclists of a hazard at junctions; effective methods of presenting information in vehicles and on-site; cooperation systems aimed at reducing collisions with cyclists. Two relevant use cases would be bicycle interaction with large vehicles and cars at intersections and the provision of an immediate or extended green traffic light for cyclists approaching traffic signals. An in-vehicle detection system and a system of threat mitigation and risk avoidance by traffic signals will be developed. The components developed and built up will be systematically integrated, implemented and verified. A new large-scale research infrastructure in the city of Braunschweig (DE) and a second test mobile platform will be used as test site. A demo bicycle with a cooperative technology will be developed and tested as well. A user-centred approach will be adopted. Behavioural evaluation will part of the whole process: attentional responses using eye tracking data; evaluation of human-machine interface; acceptance and willingness to pay. In the Cost-Benefit Analysis behavioural changes will be translated into estimated crashes and casualties saved per system. The project will contribute to innovative and efficient advanced safety measures to reduce the number of accidents, often of high severity, involving cyclists in interaction with motorised vehicles.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2010-2.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.48M | Year: 2011
The aim of this project is to analyse how local welfare provision affects the labour market participation of women, and how female employment in turn affects the life-course (of women and men), structures of inequality, social cohesion and hence the sustainability of the European social model. Two types of welfare provision have been singled out to be of major importance for female employment: care (both for children and elderly care) and human capital investments (vocational training and life-long learning). The coverage and quality of services, the welfare mix (public, private and in between), partnerships, and governance structures most favourable for the employment of women and social cohesion will be identified based on a comparison of eleven cities in eleven European countries. The project will analyse the political autonomy of local political actors vis--vis national and EU policy making, including culture as an important explanatory variable. Culture is included in two dimensions: First, womens disposition to participate on the labour market is seen as culturally embedded, while cultural ideals and values play an important role in how policies are perceived and rendered practically useful by women (thus definitions of the good mother vary socially and geographically, whereby some mothers, for instance, would prefer not to use day-care facilities but instead take care of their children themselves). Second, local cultural values and belief systems condition creativity among political actors and stakeholders, and thus impact on local policies, which may divert from national or international intentions. The project will thus provide a basis for understanding how culture may constrain the transferability of best practices from one country/locality to another. Overall this project will pave the way for evidence based urban policy recommendations for local welfare system improvement in order to enhance economic growth, female employment and social cohesio
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-04 | Award Amount: 8.53M | Year: 2014
The DROPSA consortium will create new knowledge and understanding of the damage and losses of fruit crops resulting from pests and pathogens, with a specific focus on the new and emerging threats due to Drosophila suzukii and quarantine pathogens Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas fragariae and X. arboricola. The project will deliver a cost effective approach that can be widely implemented by the EU fruit industry. The aims and objectives are to: Determine the pathways of introduction and spread of D. suzukii and pathogens into the EU and develop preventative strategies and recommendations against the introduction of other dangerous fruit pests and pathogens. Determine the biology, ecology and interaction of these pests and diseases in different regions of Europe. This will involve a comprehensive evaluation of the life cycles, host ranges, capacities to disperse, the identification of natural enemies, plant-pathogen interactions as well as the semiochemicals involved in the behaviour of D. suzukii. The biology will provide the platform to develop practical solutions for sustainable pest control. Develop innovative and effective control options using approved chemicals, semiochemicals, novel antimicrobial compounds and biological control agents as well as cultural practices, sterile insect techniques and new mode of action compounds. The most reliable and effective control options will be combined to optimise an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. Develop forecasting and decision support systems and risk mapping as a component of IPM. The economic viability of proposed strategies for fruit crop protection will be evaluated and used to support decision making in the implementation of IPM strategies to protect the EU fruit sector. To protect intellectual property (IP) and to undertake dissemination and exploitation actions to maximise the impact and up take of the recommended IPM by commercial fruit growers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2013-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 2.15M | Year: 2013
The skills in nuclear chemistry are of strategic, as well as immediate, importance for the maintenance of European nuclear operations. The demand for these skills would not decrease even if Europe decides to phase out its nuclear energy because they are even more indispensable for decommissioning the nuclear installations than for their operation, and a substantial demand for these skills exists in non-energy sectors. The CINCH-II project will be a direct continuation of the CINCH-I project; its main objectives, expected to have the broadest impact to the target groups, are further development and implementation of the EuroMaster in Nuclear Chemistry, completion of a pan-European offer of modular training courses for the customers from the end users, development of a Training Passport in Nuclear Chemistry and preparing the grounds for the ECVET application in nuclear chemistry, implementation of modern e-learning tools developed in CINCH-I and further development of new tools for the distance learning, laying the foundations of a Nuclear Chemistry Education and Training Platform as a future sustainable Euratom Fission Training Scheme (EFTS) in Nuclear Chemistry, or development of methods of raising awareness of the possible options for nuclear chemistry in potential students, academia and industry. The CINCH-II project will mobilise the identified existing fragmented capabilities to form the critical mass required to implement the courses and meet the nuclear chemistry postgraduate education and training needs, including the high-level training of research workers, of the European Union. The CINCH-II consortium includes partners from all key European nuclear countries; both academia and national nuclear laboratories are represented, supported by an outer shell of Associated Partners. Networking on the national level and with existing platforms in Europe, such as the ENEN, as well as in the non-European countries will be an important feature of the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.2-01 | Award Amount: 7.65M | Year: 2012
The main objective of the BACCHUS project is to develop tools and resources that will facilitate the generation of robust and exploitable scientific evidence that can be used to support claims of a cause and effect relationship between consumption of bioactive peptides and polyphenols, and beneficial physiological effects related to cardiovascular health in humans. To achieve this, the BACCHUS consortium has assembled 12 leading Research & Technological centres and 16 SMEs (with ca 30% of the EC requested contribution allocated to the SMEs). BACCHUS thus contains SMEs directly involved in developing food products and pursuing health claims, experts in health claims legislation and the EFSA review process, and academic and industry partners who provide high quality food and health research that can underpin health claims. Existing SME-developed products that have clear potential for obtaining favourable opinions for health claims have been selected as test cases for study. These have been aligned with a series of work-packages each of which addresses key aspects of the EFSA health claim evaluation process (legislation and dossiers; product/bioactive characterisation; habitual intakes; bioavailability; mechanisms and biomarkers; clinical trials evidence of health benefit) that will deliver tools, processes and high quality original science. Scientific results and best practice guidelines will be made publically available and thus support future claims for industry. The scope and completeness of the existing bioactive database (eBASIS) that includes both compositional and biological effects data will be extended and developed as a sustainable tool with various training materials. All outcomes will be disseminated broadly by direct engagement with SMEs via an existing European SME association, with stakeholders via seminars, newsletters and press releases, as well as through traditional scientific routes (high quality publications, and conference presentations).
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 11.32M | Year: 2013
StratoClim will produce more reliable projections of climate change and stratospheric ozone by a better understanding and improved representation of key processes in the Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere (UTS). This will be achieved by an integrated approach bridging observations from dedicated field activities, process modelling on all scales, and global modelling with a suite of chemistry climate models (CCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs). At present, complex interactions and feedbacks are inadequately represented in global models with respect to natural and anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosol precursors and other important trace gases, the atmospheric dynamics affecting transport into and through the UTS, and chemical and microphysical processes governing the chemistry and the radiative properties of the UTS. StratoClim will (a) improve the understanding of the microphysical, chemical and dynamical processes that determine the composition of the UTS, such as the formation, loss and redistribution of aerosol, ozone and water vapour, and how these processes will be affected by climate change; (b) implement these processes and fully include the interactive feedback from UTS ozone and aerosol on surface climate in CCMs and ESMs. Through StratoClim new measurements will be obtained in key regions: (1) in a tropical campaign with a high altitude research aircraft carrying an innovative and comprehensive payload, (2) by a new tropical station for unprecedented ground and sonde measurements, and (3) through newly developed satellite data products. The improved climate models will be used to make more robust and accurate predictions of surface climate and stratospheric ozone, both with a view to the protection of life on Earth. Socioeconomic implications will be assessed and policy relevant information will be communicated to policy makers and the public through a dedicated office for communication, stakeholder contact and international co-operation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.3-04 | Award Amount: 4.45M | Year: 2013
Optilfel has as its ultimate goal to contribute to elders health by combating denutrition due to both physical capacities diminution and appetite loss. The concept of Optifel is to translate the knowledge on nutritional needs, food preferences and physical capacities into accurate specifications for food products and packaging. Food products (including packaging and food serving methods) will then be elaborated using both traditional and alternative technologies to meet these specifications and their acceptance tested by elderly. The population targeted by the project is elderly persons cooking at home or making use of meal-on-wheels services for whom the project will conceive food products adapted to their taste, habits, needs and constraints. The range of solutions envisaged span from taste and texture to nutritional quality, and microbial safety through packaging and delivery mode. Optifel will test the approach on fruit and vegetable products, which traditionally constitute a high part of elderly diet, offer great variety, and are amenable to texture manipulation. Optifel aims to - collect, refine and formalise user needs and expectations in terms of sensory and nutritional quality, texture, packagings cognitive and biomechanical ergonomics, and preparation convenience. - translate elders and caregivers needs and expectations into food products and packaging functional specifications to be delivered under the form of conceptual food models. - design and develop food processing and packaging to produce prototypes fulfilling the specifications. - assess the actual properties of the prototypes after food preparation and identify criticalpoints during final preparation and serving. - test the prototype products in meals-on-wheels and in nursing homes to evaluate their acceptance by elderly persons and care-givers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.31 | Award Amount: 8.95M | Year: 2011
Nanoscale objects interact with living organisms in a fundamentally new manner, ensuring that a fruitful marriage of nanotechnology and biology will long outlast short term imperatives. Therefore, investment in an infrastructure to drive scientific knowledge of the highest quality will have both immediate benefits of supporting the safety assessment of legacy nanomaterials, as well as pointing towards future (safe) applications with the lasting benefits to society. There are immediate priorities, for few doubt that serious damage to confidence in nanotechnology, unless averted, could result in missed opportunities to benefit society for a generation, or more. QNano will materially affect the outcome, at this pivotal moment of nanotechnology implementation. The overall vision of QNano is the creation of a neutral scientific & technical space in which all stakeholder groups can engage, develop, and share scientific best practice in the field. Initially it will harness resources from across Europe and develop efficient, transparent and effective processes. Thereby it will enable provision of services to its Users, and the broader community, all in the context of a best-practice ethos. This will encourage evidence-based dialogue to prosper between all stakeholders. However, QNano will also pro-actively seek to drive, develop and promote the highest quality research and practices via its JRA, NA and TA functions, with a global perspective and mode of implementation. QNano will also look to the future, beyond the current issues, and promote the growth and development of the science of nanoscale interactions with living organisms. By working with new and emerging scientific research communities from medicine, biology, energy, materials and others, it will seek to forge new directions leading to new (safe, responsible, economically viable) technologies for the benefit of European society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2011.4.0-2 | Award Amount: 14.75M | Year: 2012
The NeTTUN 54M project will enable groundbreaking change in the construction, management and maintenance of tunnels in pursuit of the goals of NMP.2011.4.0-2 via 9 focussed WPs addressing key scientific and technical challenges: (i) a multi-sensor ground prediction system for TBMs to enable effective look-ahead during boring; (ii) a robotic maintenance system that enables automation of inspection and exchange of drag bits and disc cutters; (iii) the design of cutter tools with increased lifetime; (iv) a system for modelling of global risks on tunnel projects in order to quantify and manage uncertainties; (v) systems for modelling and controlling the impact of tunnelling on surrounding structures; (vi) a Decision Support system for tunnel maintenance management. The improvements enabled by this work programme will enhance every aspect of the lifecycle of tunnelling: from design, to construction, and maintenance of Europes extensive tunnel legacy. Each of the 21 partners in the NeTTUN Consortium Industrial, Research and Development and SME has been invited to participate because of unique scientific expertise and tunnelling sector experience. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, a French top-level engineering school involved in international research, will be the NeTTUN project coordinator. NFM, the French Tunnel Boring Machine manufacturer, will manage the scientific and technical aspects of the project. Both these organisations will work as a team. NeTTUN project results will impact the tunnelling industry by enlarging business perspectives, with productivity increase; delivering underground operations with zero impact on surroundings; answering societal needs by improving safety; and strengthening competitiveness of European industry. The Consortium will demonstrate project results on the site of Metro Line C construction under Romes ancient monuments, as well as with OHL on the Guadalquivir, and Razel on the Frjus Tunnels. Dissemination, Exploitation and Gender Equality Committees will ensure the Consortiums activities and successful project results are promoted to the target audiences of the general public, the tunnelling industry and education and academic sectors.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.6.5 | Award Amount: 24.19M | Year: 2014
AdaptIVe will enhance the performance and improve the acceptance of automated driving of cars and trucks. The project develops new and integrated automated functions to improve traffic safety by minimizing the effects of human errors and to enhance traffic efficiency by smoother flows and reduced congestion.The approach is based on a shared control concept, assuring proper collaboration between the driver and the automation system. This is realised using cooperative vehicle technologies, advanced obstacle sensors and adaptive schemes where the level of automation dynamically responds to the situation and driver status.The project will demonstrate and evaluate eight advanced vehicles seven cars and one truck with various combinations of automated functions. These implementations will be based on the needs of different environments and levels of traffic complexity, including motorways, urban scenarios and close-distance manoeuvres. Several common features developed in these vehicles will establish fundamental building blocks for the future exploitation of automated driving, in terms of architecture, fault-tolerance, and human factors. Communication technologies will be employed as a key enabler of highly automated schemes supporting cooperative traffic and improving road safety.In addition to the technological and ergonomic aspects, AdaptIVe will address important legal issues that might impact on the successful market introduction of automated systems; in particular product liability and road traffic laws. It will identify the legal implications for manufacturers and drivers and examine the need for corresponding changes in regulation.By demonstrating these results, AdaptIVe will significantly improve the knowledge base for automated driving and strengthen the position of European industries in the area of Intelligent Vehicles and road safety.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SPIRE-01-2014 | Award Amount: 5.88M | Year: 2015
The Process Industries require a high degree of automation, monitoring, and advanced simulation and control for their often complex manufacturing processes and operations. Emphasis is on continuous or batch production, mixing, reaction and separation of materials of higher value. Indeed, increased globalisation and competition are drivers for process analytical technologies (PAT) that enable seamless process control, greater flexibility and cost efficiency. ProPAT aims to develop novel sensors and analysers for providing measurements on composition, particle size and local bulk properties, as well as more traditional but smart sensors for measuring other process parameters, such as temperature, flowrate, pressure, etc., and integrate them into a versatile global control platform for data acquisition, data processing & mining and User Interface in order to measure properties of process streams and products, accurately and in real-time. The platform also provides self-learning and predictive capabilities aimed for dramatically reducing overcosts derived from even slight deviations from the optimum process. Low cost MEMS-NIR spectroscopic and granulometric analysers, smart sensors for in batch and in continuous processes will be developed and integrated into the global control platform with the chemometric tools and the predictive software to deliver an integrated process control platform. ProPAT will enable near real time closed-loop process control to operate industrial processes at their optimum, both economically and environmentally, while ensuring high levels of quality. It will also allow the uptake of the Quality by Design for continuous process improvement. The project results will be validated in different processes and applications including milling of minerals, ceramics, metals, mixing and granulation of pharma products and polymerization of resins, and will represent a major step forward towards more efficient, reliable and sustainable industrial operation
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CSA-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.5.3 | Award Amount: 999.38K | Year: 2014
There is increasing realisation amongst policy makers and industry that public acceptance is a key issue to deploy and extend H2 technologies and infrastructures in Europe. The development of H2 technologies involve small-scale applications as well as large-scale infrastructures that are influenced by the acceptance of the public, stakeholders, communities and potential customers / users. Previous research on social acceptance investigated the general levels of public understanding of HFC technologies in specific countries, but there is limited systematic evidence on the acceptance of FCH technologies throughout Europe. The overall purpose of HYACINTH is to gain deeper understanding of social acceptance of H2 technologies across Europe and to develop a communication / management toolbox for ongoing or future activities introducing H2 into mobility, stationary and power supply systems. Social acceptance of FCH technologies will be investigated via survey research with representative panels (7.000 European citizens) and semistructured interviews with 455 stakeholders in 10 countries. The design of the data gathering instruments will build upon methodological and conceptual developments in the research of new technologies social acceptance. The toolbox will provide the necessary information and understanding of the state of awareness and acceptance of HFC technologies by the public and by stakeholders. It will further provide the necessary tools to understand and manage expectations of future HFC projects and products in the transition phase, to identify regional challenges and to determine effective policy support measures Results from the research on the social acceptance across Europe and the toolbox will support projects in setting up under through consideration of the acceptance processes influenced by their activities; i.e. identifying regions of supportive acceptance, barriers, challenges, communication strategies and other means to manage acceptance processes
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY 2013.2.3.2 | Award Amount: 6.54M | Year: 2013
European Commission plans for wind energy development by 2020, highlights a fully competitive onshore wind power with 20% penetration. One of the better opportunities to fulfil this aim is the integration of small and medium wind turbines into urban and peri-urban environments, due to the potential market given. However, nowadays there are several barriers) that have relegated the Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) sector to stand as a minority choice among the renewable energy options. SWIP project expects to suppose a critical burst to the expansion of SWTs in Europe and worldwide. SWIP aims to develop, implement and test innovative solutions and components for tackling the current barriers the technology have, opening the way for a successful market uptake in the near future. These cutting-edge technology improvements will result in an important reduction of maintenance costs (near 40%), an increase in 9% in SWTs performance, the mitigation and/or elimination of noise and vibrations, likely reducing final users investment. All in all, SWIP will provide a new methodology for wind resource assessment in urban areas with a maximum of 8% RMS error in speed prediction. The whole development performed within the project, will be supported on the basis of aesthetical design and integration into urban environments, as well as scalability of solutions, as main drivers for project success. Three pilots for testing different solutions and different urban applications are envisaged. In order to achieve these goals, a well-balanced consortium, including ten different nationalities is given. The project is industrially driven, mainly by SMEs, which are the main actors in the small wind energy market. These five SMEs will provide their experience and knowledge, supported by a large company with expertise in the sector and 5 best in class research institutions. Finally, a public authority and an European Economic Interest Group closes SWIP competitive consortium.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-3 | Award Amount: 2.24M | Year: 2011
In sub-Saharan Africa health improvement remains a major development challenge. A growing evidence base demonstrates that health systems must be strengthened to secure progress in addressing mortality and tackling disease burdens. Yet there is a dearth of African research to support such action. African Ministers of Health and international agencies have, therefore, called for accelerated development of relevant research. At present, relatively few African scientists work in the field of health policy and systems (HPS) research and few African universities offer relevant training programmes. And although such research derives its utility largely from its ability to inform decision-making, interactions between the research and policy communities are generally weak and policy makers are often unaware of, or uninterested, in relevant research. The development of sustained African HPS research capacity, thus, requires the consolidation and strengthening of relevant research and educational programmes, as well as the development of stronger engagement between the policy and research communities. CHEPSAA will address both of these issues. Its goal is to extend sustainable African capacity to produce and use high quality HPS research. It builds on and expands the work of an existing HPS capacity development partnership among seven African universities, drawing in the support of four European universities with particular expertise in this field. During its lifetime it will: review capacity development needs amongst the African organizations and their national networks; strengthen African skills and organisational capacity to support HPS research and training; extend existing training programmes provided by the African participants; and support the development of excellent academic teaching and research networks both to sustain national and regional demand for HPS training and research, and to facilitate the use of research in policy making.
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.10M | Year: 2015
East Africa (EA) has one of the worlds fastest growing populations, with maxima around water-bodies and rapid urbanisation. Climate change is adding to existing problems increasing vulnerability of the poorest. HyCRISTAL is driven by EA priorities. EA communities rely on rainfall for food via agriculture. EAs inland lakes are rain-fed and provide water, power and fisheries. For EAs growing cities, climate impacts on water resources will affect water supply & treatment. HyCRISTAL will therefore operate in both urban & rural contexts. Change in water availability will be critical for climate-change impacts in EA, but projections are highly uncertain for rain, lakes, rivers and groundwater, and for extremes. EA Long-Rains are observed to be decreasing; while models tend to predict an increase (the EA Climate paradox) although predictions are not consistent. This uncertainty provides a fundamental limit on the utility of climate information to inform policy. HyCRISTAL will therefore make best use of current projections to quantify uncertainty in user-relevant quantities and provide ground-breaking research to understand and reduce the uncertainty that currently limits decision making. HyCRISTAL will work with users to deliver world-leading climate research quantifying uncertainty from natural variability, uncertainty from climate forcings including those previously unassessed, and uncertainty in response to these forcings; including uncertainties from key processes such as convection and land-atmopshere coupling that are misrepresented in global models. Research will deliver new understanding of the mechanisms that drive the uncertainty in projections. HyCRISTAL will use this information to understand trends, when climate-change signals will emerge and provide a process-based expert judgement on projections. Working with policy makers, inter-disciplinary research (hydrology, economics, engineering, social science, ecology and decision-making) will quantify risks for rural & urban livelihoods, quantify climate impacts and provide the necessary tools to use climate information for decision making. HyCRISTAL will work with partners to co-produce research for decision-making on a 5-40 year timescale, demonstrated in 2 main pilots for urban water and policies to enable adaptive climate-smart rural livelihoods. These cover two of three areas of need from the African Ministerial Council on Environments Comprehensive Framework of African Climate Change Programmes. HyCRISTAL has already engaged 12 partners from across EA. HyCRISTALs Advisory Board will provide a mechanism for further growing stakeholder engagement. HyCRISTAL will work with the FCFA global & regional projects and CCKE, sharing methods, tools, user needs, expertise & communication. Uniquely, HyCRISTAL will capitalise on the new LVB-HyNEWS, an African-led consortium, governed by the East African Community, the Lake Victoria Basin Commission and National Meteorological and Hydrological agencies, with the African Ministerial Conference on Meteorology as an observer. HyCRISTAL will build EA capacity directly via collaboration (11 of 25 HyCRISTAL Co-Is are African, with 9 full-time in Africa), including data collection and via targeted workshops and teaching. HyCRISTAL will deliver evidence of impact, with new and deep climate science insights that will far outlast its duration. It will support decisions for climate-resilient infrastructure and livelihoods through application of new understanding in its pilots, with common methodological and infrastructure lessons to promote policy and enable transformational change for impact-at-scale. Using a combination of user-led and science-based management tools, HyCRISTAL will ensure the latest physical science, engineering and social-science yield maximum impacts. HyCRISTAL will deliver outstanding outputs across FCFAs aims; synergies with LVB-HyNEWS will add to these and ensure longevity beyond HyCRISTAL.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST.2010.5.2-2. | Award Amount: 9.35M | Year: 2011
A sustainable and efficient freight transport in Europe plays a vital role in having a successful and competitive economy. Freight transport is expected to grow by some 50 % (in tonne-kilometres) by 2020. However rail has, in many areas, been displaced from a dominant position as road transport services have grown and developed in capability and levels of sophistication that have not been matched by rail service providers. SUSTRAIL aims to contribute to the rail freight system to allow it to regain position and market and the proposed solution is based on a combined improvement in both freight vehicle and track components in a holistic approach aimed at achieving a higher reliability and increased performance of the rail freight system as a whole and profitability for all the stakeholders. The SUSTRAIL integrated approach is based on innovations in rolling stock and freight vehicles (with a targeted increased in speed and axle-load) combined with innovations in the track components (for higher reliability and reduced maintenance), whose benefits to freight and passenger users (since mixed routes are considered) are quantified through the development of an appropriate business case with estimation of cost savings on a life cycle basis. In fact, a holistic approach to vehicle and track sustainability has to be taken, since improvements in track design and materials alone are not enough as demands on the rail system increase. Contributions from the different topic areas (vehicles, track, operations) will be demonstrated on real routes, offering geographic dispersion as well as differences in type, speed, and frequency of traffic. A strong multidisciplinary consortium committed to concrete actions aligned toward a common outcome has been grouped for the achievement of the challenging objectives of the project with a balanced combination of Infrastructure managers, freight operators and Industry, including Large and Small enterprises, with support from Academia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.2-01 | Award Amount: 7.92M | Year: 2013
Scientific understanding of the role and mechanisms of bioactives is fragmented. Research often addresses the theoretical possibility of health improvement effects rather than their real, practical use for everyday diets. Bioactives cannot be considered as discrete chemical compounds and research must focus on bioactive-enriched foods (BEF), if consumer demands for foods delivering appropriate health and wellbeing benefits are to be fulfilled. PATHWAY, a pan-European interdisciplinary team of 16 life/social scientists and 10 high tech/ food processing SMEs, uniquely addresses the role and mechanisms of action of 3 bioactives (docosahexaenoic acid, -glucan, anthocyanins, chosen for known/claimed effectiveness in reducing some risk factors of Metabolic Syndrome (MS), enriching 3 different widely-consumed food matrices (dairy-, bakery-, egg products). Critical evaluation of bioactive-food matrix interactions and determining the extent of synergies between the 3 bioactives are key elements of PATHWAY. PATHWAY will determine the impact of BEF on physiologically-relevant MS (a risk factor for many diseases) endpoints and deliver a better understanding of the role and mechanisms of action of the 3 bioactives and BEF. Parallel in vitro/in vivo studies will enable selection of robust biomarkers by advanced omics techniques. Deliverables will include BEF and generic protocols, best practices and guidelines for planning dietary interventions, and guidance to SMEs for producing health-promoting BEF and for submitting convincing health claim dossiers to EFSA; the latter will be greatly facilitated by one SME partner who has submitted 3 successful dossiers. PATHWAY guidelines will be generic and will apply to a wide range of bioactives and BEF. Impact will be optimised across Europe by targeted dissemination to industry (especially SME), consumer and S&T stakeholders. Young people will be trained in a stimulating interdisciplinary, trans-sectoral environment.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ART-06-2016 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2016
Automated Road Transport (ART) is seen as one of the key technologies and major technological advancements influencing and shaping our future mobility and quality of life. The ART technology encompasses passenger cars, public transport vehicles, and urban and interurban freight transport and also extends to the road, IT and telecommunication infrastructure needed to guarantee safe and efficient operations of the vehicles. In this framework, CARTRE is accelerating development and deployment of automated road transport by increasing market and policy certainties. CARTRE supports the development of clearer and more consistent policies of EU Member States in collaboration with industry players ensuring that ART systems and services are compatible on a EU level and are deployed in a coherent way across Europe. CARTRE includes a joint stakeholders forum in order to coordinate and harmonise ART approaches at European and international level. CARTRE creates a solid knowledge base of all European activities, supports current activities and structures research outcomes by enablers and thematic areas. CARTRE involves more than 60 organisations to consolidate the current industry and policy fragmentation surrounding the development of ART.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST.2012.3.1-4. | Award Amount: 15.65M | Year: 2012
European cities face four main mobility problems: congestion, land use , safety and environment. One of the main causes of such problems is the car-ownership rate. The centres of large cities address this issue combining efficient mass transits with car restriction policies but peripheral areas and smaller cities remain dominated by private cars. CityMobil has demonstrated how automating road vehicles can lead to different transport concepts, from partly automated car-share schemes through CyberCars and PRT, to BRT which can make urban mobility more sustainable. However CityMobil has also highlighted three main barriers to the deployment of automated road vehicles: the implementation framework, the legal framework and the unknown wider economic effect. The CityMobil2 goal is to address these barriers and finally to remove them. To smooth the implementation process CityMobil2 will remove the uncertainties which presently hamper procurement and implementation of automated systems. On one hand CityMobil2 features 12 cities which will revise their mobility plans and adopt wherever they will prove effective automated transport systems. Then CityMobil2 will select the best 5 cases (among the 12 cities) to organise demonstrators. The project will procure two sets of automated vehicles and deliver them to the five most motivated cities for a 6 to 8 months demonstration in each city. To change the legal framework CityMobil2 will establish a workgroup with scientists, system builders, cities, and the national certification authorities. The workgroup will to deliver a proposal for a European Directive to set a common legal framework to certify automated transport systems. Finally an industrial study will assess the industrial potential of automated systems on European economy and any eventual negative effect and make a balance of them.
Carslaw D.C.,King's College London |
Ropkins K.,University of Leeds
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2012
openair is an R package primarily developed for the analysis of air pollution measurement data but which is also of more general use in the atmospheric sciences. The package consists of many tools for importing and manipulating data, and undertaking a wide range of analyses to enhance understanding of air pollution data. In this paper we consider the development of the package with the purpose of showing how air pollution data can be analysed in more insightful ways. Examples are provided of importing data from UK air pollution networks, source identification and characterisation using bivariate polar plots, quantitative trend estimates and the use of functions for model evaluation purposes. We demonstrate how air pollution data can be analysed quickly and efficiently and in an interactive way, freeing time to consider the problem at hand. One of the central themes of openair is the use of conditioning plots and analyses, which greatly enhance inference possibilities. Finally, some consideration is given to future developments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Foyer C.H.,University of Leeds |
Noctor G.,University Paris - Sud
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2013
Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
McCracken L.M.,King's College London |
Morley S.,University of Leeds
Journal of Pain | Year: 2014
Scientific models are like tools, and like any tool they can be evaluated according to how well they achieve the chosen goals of the task at hand. In the science of treatment development for chronic pain, we might say that a good model ought to achieve at least 3 goals: 1) integrate current knowledge, 2) organize research and treatment development activities, and 3) create progress. In the current review, we examine models underlying current cognitive behavioral approaches to chronic pain with respect to these criteria. A relatively new model is also presented as an option, and some of its features examined. This model is called the psychological flexibility model. This model fully integrates cognitive and behavioral principles and includes a process-oriented approach of treatment development. So far it appears capable of generating treatment applications that range widely with regard to conditions targeted and modes of delivery and that are increasingly supported by evidence. It has led to the generation of innovative experiential, relationship-based, and intensive treatment methods. The scientific strategy associated with this model seeks to find limitations in current models and to update them. It is assumed within this strategy that all current treatment approaches will one day appear lacking and will change. Perspective This Focus Article addresses the place of theory and models in psychological research and treatment development in chronic pain. It is argued that such models are not merely an academic issue but are highly practical. One potential model, the psychological flexibility model, is examined in further detail. © 2014 by the American Pain Society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 2.80M | Year: 2015
The generation of ultrafast and intense light pulses is an underpinning technology across the electromagnetic spectrum enabling the study of fundamental light-matter interactions, as well as industrial exploitation in a plethora of applications across the physical, chemical and biological sciences. A benchmark system for such studies is the modelocked Ti:Sapphire laser, which has grown from being a laboratory curiosity to an essential tool in a broad range of application sectors. Beyond Ti:Sapphire systems, there have been impressive developments in semiconductor based devices for pulse generation in the optical range. These benefit from low system costs and are an enabling technology in new application domains including high speed communications. However, in the terahertz (THz) frequency range, with its proven applications in imaging, metrology and non-destructive testing, a semiconductor based technology platform for intense and short pulse generation has yet to be realised. Ultrafast excitation of photoconductive switches or nonlinear crystals offer only low powers, low frequency modulation or broadband emission with little control of the spectral bandwidth. In the ULTRAQCL project we will breakthrough this technological gap, using THz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as a foundational semiconductor device for generating intense and short THz pulses. QCLs are the only practical semiconductor system that offer gain at THz frequencies, hence making them suitable for pulse generation, with the bandstructure-by-design nature of QCLs allowing the frequency, bandwidth and pulse width to be entirely engineered. We will demonstrate: the first self-starting (passive) mode-locked THz QCL; the first hybrid modelocked THz QCL; the first gain-switched modelocked QCL; and, the first QCL-based THz ultrafast pulse amplifier. The ULTRAQCL project will implement these radical schemes for pulse generation enabling ultrafast QCLs to become a ubiquitous technology for the THz range.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2010-1.3-1 | Award Amount: 12.48M | Year: 2011
While there are standard procedures for product life cycle analysis, exposure, hazard, and risk assessment for traditional chemicals, is not yet clear how these procedures need to be modified to address all the novel properties of nanomaterials. There is a need to develop specific reference methods for all the main steps in managing the potential risk of ENM. The aim of MARINA is to develop such methods. MARINA will address the four central themes in the risk management paradigm for ENM: Materials, Exposure, Hazard and Risk. The methods developed by MARINA will be (i) based on beyond-state-of-the-art understanding of the properties, interaction and fate of ENM in relation to human health and the quality of the environment and will either (ii) be newly developed or adapted from existing ones but ultimately, they will be compared/validated and harmonised/standardised as reference methods for managing the risk of ENM. MARINA will develop a strategy for Risk Management including monitoring systems and measures for minimising massive exposure via explosion or environmental spillage.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.2-2 | Award Amount: 11.59M | Year: 2012
Sustainable governance of our biological resources requires reliable scientific knowledge that meets the needs of society. Current biodiversity observation systems and environmental datasets are unbalanced in coverage and not integrated, limiting integrative analyses and implementation of environmental policies. EU BON presents an innovative approach towards integration of biodiversity information systems from on-ground to remote sensing data, for addressing policy and information needs in a timely and customized manner. EU BON will provide integration between social networks of science and policy and technological networks of interoperating IT infrastructures, resulting in a new open-access platform for sharing biodiversity data and tools, and greatly advance biodiversity knowledge in Europe. EU BONs 30 partners from 18 countries are members of networks of biodiversity data-holders, monitoring organisations, and leading scientific institutions. EU BON will build on existing components, in particular GBIF, LifeWatch infrastructures, and national biodiversity data centres. EU BON will 1) enable greater interoperability of data layers and systems through adoption of new standards; 2) advance data integration by new (modelling) technologies; 3) increase data mobilisation via scientific communities, citizen scientists, and potential data users; 4) develop strategies for future harmonizing and mainstreaming of biodiversity recording and monitoring; 5) improve analytical tools and services interpreting biodiversity data; 6) support the science-policy interface by timely information and scenario development; 7) link integrated, customized information to relevant stakeholders, and 8) strengthen overall European capacities and infrastructures for environmental information management. EU BONs deliverables include a comprehensive European Biodiversity Portal for all stakeholder communities, and strategies for a global implementation of GEO BON and supporting IPBES.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-24-2016 | Award Amount: 1.18M | Year: 2017
Driving style is seen not only to become a significant cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) and other air pollutant emissions but also a critical parameter regarding road safety, with huge social & financial adverse effects. GamECAR aims to develop a highly innovative and interactive Serious Games platform that will empower and guide users to adopt an eco-friendly driving style. This will be achieved, without distracting users from safe driving, through a multidisciplinary approach aiming at the development of a user friendly, unobtrusive multi-player gaming environment, where the users will not only play collaboratively/competitively using their mobile device but also using the car itself and their own bodies, thus turning eco-driving into an immersive and highly motivating experience. The sensing infrastructure of GamECAR will not only acquire data related to driving from an OBD sensor that will capture a complex set of parameters related to eco-driving, but will also sense environmental and physiological parameters of the driver, so as to better position the state of the system (car) in context (environment, user). The use of virtual user models and cognitive modeling of the users, will further boost personalization and adaptation of the game itself with respect to the needs of the individual driver. The GamECAR system will be quantified and evaluated in test campaigns with drivers in three different sites. Quantification campaigns serve system development and evaluation campaigns demonstrate usefulness and exploitation potential. Finally, the project has a clear exploitation plan through a balanced and highly complementary composition of SMEs that have specific roles in the development of the integrated GamECAR system. The impact of such a holistic and innovative approach is huge and the foundations laid here are expected to result in a widespread adoption of sensor-based gamification platforms in areas going far beyond eco-driving.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-19-2014 | Award Amount: 787.70K | Year: 2015
The OBJECTIVES of this proposal are as follows a) to define a subsequent initiative, referred to as the Pilot Case, providing a model for establishing a European CO2 infrastructure project, targeting a gateway transferring CO2 from source to sink. The gateway will form the first leg of a cross-border network, allowing multiple sources and multiple sinks. b) to make profound assessments of the substantial funding needs and available resources. c) to solicit strong actions by the partners involved (member states of the EU and other countries) with a three-step approach (Berlin model). The objectives will be ACHIEVED by acquiring commercial and legal input from various sources, such as industries, research alliances and institutes, investors and funding agencies, and engage industries capable of providing the knowledge of how to initiate the first gateway(s) of a future European CO2 transport system. This will include - knowledge gathering, involving structured intelligence processes, - outline strategies, - assessment of lead times, - scenario building, - consideration of funding synchronization issues. - assessing the economic potential(s), timing, and organisation towards the deployment of CCS within Europe, and gradually increase the deployment so that it applies to Europe as a whole, thus providing a Pan-European infrastructure for CO2 transport, - the initiation of a strict planning of the infrastructure, including the handling of specific policy issues and regulatory requirements. These objectives demonstrate a clear RELEVANCE to the H2020 Work Programme, calling for proposals for a pilot case addressing areas and challenges targeted in the competitive low-carbon energy call. This proposal pursues activities that support the use of research outcomes by industry of a project resulting from synchronised funding processes by at least three Member States, as addressed in the LCE-19 call.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.13M | Year: 2015
ACTRIS-2 addresses the scope of integrating state-of-the-art European ground-based stations for long term observations of aerosols, clouds and short lived gases capitalizing work of FP7-ACTRIS. ACTRIS-2 aims to achieve the construction of a user-oriented RI, unique in the EU-RI landscape. ACTRIS-2 provides 4-D integrated high-quality data from near-surface to high altitude (vertical profiles and total-column), relevant to climate and air-quality research. ACTRIS-2 develops and implements, in a large network of stations in Europe and beyond, observational protocols that permit harmonization of collected data and their dissemination. ACTRIS-2 offers networking expertise, upgraded calibration services, training of users, trans-national access to observatories and calibration facilities, virtual access to high-quality data products. Through joint research activities, ACTRIS-2 develops new integration tools that will produce scientific or technical progresses reusable in infrastructures, thus shaping future observation strategies. Innovation in instrumentation is one of the fundamental building blocks of ACTRIS-2. Associated partnership with SMEs stimulates development of joint-ventures addressing new technologies for use in atmospheric observations. Target user-groups in ACTRIS-2 comprise a wide range of communities worldwide. End-users are institutions involved in climate and air quality research, space agencies, industries, air quality agencies. ACTRIS-2 will improve systematic and timely collection, processing and distribution of data and results for use in modelling, in particular towards implementation of atmospheric and climate services. ACTRIS-2 invests substantial efforts to ensure long-term sustainability beyond the term of the project by positioning the project in both the GEO and the on-going ESFRI contexts, and by developing synergies with national initiatives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: DRS-21-2014 | Award Amount: 1.40M | Year: 2015
The objective of the IMPACT project is to investigate the essential role played by cultural factors in managing safety- and security-issues related to emergencies in public transport systems. The IMPACT Coordination and Supporting Action is aimed at analysing the different cultural behaviours for the prevention of emergencies with particular emphasis on risk and situational awareness perception of the different cultural groups; information to passengers with different socio-cultural backgrounds; cooperation towards prevention of security threats; security checks. Moreover, it is aimed at analysing the different cultural behaviours for the management of emergency events and the post-events with particular emphasis on: crowd management; management of first responders to care for different cultural groups; information to passengers. From the above analyses IMPACT will produce a cultural risk assessment methodology and the associated mitigation actions for the public transport sector also developing simulators and models; identify innovative solutions that can support public transport operators in improving the communication with passengers through tailored messages to the different cultural communities (via mobile phones and social networks) and other solutions to enhance the management of emergencies considering cultural aspects; develop best practices, dedicated training material and procedures for both public transport operators and first responders; develop policy recommendations for policy makers, regulators, municipalities and public transport operators. The IMPACT Consortium has an intercultural and interdisciplinary approach with an extensive expertise in different disciplines, ranging from social and cultural psychology, sociology and anthropology, to safety, security and emergency management and from computer-science to communication and event organization. The consortium is composed by 2 SMEs, 1 big Industry, 4 Universities and 1 National Authority.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2009.6.2 | Award Amount: 1.86M | Year: 2011
During the lifetime of the different Field Operational Tests (FOT) carried out both at National and European levels, there is a crucial need for a networking platform allowing individual FOTs to benefit from each others experiences as well as giving a better overview of the scattered activities.While FOT-Net 1 was focussing on building up the FOT network and promoting methodology, FOT-Net 2 explicitly addresses requests articulated by the FOT network which need common European positions.The prime goal of FOT-Net 2 is to increase the momentum achieved in FOT-Net 1 and further develop the strategic networking of existing and future National, European and Global FOTs e.g. US and Japan. During 36 months, the FOT Network will meet in six bi-annual FOT stakeholders meetings and three international FOT meetings.FOT-Net 2 also focuses on methodology based on recent FOT experiences. Through three targeted meetings, it will gather the relevant experts to revise and adapt in six months the FESTA methodology for FOTs on ADAS, Nomadic devices, Cooperative systems, and, in addition, address Naturalistic Driving Studies.FOT-Net 2 will create five new expert working groups in order to clarify critical topics related to the legal and ethical issues, data analysis, incident definition, impact assessment, and data sharing.The revised FESTA methodology will be promoted through six seminars supported by webinars.FOT-Net 2 will create a new web-based inventory of existing tools for data acquisition, database structure, data analysis to facilitate the setup of new FOTs.FOT-Net 2 will act as a multiplier for the dissemination and awareness of FOT activities especially in terms of inter-activities support and outreach.Finally, FOT-Net 2 will evaluate contributions of FOTs to policy goals and market deployment using an improved methodology for stakeholders analysis.The action includes all stakeholder and expert groups playing a role in existing and planned FOTs
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.4.1-1 | Award Amount: 7.56M | Year: 2013
Ewing Sarcomas (ES) are fatal, rare bone cancers particularly affecting young people. About 60% of patients achieve long term survival with current treatment but there has been no improvement in this proportion for 25 years. Treatment is unsuccessful because chemotherapy fails to prevent the development of, or to effectively treat established, metastases. In addition, of the 600 new cases of ES occurring in the EU each year, less than half will receive treatment appropriate to deliver the most favourable outcome. The EUROEWING Consortium (EEC) is a coalition of clinical study groups bringing together the most active clinicians and scientists in Europe dedicated to improving survival from ES. This initiative can achieve this through an integrated programme of investigator-driven, inclusive clinical trials that are rigorously designed, conducted, analysed and reported, and underpinned by complementary embedded translational research. These include i) a first line randomised study in patients of all ages with ES which defines standards of care to prevent development of metastases and serves as a backbone for implementation of new agents, and ii) a randomised study of current second line chemotherapy in patients of all ages with ES which will serve as a platform for testing of new agents. Companion studies in association with these trials will be performed investigating tumour biology, underlying causes of differential response and toxicity, and other biomarkers. The programme will be supported by new initiatives for the involvement of patients in research planning and operation. Through collaborative working, the EEC will provide ES patients with greater access to clinical trials, allow efficient acquisition of knowledge and deliver clinically meaningful results within the lifetime of the grant, thereby contributing to improved survival from ES.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: Fission-2011-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 9.69M | Year: 2012
Nuclear power issues have been attracting research interest for decades even since the actual use of power reactors using oxide fuels was considered a mature science. It has mainly been due to one of the great drawbacks of nuclear power, the waste handling. Presently, there is a renaissance in nuclear power research focused on a new generation of reactor concepts utilising more of the inherent energy of the fuels. Additionally, these new concepts will also produce less radioactive waste, which is radiotoxic for a shorter time frame. If such concept succeeds, nuclear power can be considered almost sustainable bearing in mind that the waste we already have generated may be used for next generations. In order to reach these goals, there are several issues to be considered and the future nuclear fuel is one of the most important ones. ASGARD project will conduct crosscutting studies in synergy with the current nuclear fuel and waste research projects in Europe (e.g. ACSEPT and FAIRFUELS projects), but will also extend further into the research on new innovative nuclear concepts (SFR-Prototype, MYRRHA). ASGARD will provide a structured R&D framework for developing compatible techniques for dissolution, reprocessing and manufacturing of new nuclear fuels. The fuels to be considered will mainly consist of the next generation of fuels, e.g. oxides, nitrides and carbides, since the current oxide fuels and their reprocessing is dealt within already existing projects. An educational programme will be implemented to share the knowledge between students, researchers in the fuel manufacturing and the fuel reprocessing communities. The challenging objectives of ASGARD will be addressed by a multi-disciplinary consortium composed of European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial stakeholders. ASGARD will be an essential contribution to the development of new sustainable nuclear fuel cycle concepts and thus pave the road to more sustainable nuclear future.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.2-02 | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2011
FERTIPLUS will identify urban and farm organic wastes that can be used to recycle nutrients into agriculture as biochar, compost or combinations of them. Urban and farm organic residues are a large source of nutrients and today not used to its full potential. FERTIPLUS will assess and use this potential and contribute to sustainable crop production and soil productivity and quality across regions in Europe. It will demonstrate effective innovative processing and application of biochar and compost while ensuring safety for soil organisms, the environment and human health throughout the food chain as far as potential mineral and organic contaminants are concerned. FERTIPLUS will assess scenarios on amount and quality of organic wastes available within the EU in the near future to identify and map their potential for recycling nutrients to soil and plants in biochar or compost. Production processes for compost and biochar are reviewed and new technologies will be designed to obtain high quality biochar with functionalities related to site-specific targets of sustainable soil management. Compost and biochar amendments will be compared in lab and field trials for agronomical and environmental impacts (crop production, disease suppression, soil C sequestration, prevention of GHG emissions and leaching losses) and biofuel and energy balance. Results will be used to complete a Life Cycle Analysis and define the best application practices for an effective and safe use of the final products in agriculture in an economically viable way. The consortium combines the expertise needed for these goals and involve 6 SMEs to guarantee rapid implementation of results and innovations in line with future regulatory projects (e.g. End of Waste criteria for bio-wastes, revision of Fertilisers Regulation) . Focused dissemination and communication actions include a website, brochures and meetings on innovations targeted to stakeholders and extension services.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.79M | Year: 2017
Optoelectronic devices typically operate in the weak coupling regime between light and matter, for example in conventional lasers relying on population inversion to achieve optical gain. Recently there has been a surge of interest in quantum systems operating instead in the strong coupling regime, when the coupling strength of the light-matter interaction is so strong that new states cavity polaritons are created, that are partially light, partially material excitation. In semiconductors, exciton-polaritons have been the most widely studied type of strongly coupled system. Recently a new phenomenon has been realized exploiting intersubband transitions. The resulting excitations are called intersubband polaritons, and they have two remarkable properties: (i) a bosonic character that is maintained up to high carrier densities since they are not restricted by the Mott transition limit; (ii) large Rabi splittings. Although the scientific community has explored the basic science of intersubband polaritons, their potential for future and innovative optoelectronic devices has been entirely untapped. The MIR-BOSE project will realize this potential, and demonstrate disruptive optoelectronic devices operating in the strong coupling regime between light and matter. We will demonstrate the first bosonic lasers operating in the mid-IR and THz ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Laser action here does not rely on population inversion, so we will achieve temperature independent operation and high powers. We will demonstrate a new concept of inverse-Q-switching leading to the generation of high power pulses in the mid-IR, overcoming severe bottlenecks in current technology. Finally, we will demonstrate non-classical/quantum light sources and devices, generating squeezed states of light in the mid-IR/THz spectral range for quantum optics. These new sources will have a major impact on several technologies and applications, being advantageous compared to current solutions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-04-2015 | Award Amount: 3.20M | Year: 2016
Computer systems have faced significant power challenges over the past 20 years; these challenges have shifted from the devices and circuits level, to their current position as first-order constraints for system architects and software developers. TANGOs goal is to characterise factors which affect power consumption in software development and operation for heterogeneous parallel hardware environments. Our main contribution is the combination of requirements engineering and design modelling for self-adaptive software systems, with power consumption awareness in relation to these environments. The energy efficiency and application quality factors are integrated in the application lifecycle (design, implementation, operation). To support this, the key novelty of the project is a reference architecture and its implementation. Moreover, a programming model with built-in support for various hardware architectures including heterogeneous clusters, heterogeneous chips and programmable logic devices will be provided. TANGO will create a new cross-layer programming approach for heterogeneous parallel hardware architectures featuring automatic code generation including software and hardware modelling. This will consider power, performance, data location and time criticality optimization, in addition to security and dependability on the target hardware architecture. These results will be demonstrated in two real-world applications: reconfigurable power optimized connected platform and HPC. In order to improve collaboration and sustainability of TANGOs and fellow projects results, TANGO considers the foundation of a Research Alliance in which complementary research efforts into novel programming approaches will nucleate, leading to a strong research collaboration and effective integration of project results.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 13.75M | Year: 2010
The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) has the goal of obtaining a comprehensive description of genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic changes in 50 different tumour types and/or subtypes, with the aim of elucidating the genomic changes present in the many forms of cancers that contribute to the burden of disease throughout the world. We present a proposal for a European contribution to this effort through application of state-of-the-art approaches to the genomics of the most common form of renal cell cancer (RCC). RCC is of particular importance within Europe where the highest global incidence rates are observed. Disease incidence has increased over the last two decades, and it is now the 8th most common cancer in the EU. CAGEKID brings clinical and epidemiological resources that are unique worldwide together with the necessary genetics and genomics expertise required for this effort. In the first phase of the study, we will provide a full genomic characterisation of 100 matched pairs of DNA extracted from the tumour and constitutional samples. DNA will be completely sequenced, and the data brought together with those from whole genome transcript and methylation analyses. Follow-up studies of potential targets will be made in further samples. The results acquired will be relied to targeted protein analyses. The primary data will be made available to the scientific community, and the programme will contribute to establishing norms for the manipulation and storage of biological samples. CAGEKID will provide the first systematic analysis of this tumour site providing new insights into disease aetiology with application for diagnosis and treatment. It addresses a major need to identify new biological markers for renal cell cancer, one of very few tumour types for which there are currently no biological markers in routine clinical use. Renal cancer is not yet supported by any of the members of the ICGC.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Training Grant | Award Amount: 4.34M | Year: 2014
This world-leading Centre for Doctoral Training in Bioenergy will focus on delivering the people to realise the potential of biomass to provide secure, affordable and sustainable low carbon energy in the UK and internationally. Sustainably-sourced bioenergy has the potential to make a major contribution to low carbon pathways in the UK and globally, contributing to the UKs goal of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 and the international mitigation target of a maximum 2 degrees Celsius temperature rise. Bioenergy can make a significant contribution to all three energy sectors: electricity, heat and transport, but faces challenges concerning technical performance, cost effectiveness, ensuring that it is sustainably produced and does not adversely impact food security and biodiversity. Bioenergy can also contribute to social and economic development in developing countries, by providing access to modern energy services and creating job opportunities both directly and in the broader economy. Many of the challenges associated with realising the potential of bioenergy have engineering and physical sciences at their core, but transcend traditional discipline boundaries within and beyond engineering. This requires an effective whole systems research training response and given the depth and breadth of the bioenergy challenge, only a CDT will deliver the necessary level of integration. Thus, the graduates from the CDT in Bioenergy will be equipped with the tools and skills to make intelligent and informed, responsible choices about the implementation of bioenergy, and the growing range of social and economic concerns. There is projected to be a large absorptive capacity for trained individuals in bioenergy, far exceeding current supply. A recent report concerning UK job creation in bioenergy sectors concluded that there may be somewhere in the region of 35-50,000 UK jobs in bioenergy by 2020 (NNFCC report for DECC, 2012). This concerned job creation in electricity production, heat, and anaerobic digestion (AD) applications of biomass. The majority of jobs are expected to be technical, primarily in the engineering and construction sectors during the building and operation of new bioenergy facilities. To help develop and realise the potential of this sector, the CDT will build strategically on our research foundation to deliver world-class doctoral training, based around key areas:  Feedstocks, pre-processing and safety;  Conversion;  Utilisation, emissions and impact;  Sustainability and Whole systems. Theme 1 will link feedstocks to conversion options, and Themes 2 and 3 include the core underpinning science and engineering research, together with innovation and application. Theme 4 will underpin this with a thorough understanding of the whole energy system including sustainability, social, economic public and political issues, drawing on world-leading research centres at Leeds. The unique training provision proposed, together with the multidisciplinary supervisory team will ensure that students are equipped to become future leaders, and responsible innovators in the bioenergy sector.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.2-4 | Award Amount: 10.92M | Year: 2013
Although there is a large body of knowledge available on soil threats in Europe, this knowledge is fragmented and incomplete, in particular regarding the complexity and functioning of soil systems and their interaction with human activities. The main aim of RECARE is to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures using an innovative trans-disciplinary approach, actively integrating and advancing knowledge of stakeholders and scientists in 17 Case Studies, covering a range of soil threats in different bio-physical and socio-economic environments across Europe. Within these Case Study sites, i) the current state of degradation and conservation will be assessed using a new methodology, based on the WOCAT mapping procedure, ii) impacts of degradation and conservation on soil functions and ecosystem services will be quantified in a harmonized, spatially explicit way, accounting for costs and benefits, and possible trade-offs, iii) prevention, remediation and restoration measures selected and implemented by stakeholders in a participatory process will be evaluated regarding efficacy, and iv) the applicability and impact of these measures at the European level will be assessed using a new integrated bio-physical and socio-economic model, accounting for land use dynamics as a result of for instance economic development and policies. Existing national and EU policies will be reviewed and compared to identify potential incoherence, contradictions and synergies. Policy messages will be formulated based on the Case Study results and their integration at European level. A comprehensive dissemination and communication strategy, including the development of a web-based Dissemination and Communication Hub, will accompany the other activities to ensure that project results are disseminated to a variety of stakeholders at the right time and in the appropriate formats to stimulate renewed care for European soils.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.2.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.10M | Year: 2013
VIALACTEA will bring to a common forum the major new-generation surveys of the Galactic Plane from 1um to the radio, both in thermal continuum and in atomic and molecular lines, from Europe-funded space missions and ground-based facilities, to engage one of the fundamental challenges in Galactic astronomy: to quantify Galaxy-wide the relationship between the physical agents responsible for the onset and the regulation of star formation in a spiral galaxy and the resulting Rate and Efficiency of star formation, and obtain a star formation recipe that will be a cornerstone to trace the star formation history of galaxies back to their formation. The new state-of-the-art Milky Way paradigm is offering today, for the first time, the possibility to deploy a coherent science analysis methodology that can be uniformly applied from the Galactic Center to the outskirts of the Galaxy. A homogeneous and inter-calibrated evolutionary classification of the cold and dense clumps hosting young forming clusters at a variety of evolutionary stages will allow to deliver a new 3D model of the Galaxy, mapping the essential critical parameters like column density thresholds, rate and efficiency of star formation in the Galaxy To make such an analysis possible in a timely and effective fashion, we will develop a suite of next-generation 3D-visualization tools that will integrate visual analytics, on-the-fly handling of multi-SED radiative transfer modeling and data mining/machine-learning technologies to incorporate the astronomers know-how into a set of supervised workflows with decision making capabilities. The focus on research and analysis of data obtained from European space missions in combination with data from Europe-funded ground facilities, will enable time-effective exploitation of steradiant-scale multi-wavelength Galactic Plane surveys through new 3D-based visual analytics frameworks, making VIALACTEAs objectives timely and totally relevant for FP7-SPACE-2013-1.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2010.2.2-01 | Award Amount: 11.79M | Year: 2011
Full4Health is a multidisciplinary European collaboration of internationally renowned laboratories investigating the mechanisms of hunger, satiety and feeding behaviour, effects of dietary components and food structure on these processes, and their possible exploitation in addressing obesity, chronic disease and under-nutrition. The proposal integrates investigation of both human volunteers (dietary/exercise intervention studies and administration of encapsulated nutrients) and laboratory animals with emphasis on neuronal, hormonal, molecular, physiological and psychological responses to food at different stages of the life course. We will apply imaging and other cutting edge technologies in both humans and rodents to answer critical research questions at different levels of the food-gut-brain axis. In human volunteers, responses to diet will be investigated from childhood through to the elderly, whereas wide-ranging cutting-edge rodent studies will investigate related issues such as early developmental programming the food-gut-brain axis, multiple feedback signalling interactions, and inflammation-induced anorexia. The project will examine the interaction of food and dietary components with the gastrointestinal tract, and will characterise the role of gut endocrine secretions, the vagus nerve, and hindbrain, hypothalamic and forebrain structures in signalling and integration of hunger and satiety. Physiological and psychological responses to food may change as we develop and age, with impact on food choices and preferences. This is a critical issue in the battle against food intake-related chronic disease, most commonly driven by over-consumption, but also in consideration of relative under-nutrition in the elderly and clinically compromised.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.3.1.1-4 | Award Amount: 2.62M | Year: 2011
WAHARA will take a transdisciplinary approach to develop innovative, locally adapted water harvesting solutions with wider relevance for rainfed Africa. Water harvesting technologies play a key role in bringing about an urgently needed increase in agricultural productivity, and to improve food and water security in rural areas. Water harvesting technologies enhance water buffering capacity, contributing to the resilience of African drylands to climate variability and climate change, as well as to socio-economic changes such as population growth and urbanisation. To ensure the continental relevance of project results, research will concentrate on four geographically dispersed study sites in Tunisia, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Zambia, covering diverse socio-economic conditions and a range from arid to sub-humid climates. The project emphasizes: i) participatory technology design, i.e. selecting and adapting technologies that have synergies with existing farming systems and that are preferred by local stakeholders, yet tap from a global repertoire of innovative options; ii) sustainable impact, i.e. technologies that combine multiple uses of water, green and blue water management, and integrated water and nutrient management. Using models, water harvesting systems will be designed for maximum impact without compromising downstream water-users, contributing to sustainable regional development; iii) integration and adaptability, i.e. paying attention to the generic lessons to be learned from local experiences, and developing guidelines on how technologies can be adapted to different conditions; and iv) learning and action, i.e. a strategy will be developed to enable learning and action from successes achieved locally: a. within a region, to upscale from water harvesting technologies to water harvesting systems, and b. across regions, promoting knowledge exchange at continental scale.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2010.1.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 9.81M | Year: 2011
The Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) European large scale integrating project brings together most of the leading European research groups, with state-of the-art observational and modeling facilities to: (1) Quantify the magnitude of regional to global feedbacks between atmospheric chemistry and a changing climate and to reduce the corresponding uncertainty of the major ones. (2) Identify mitigation strategies and policies to improve air quality while limiting their impact on climate change. The project is organized into four scientific Themes designed to optimize the integration of methodologies, scales, and ultimately our understanding of air quality and climate interactions: (I) Anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and their response to climate and socio-economy (II) Atmospheric interactions among chemical and physical processes (III) Regional and global links between atmospheric chemistry and climate change (IV) Air quality in a changing climate: Integration with policy PEGASOS will bridge the spatial and temporal scales that connect local surface-air pollutant exchanges, air quality and weather with global atmospheric chemistry and climate. Our major focus for air quality will be Europe including effects of changes in pollutant emissions elsewhere and the time horizon for the study will be the next 50 years. During the project we will provide improved process understanding in areas of major uncertainty for better quantification of feedbacks between air quality and a changing climate. We will present, for the first time, a fully integrated analysis of dynamically changing emissions and deposition, their link to tropospheric chemical reactions and interactions with climate, and emerging feedbacks between chemistry-climate and surface processes. We will target both local and regional scales, taking into account chemistry and climate feedbacks on the global scale.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2012-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 10.27M | Year: 2013
Nuclear power plays a key role in limiting EUs greenhouse gases emissions, and makes an important contribution to improve European Unions independence, security and diversity of energy supply. However, its social acceptance is closely linked to an enhanced safety in the management of long-lived radioactive waste contributing to resource efficiency and cost-effectiveness of this energy and ensuring a robust and socially acceptable system of protection of man and environment. Among the different strategies, partitioning and transmutation (P&T) allows a reduction of the amount, the radiotoxicity and the thermal power of these wastes, leading to an optimal use of geological repository sites. In line with the Strategic Research Agenda of SNE-TP, the SACSESS collaborative project will provide a structured framework to enhance the fuel cycle safety associated to P&T. In addition, safety studies will be performed for each selected process to identify weak points to be studied further. These data will be integrated to optimise flowsheets and process operation conditions. A training and education programme will be implemented in close collaboration with other European initiatives, addressing safety issues of nuclear energy industry. The multidisciplinary consortium composed of European universities, nuclear research bodies, TSOs and industrial stakeholders will generate fundamental safety improvements on the future design of an Advanced Processing Unit. SACSESS will thus be an essential contribution to the demonstration of the potential benefits of actinide partitioning to the global safety of the long-lived waste management.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.4-2 | Award Amount: 7.88M | Year: 2012
The main objectives of FUTUREVOLC are to establish an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure through European collaboration, develop new methods to evaluate volcanic crises, increase scientific understanding of magmatic processes and improve delivery of relevant information to civil protection and authorities. To reach these objectives the project combines broad European expertise in seismology, volcano deformation, volcanic gas and geochemistry, infrasound, eruption monitoring, physical volcanology, satellite studies of plumes, meteorology, ash dispersal forecasting, and civil defence. This European consortium leads the way for multi-national volcanological collaboration with the aim of mitigating the effects of major eruptions that pose cross-border hazards. Iceland is selected as a laboratory supersite area for demonstration because of (i) the relatively high rate of large eruptions with potential for long ranging effects, and (ii) Icelands capability to produce the near full spectrum of volcano processes at its many different volcano types. Based on present monitoring networks and ongoing research, the project will bridge gaps and combine efforts for a coherent close-to-real-time evaluation of the state of Icelandic volcanoes and their unrest. The project will provide timely information on magma movements from combined interpretation of earthquake sources relocated in three-dimensional velocity models, magma sources inferred from ground and space geodetic data, and measurements of volcanic volatiles. For better response during eruptions, the project will develop operational models of magma discharge rate, contributing directly to improved forecasts of ash dispersion. They will help to minimise economic disruption on a European scale during eruptions. By integrating a Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre and a civil protection unit into the project, European citizens will benefit directly from the scientific work of FUTUREVOLC.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2010.2.3-03 | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2011
According to 2007 Eurostat statistics, there is a robust need to better understanding the nutritional existing barriers to healthy nutrition of 79 million EU-27 citizens at-risk-of-poverty. These European subclusters and ethnic populations have in common low purchasing power, limited education and the highest risk of diet-related diseases due to sub-optimal nutrition. CHANCE project will i) define an innovative strategy based on a socio-economic study of the composition of the most significant EU populations at-risk-of-poverty and ii) verify the relative existing nutritional deficiency via a holistic approach ensured by metabonomics investigations correlating the non-healthy diet to real metabolism alterations. CHANCE intends to adopt a new multidisciplinary approach, leading to nutritional strategies for the prevention of malnutrition in population groups at risk of poverty. CHANCE aims at considering a new health value-added diet as a whole by developing food products which could act in concert. The synergic collaboration of nutritionists, food chemists, economists and technologists allow a robust strategy to by pass all barriers to healthy nutrition by the lab-scale development of affordable but nutritionally-rich food products, new packaging and portioning. The R&D activities planned in the enlarged European Union will facilitate a proactive collaboration among food research centers and food processing and packaging SMEs that will be further transferred with the generated foreground. During the processing of food products, nutrient content and stability will be assessed, then the whole technology process will get the influential support of a CEN Workshop Agreement, drafted within CEN (the European Committee for Standardization) in order to help ensuring consumers with a controlled quality. CHANCE nutritional and educational strategies will produce guidelines for European Public Health policy dealing with the prevention of malnutrition in such population groups. The European Food Information Council will ensure that the progress and results from CHANCE will be communicated and disseminated widely.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-5.1-2014 | Award Amount: 4.90M | Year: 2015
The main objective of EMPOWER is to substantially reduce the use of conventionally fueled vehicles (CFV) in cities by influencing the mobility behaviour of CFV drivers and users towards fundamental change. To achieve this objective EMPOWER will create a set of tools for industry, policy makers and employers. These will empower them beyond the lifespan of this project to understand, help choose and successfully implement positive evidence-based and cost-effective policy interventions, based on new and innovative mobility services, and in the context of already existing infrastructure, policy and measures. EMPOWER will reduce the use of CFV by: shifting trips to other modes/other vehicle types, promoting sharing and self-organisation and reducing demand overall e.g. through remote access to services. Undesirable impacts from CFV use will be reduced by: shifting CFV use to outside peak times and diversions to avoid particular areas/routes. The research will be multidisciplinary and involve: social science research with the public, 4 living lab experiments and 7 City demonstrators which will be chosen through an open bidding process. The EMPOWER concept will be used in practice by: City stakeholders being able (through a software tool) to choose positive policy options based on their expected impacts and deliver incentives and social network sharing schemes to individuals using software. The innovation outputs of EMPOWER include an EMPOWER Toolkit to support industry, policy makers and employers to understand, choose and implement positive policy interventions. The Toolkit includes: new mobility services to provide innovative positive policy measures, new evidence on behavioural responses and impacts from positive incentives, improved organisational models for successful implementation of positive policy measures and innovation in the evaluation methodology for new mobility services. We expect at least 1 million persons to be impacted by EMPOWER.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.1.1.5-1 | Award Amount: 4.76M | Year: 2011
AMAZALERT will enable raising the alert about critical feedbacks between climate, society, land-use change, vegetation change, water availability and policies in Amazonia. We will: 1) analyze and improve coupled models of global climate and Amazon, land use, vegetation and socio-economic drivers to quantify anthropogenic and climate induced land-use and land cover change and non-linear, irreversible feedbacks among these components 2) assess the role of regional and global policies and societal responses in the Amazon region for altering the trajectory of land-use change in the face of climate change and other anthropogenic factors and finally 3) propose i) an Early Warning System for detecting any imminent irreversible loss of Amazon ecosystem services, ii) policy response strategies to prevent such loss. We first prioritise the functions of Amazonia and threats to these. We then will analyse uncertainties in biogeochemistry, land cover (vegetation), land-use change and regional hydrology , as well as nonlinear responses and feedbacks using existing and new simulations from state of the art models in which land surface is coupled to global climate. The way in which policies and possible future response strategies of policy makers, trade and economy will affect land-use change will be modelled. This will lead to (A) understanding the impact on and effectiveness of a range of international and regional policy options, including REDD\; and (B) identification of both biophysical and socio-economic indicators of irreversible change. AMAZALERT integrates the multidisciplinary knowledge and research of world-renowned, highly influential climate, land cover, land use change scientists and also policy analysts from 14 European and South-American institutions that have been collaborating for 10 to 30 years. Thus, this project can achieve maximum impact on EU (2020 climate goals), international and South-American strategies, including REDD
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2013.6.5 | Award Amount: 1.77M | Year: 2014
FOT-Net Data is a Support Action for international co-operation that targets efficient sharing and re-use of global data sets. It continues European and international networking activities in the domain of Field Operational Tests (FOT).During the lifetime of the different FOTs carried out both at national and European levels, there is a crucial need for a networking platform allowing individual FOTs to benefit from each others experiences as well as giving a better overview of the scattered activities.While FOT-Net 1&2 were focusing on setting up the FOT network and maintaining the FOT methodology, FOT-Net Data explicitly addresses the need to exploit the collected data. The prime goal of FOT-Net Data is to maintain and increase the momentum achieved in FOT-Net and develop the strategy for sharing and exploiting collected FOT data in National, European and international FOTs (e.g. US and Japan). FOT-Net Data develops and promotes a framework for sharing data. It takes into account the pre-requisites necessary in the FOTs, such as legal agreements, to enable future re-use of collected data. More importantly, it addresses the actual data sharing and the procedures, templates and services needed for successful research on data gathered in earlier projects. It builds a detailed catalogue of available data, enabling organizations to easily assess the value of different data sets for their research purposes.FOT-Net Data will act as a multiplier for the dissemination and awareness of FOT activities especially in terms of inter-activities support and outreach. During 36 months, the FOT Network will meet in 4 FOT data sharing workshops, 5 webinars, one FESTA revision workshop, 3 European concertation meetings and 3 international FOT meetings. The action includes stakeholder and expert groups playing a key data management role in previous and ongoing FOTs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 4.02M | Year: 2011
Q-NET will provide initial training in the general field of Quantum Nano-Electronics, in particular spintronics, molecular electronics, single-electronics, quantum dots and nanowires, nano-cooling. The recruited researchers will be trained to state-of-the-art technologies of nanofabrication, near-field microscopies, transport measurement under extreme conditions (low temperatures, magnetic field, radio-frequency irradiation) and theoretical calculations. Ultimate detectors, innovative local probes, new metrological standards, on chip micro-coolers will be developed. 25 key scientists from 8 different institutions will interact as a consistent training staff monitored by the supervisory board by reference to a 8-task detailed program. The 16 trained young researchers will be at the ESR level for 93%. The training will be implemented through systematic secondments of young researchers from one partner to several academic and private partners. The project website will be set-up to support the training strategy and the tracing of results and IPR. It will be animated by the recruited researchers under the supervision of the coordinator. Q-NET will organize sessions of the European School On Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies (ESONN) devoted to Quantum Nano-Electronics, combining both theoretical and practical training. Annual special training sessions will be organized, covering seven complementary domains such as ethics, project management, IPR, communication skills ... The consortium involves most of the leading groups in the domain which contributed these last ten years to the European leadership in Quantum Nano-Electronics. Q-NET will significantly contribute to meet the needs of the industry in terms of highly-skilled and open-minded scientists for leading the competition in Beyond C-MOS Nano-Electronics.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 793.80K | Year: 2012
Neoliberal ideologies applied in city politics can be portrayed as key aspects for the progressive and often conflictive transformations of urban space today. Such transformations do not exclusively apply to the political sphere neoliberalism has also affected the habits of how people imagine, perceive and appropriate urban spaces in their daily life. Cities play a strategic role in the variegated geographies of neoliberalism, but relatively little research critically assessed the challenges citizenship faces in neoliberal societies. The interdisciplinary exchange programme CONTESTED_CITIES will tackle this gap it investigates the discourses and practices of contest and re-appropriation of urban space, thus providing a novel understanding of how opposition against neoliberal urban development is being re-framed in the course of the current financial and economic crisis. It will bring together scientists from European and Latin American universities to discuss some of the striking consequences of urban neoliberalism and the resistance originated in different geographical backgrounds. By applying innovative qualitative methodologies such as reflexive photography and other visual accounts, the project aims at providing theoretical advances within citizenship studies and urban geography as well as at producing new empirical insights to the consequences of recent urban policies. Within an interdisciplinary network to analyse and compare urban policies, gentrification and contestation in Europe and Latin America, the exchange programme creates additionally the conditions to introduce policy transfer by learning from Latin American cities - which have experienced for decades urban conflict and highly innovative urban solutions - as laboratories of social change, and to create a theoretical background that overcomes existing lacunas between urban debates in the English, and the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking literature.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: TPT.2013-3. | Award Amount: 643.79K | Year: 2013
TRI-VALUE will look back into the FP7 work on transport with the aim of performing an ex-post evaluation. The objectives are: (1) analyse implementation and management; (2) assess achievements and impacts of the transport research financed by FP7 (regarding specific objectives, economic, social and environmental impacts); (3) evaluate efficiency, effectiveness and relevance of the funding; and (4) assess sustainability and utility of the programmes. This information will be used to outline conclusions and recommendations for improving transport research and innovation. Given the complexity and timeframe of the topic, a straightforward methodology is proposed, inspired in consultancy projects. An inception meeting will be held to open direct a communication pathway with the Commission, to be maintained throughout the project. TRI-VALUE proposes to build its analytical framework based on the Research Impact Pathway methodology (developed in SITPRO and SITPRO Plus projects), to be adapted to reflect latest developments and address specific needs of TRI-VALUE (e.g. with inputs from MARPOS, METRONOME, Interim Evaluation of the FP7 and Impact Assessment to Horizon 2020). The assessment will then be prepared combining primary data (survey, project reviews and stakeholder consultation) and secondary data (databases, e.g. CORDA, SESAM; and from other projects, e.g. Impact Assessment to Horizon 2020 or EU TRAIN). This work will allow an analysis of performance across a set of indicators, complemented by a comparison with R&I systems from other economies. The team was established bearing in mind the need to capitalize knowledge from other projects. In addition to a balanced composition between consultants, research centres and universities, merging experience in transport with innovation systems and know-how of thematic areas within transport, the partnership brings in knowledge from, e.g. SITPRO, SITPRO Plus, MARPOS, METRONOME, Market-up, Pro Inno, EUTRAIN and DETRA.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 168.00K | Year: 2012
Regenerative medicine (RM) is a critical need to establish in this century, in order to raise quality of life and reduce the cost of healthcare in our increasing aged populations. To do this there is a need for key research teams within and outside the EU to develop meaningful research collaborations and relationships at an institutional level. skelGEN brings together leading research institutions across disciplines in biology/engineering/computational modelling/orthopaedic research in the EU (UK, the Netherlands, Portugal) partnered with complementary experts in New Zealand. This collaboration will allow EU partner institutions to work in a coordinated way to address RM in the human skeleton, including bones, cartilage and tendons/ligaments. This work will range from basic science through to translational medicine and involves world experts, emerging scientists as well as young researchers. The programme of exchanges and knowledge transfer is built around four main scientific themes that will feed into each other, to pursue of skelGENs long term mission successfully. These themes are centred on stem cells, scaffolds and medical devices, computerised modelling and overall evaluation. Advances in stem cell therapy are required, such as pluripotent stem cells that do not have the political and ethical concerns of embryonic stem cell populations. Dynamic scaffolds need to respond to their environment and can integrate bioactive factors, using biocompatible biomaterials e.g. producing hybrid constructs of titanium rods and bulk polymers, self-assembling short peptides etc. to create better tissue/implant interfaces powerful for potential new therapies in RM. We plan to use computational modelling to assist in the tissue engineering of scaffolds and cells/tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally we will endeavour to standardise the evaluation techniques used to assess the biocompatibility of these future medical devices.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: WASTE-4b-2014 | Award Amount: 1.64M | Year: 2015
Urbanization is on the rise in Africa and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The fast growing use of technology is creating a rising e-waste stream, for which there is limited recycling capacity. Waste management infrastructures and public awareness of the health issues is largely non-existent. Basic environmental precautions are almost absent and health and safety regulations are loosely enforced. Improvements are therefore urgently needed to combat related health issues, alleviate poverty and develop the local recycling sector. EWIT projects aim is to address these challenges, assisting African municipalities in the implementation of effective e-waste management systems for their communities. The project will develop a comprehensive mapping of the baseline data of African metropolitan areas related to e-waste management, analyzing the most relevant experiences, processes and legal tools available. It will then deliver a dynamic and easy to use information and service portal to offer guidance and practical support for the design and development of e-waste collection and recycling systems. EWIT will generate the expected impacts through 5 coordinated work packages. The working model is based on two different set of workshops, one led by Cities and the other by Experts. Tools, implementation models, policies and procedures will feed a dedicated information and service platform called E-waste implementation toolkit. This dynamic and easy to use internet portal will be a strategic source of knowledge for decision makers at industry and local government level. Dissemination will play a key role to assure that the projects deliverables are well understood and ready to be applied. EWIT will define the conditions and actions necessary to implement effective waste recycling systems in metropolitan areas, increasing recycling opportunities for entrepreneurs, generating new jobs and improving environment and health protection of local communities.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.6.6 | Award Amount: 14.63M | Year: 2011
ecoDriver addresses the need to consider the human element when encouraging green driving, since driver behaviour is a critical element in energy efficiency. The focus of the project is on technology working with the driver. The project aims to deliver the most effective feedback to drivers on green driving by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop. It will carry out a substantial programme of work to investigate how best to win the support of the driver to obtain the most energy-efficient driving style for best energy use. Feedback coverage will include preview of the upcoming situation, optimising the current driving situation as well as post-drive feedback and learning. The project will address this across a wide range of vehicles -- e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses -- covering both individual and collective transport, and will optimise feedback to drivers for both nomadic devices and built-in systems and compare the effectiveness of each. The project will evaluate HMIs and feedback to drivers via both nomadic devices and built-in systems and compare the effectiveness of each. In each case a range of HMIs and feedback styles will be assessed. The project aims to examine driving not only with current and near-term powertrains but also with a full range of future vehicles, including various types of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. A comprehensive evaluation will be carried out both in the laboratory (a variety of driving simulators) and in real world driving in both the private and fleet contexts. Scenarios will be developed to assess the implications for the future effectiveness of green driving support. The target of ecoDriver is to deliver a 20% improvement in energy efficiency by autonomous means alone, which opens up the possibility of greater than 20% savings in combination with cooperative systems.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FCT-16-2015 | Award Amount: 3.42M | Year: 2016
Organized Crime and Terrorist Networks (OC/TN) are a major challenge for the European Union and many different stakeholder groups are involved in creating awareness, preventing, identifying and intervene in case of risk or threat. But in order to develop better strategies and instruments, we still need a deeper understanding of these phenomena. TAKEDOWN therefore aims at generating such novel insights on OC/TN. In order to meet this challenge and to investigate this complex field of research a multidimensional modelling approach is used. The resulting, proprietary TAKEDOWN Model describes social, psychological, economic aspects as well as further dimensions, activities and response approaches. A comprehensive empirical research combined with European and international expert knowledge ensures a valid and intuitive model. The TAKEDOWN Open Information Hub targets first-line-practitioners and provides modular solutions and inductive materials. The public web platform helps individuals to navigate to the right third party reporting and help lines including an innovative crowd reporting application to report digital OC/TN cases. The TAKEDOWN OC/TN Professional Solution Platform consists of various modules for law enforcement and homeland security departments. Designed with a flexible Platform as a Service (PaaS) architecture it combines knowledge materials and digital security solutions. Via the TAKEDOWN Security Dashboard information streams of native and third party applications are combined in an identification and issue management cockpit. The TAKEDOWN Professional Advisor supports experts on the selection of relevant approaches and security solutions to tackle OC/TN. With this multi-level approach, TAKEDOWN will force a better understanding of OC/TN, develop modern approaches and solutions, and will finally lead to a more efficient and effective response on OC/TN and strengthen social cohesion at pan-European level.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2014 | Award Amount: 405.00K | Year: 2015
This Research and Innovation Staff Exchange project aims to develop and maintain long term collaborations between Universities in the EU with China and Australia. This collaboration will build a truly world-leading group through 140 person months of structured staff exchanges involving 38 individual researchers to innovate next generation advanced thermal processing of wastes. The research innovation unites the researchers with a common goal to advance waste pyrolysis technology by introduction of novel catalysts to produce an innovative two-stage pyrolysis-catalytic process and to exploit that technology. The technology allows flexible processing of waste plastics to selectively target and produce high value products - (i) hydrogen, (ii) carbon nanotubes, (iii) chemicals or (iv) gasoline. Our partners in China have expertise in novel advanced thermal processing of wastes developed to pilot and demonstration scale. Our Australian partner has expertise in emerging catalytic technologies coupled with green chemical processes. The staff exchanges will provide outstanding knowledge transfer and career development for the experienced and early stage researchers. The project targets 25 million tonnes of waste plastics generated in the EU each year, which can through research and innovation be turned from a waste problem into a valuable resource for high value products. The project showcases to the public a high profile example of waste as a resource. This project will provide an innovative and economic recycling technology concept for European municipalities, waste management companies and SMEs. The EU partners plan exploitation of the technology through spin-out companies and industrial partnerships. Also, the input of advanced technologies into the traditionally low technology waste processing industry will provide the opportunity to up-skill the existing workforce and showcase an attractive career path for professional engineers, scientists & technologists. We propose an Amendment to the Grant Agreement by extending the research and innovation to include biomass waste as an additional feedstock. Biomass waste is a major waste source in the EU presenting non-food crop biomass such as, urban waste wood, forestry residues, agricultural residues and the biomass portion of municipal solid waste (paper/cardboard). Extending the project to include biomass wastes further maximises the proposed flexibility of the technology. Also mixing waste plastics and biomass wastes advances the current state-of-the-art of knowledge in high value product production from waste materials since there is very little research in the area in regard to the production of (i) hydrogen (ii) carbon nanotubes (iii) chemicals or (iv) gasoline
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: TPT.2011.2-1. | Award Amount: 1.94M | Year: 2011
The work to be carried out in COMPASS can build on a substantial body of knowledge on co-modal and intermodal passenger transport already available from past and current projects, in particular KITE, LINK, INTERCONNECT, HERMES, CLOSER, ORIGAMI and USEmobility. From this basis, COMPASSs specific scientific and technological objectives are: To identify key trends (demographic, societal, economical, policy etc) that will affect mobility now and in the future; To identify the mobility needs of current and future travellers; To identify the potential role of ICT in promoting co-modality and data collection; To identify the information that would be needed from data in order properly understand mobility, to optimise a future co-modal transport system and to assess the impact of new solutions; To analyse existing surveys with regard to data available concerning long-distance, rural and urban travel; To identify solutions to improving behavioural data (from ICT or elsewhere) and needs and opportunities for harmonisation of the data collected, in particular in the various national surveys (this also includes new definitions of accessibility indicators); To identify and investigate ICT solutions to influence mobility patterns for long-distance, rural and urban travel towards increased co-modality; To develop business models that enable and promote these solutions in practice; To assess the potential impact of the solutions identified both on local and on European level, in particular with regard to carbon emissions; To derive conclusions and recommendations for national and EU transport policy and actions; To disseminate the findings widely amongst policy makers and other stakeholders as well as researchers and the transport industry. The main outputs of COMPASS will be a Handbook of ICT solutions for improving co-modality in passenger transport and An assessment of the potential impact of ICT solutions on a co-modal transport system.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SST.2010.1.3-1. | Award Amount: 2.98M | Year: 2011
The objective of the project is to upgrade and further develop the current TRANSTOOLS model, here referred to as TT2, to a new and improved European transport demand and network model (TT3). The project will improve the methodological basis of TRANSTOOLS, improve and validate its data foundation, deal with known deficiencies of the existing model, make the software faster and more efficient, and focus on the user needs, model documentation and model validation. The model will be updated to the 2010 base year based upon ETISplus data. The level of detail with regard to the rail, maritime and air transport modules will be increased. The aim here is to better analyse issues of cost, capacity and externalities of transport. The impact assessment model will be improved. Cross cutting activities will focus on methodological improvements of the model, updating and validating the data, re-estimating and re-calibrating the model, and performing an overall validation of the entire framework. Special focus will be on making the model more efficient with regard to calculation time, yet without compromising on the scientific validity with regard to causal relationships and described transport behaviour. The TT3 will deliver a validated, well documented and user friendly model that will provide policy makers with a tool for assessing and developing better transport policies. TT3 will continue the tool-box approach from prior versions of the model, which ensures that it can address the needs of many different types of user, for example analyses of EU-wise transport policies, analyses of TEN-projects and links to interregional and national project appraisals. The final model of TT3 will be IPR free and more open than the present model. The consortium ensures links back to TT1, TT2, a number of other relevant Framework projects, and ensures a strong University research base including several of the leading European Universities. This guarantees a clolink to recent research.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.40M | Year: 2015
Challenges facing technology for power efficient, high density, high speed information processing and storage are well recognised, and strategies for meeting them in the short term define the shape of industry roadmaps. As a consequence, in the next ten years, radically new approaches will be implemented and will transform how data is stored and manipulated. Skyrmion-based devices are newcomers to this global race for the next generations of information technology. Skyrmions were discovered in magnetic crystals only a few years ago, but we already have within reach a possibility to create them in nanoscale devices that can be made compatible with conventional integrated circuit technology. Our work in MAGicSky will substantiate this possibility. The potential benefits are enormous. Skyrmions are magnetic solitons that carry information, and are remarkably robust against defects that can trap or destroy them due to the topology of their magnetic texture. Topology also appears to further underlie other of their technologically important features: mobility with small continuous currents and singular dynamics under radio-frequency. MAGicSky will engage some of the most advanced materials fabrication, characterisation and microscopic imaging facilities in Europe together with leading theoretical and computational modelling capabilities, to create the first proof-of-concept room temperature spintronic devices based on magnetic skyrmions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IRSES | Award Amount: 3.25M | Year: 2011
The High Energy Physics (HEP) European scientific community has developed cutting-edge, large-scale facilities that make it a world leader. Particle Physics Programmes in Europe are attracting participation of groups from non-European countries, in particular from Latin America. In the reciprocal direction, the Pierre Auger Observatory for High Energy Cosmic Rays, recently established in Argentina, receives a large European participation. The Latin American HEP community is composed of about 1000 physicists and engineers, more than a half young physicists, graduates and PhDs. In Europe, Latin American physicists collaborate with Research Institutions, Universities and with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). Current trend is to increase participation in CERN, in view of the start-up of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Large scale LA-Europe collaboration is recent, however, and needs to be consolidated. The EPLANET program will support visits from Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico to CERN and other European Institutions and from European countries to the AUGER Observatory, with short exchanges (1-2 months) for senior and longer exchanges (2-12 months) for junior investigators, for a total of about 1800 months. Visits will be used to perform research on the LHC and AUGER experiments, inside well established groups. Scientific results thereby obtained will parallel advanced training and acquisition of new techonologies in accelerator and detector physics, medical physics and ICT. EPLANET will foster the community and develop internal Latin-American collaboration to reach the critical scientific mass and profit from the educational, technological and industrial impact of HEP. The detachment of European senior and junior scientists in Latin-America will strengthen research partnership between Latin America and Europe. EPLANET will foster a sustainable collaboration between Europe and Latin America in HEP and associated technologies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMP-18-2014 | Award Amount: 10.78M | Year: 2015
WRAP aims to identify and develop innovative partly waste-based long-fibre reinforced composites enabling the automatic production of easily customisable plastic sports goods. The project will focus on the production of balls and shoes and will adopt a design-driven approach exploiting the automation potential of rotation moulding processes, which offer significant design freedom. The innovation potential of the moulding processes to be employed originates from their capacity of bonding together a multitude of different materials, while effecting external product shaping without using glue and/or other adhesives. The starting point is the development of composite materials superimposed in the form of layers in variable ways according to the targeted (custom) shape and the required properties. The insertion of decorative elements in the mould will enable design custom designs, along with 3D printing. An end-to-end collaborative design innovation will be adopted. The WRAP consortium gathers expertise across the value chain from design to material development, production, marketing and distribution and across multiple disciplines industrial design, material science, recycling and industrial processes. The new flexible automatic production, can set a paradigm of competitive production Made in Europe favouring ranging from modular factories to in-store production cells.
Califano M.,University of Leeds |
Gomez-Campos F.M.,University of Granada
Nano Letters | Year: 2013
Size tunability of the optical properties and inexpensive synthesis make semiconductor nanocrystals one of the most promising and versatile building blocks for many modern applications such as lasers, single-electron transistors, solar cells, and biological labels. The performance of these nanocrystal-based devices is however compromised by efficient trapping of the charge carriers. This process exhibits different features depending on the nanocrystal material, surface termination, size, and trap location, leading to the assumption that different mechanisms are at play in each situation. Here we revolutionize this fragmented picture and provide a unified interpretation of trapping dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals by identifying the origins of this so far elusive detrimental process. Our findings pave the way for a general suppression strategy, applicable to any system, which can lead to a simultaneous efficiency enhancement in all nanocrystal-based technologies. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Gomez-Campos F.M.,University of Granada |
Califano M.,University of Leeds
Nano Letters | Year: 2012
Carrier trapping is one of the main sources of performance degradation in nanocrystal-based devices. Yet the dynamics of this process is still unclear. We present a comprehensive investigation into the efficiency of hole transfer to a variety of trap sites located on the surface of the core or the shell or at the core/shell interface in CdSe nanocrystals with both organic and inorganic passivation, using the atomistic semiempirical pseudopotential approach. We separate the contribution of coupling strength and energetics in different systems and trap configurations, obtaining useful general guidelines for trapping rate engineering. We find that trapping can be extremely efficient in core-only systems, with trapping times orders of magnitude faster than radiative recombination. The presence of an inorganic shell can instead bring the trapping rates well below the typical radiative recombination rates observed in these systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2012.2.2-1 | Award Amount: 18.29M | Year: 2013
Articulating joint replacements represent a medical market exceeding 14 billion p.a. that is expected to rise as demographics reflect an ageing population. However, faster growth has been seen in the revision market, where prosthetic joints are replaced, than in primary interventions. The major cause of these revisions is that all joint replacements are prone to wear leading to loss of implant function. Further, it has been demonstrated that adverse or extreme loading has a detrimental effect on implant performance. Thus, device failure still occurs too frequently leading to the conclusion that their longevity and reliability must be improved. The premise of this proposal is to realise that wear and corrosion are an inevitable consequence of all implant interfaces within contemporary total joint replacements. To overcome this problem our novel approach is to use silicon nitride coatings in which the combined high wear resistance of this material and solubility of any silicon nitride wear particles released, reduce the overall potential for adverse tissue reactions. In this work a variety of silicon nitride based coatings will be applied to different tribological scenarios related to total hip arthroplasty. The coatings suitability in each scenario will be assessed against target profiles. In particular, it is important to consider coating performance within each of these applications under adverse conditions as well as those outlined in internationally utilised standards. To accomplish this, cutting-edge adverse simulation techniques, in vitro assays and animal models will be developed together with a suite of computational assessments to significantly enhance device testing in terms of predicting clinical performance. Data will inform new standards development and enhance current testing scenarios, and will provide 5 European enterprises with a significant market advantage, whilst providing data for a regulatory submission which is aligned with Dir 93/42/EEC.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 2.27M | Year: 2014
This proposal seeks funding to acquire a stepper and associated wafer coater, tools to enable photolithographic patterning of semiconductor wafers for device and circuit fabrication. The stepper will be located at Southampton University in the recent £120m cleanroom complex. It will relieve the bottleneck within the cleanroom, an electron beam lithography tool, which is a slower alternative patterning tool. This will increase capacity within the cleanroom complex and facilitate and underpin a wealth of world class research. Not only will research at Southampton be enhanced, but Southampton (SOU), Glasgow (GLA), and Surrey (SUR) universities will pool resources to establish a Silicon Photonics Fabrication Capability within the UK, to facilitate an increasing demand for the fabrication of Silicon Photonics devices from the UKs premier researchers. This will encourage wider usage of world class equipment within the UK, in line with EPSRC policy. We seek funding for both the equipment and 3.5 RAs across the 3 institutions, over a 4 year period, to establish and deliver the Capability. Access to a very significant inventory of additional equipment at these 3 universities will be facilitated. The Capability is extremely timely, as silicon foundry services around the world are moving towards a model in which standard platforms and devices will be offered, making it more difficult for researchers to carry out innovative work at the device level, or in non-standard platforms. The proposal is supported by 36 members of academic staff at Southampton, with a total current research portfolio of projects valued in excess of £88m. Furthermore we have 10 project partners who will take part in the use and assessment of the silicon photonics capability by designing and subsequently testing fabricated devices. Their total in-kind contribution is valued at £793,300. These partners have expressed an interest in using the capability after the project has been completed. In addition have contacted a few example potential users from within the industrial sector (SMEs), and from around the world who have also provided letters of support indicating that they would use the capability after the project is complete. Taking this net proposed usage, it is clear that the equipment will be sustained beyond the period of the funded project. The Southampton users alone need only generate a tiny fraction (0.2%) of their research portfolio to cover running costs and depreciation. Consumables will increase with usage, but clearly, the silicon photonics capability will generate paying users, to further sustain the capability beyond the project, which will, in turn, allow UK researchers to compete effectively on the world stage in the buoyant field of silicon photonics. Beyond the 4 year project, the Silicon Photonics Capability will be operated by the commercial arms of the 3 partner universities, all of whom have provided letters of support confirming their ongoing participation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.4.2-1 | Award Amount: 2.89M | Year: 2014
The project Media, Conflict and Democratisation investigates the role of traditional media and ICTs in conflicts that accompany and follow transitions to democracy. Our research focuses on three major arenas of contentious politics in emerging democracies: constitutional conflicts, accountability conflicts and election conflicts. We argue that the media cannot be sufficiently understood in isolation, but have to be seen as part of an arena of public contestation that is occupied by multiple actors, each of which thriving to dominate the interpretations and outcomes of ongoing conflicts. Thus, the project aims to investigate The way in which traditional media in emerging democracies portray conflicts and whether media coverage contributes to the polarisation or moderation of divisions The diffusion of conflict messages through new ICTs; The role perceptions, ethics and working practices of journalists in conflict situations; The communication behaviour of conflict parties governments, political leaders, civil society groups during conflicts and how communications heightens or ameliorates tensions The empirical research will be carried out in four emerging democracies: Serbia, Egypt, Kenya and South Africa. These countries were chosen because their political development is of great significance for the respective geographical region in which they are located. All four countries have experienced severe democratisation conflicts, but represent distinct contexts that help to understand how cultural, political and social factors shape the role of the media in democratisation conflicts. The project will closely work together with relevant stakeholders to develop recommendations for communication interventions that help to prevent conflicts and provide strategies for effective conflict management and conflict resolution. In particular, we will provide knowledge and skills as to how ICT tools can be used for effective communication management during conflicts
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: COMPET-05-2015 | Award Amount: 1.78M | Year: 2016
We propose to use a combination of data from the ESA space missions GAIA and Herschel, alongside other satellite and European-led ground-based observations, to map the density distribution of star formation regions. This will allow us to identify the mechanisms that underlie both how massive stars themselves form, but more fundamentally, how their natal clusters evolve around them. Our work will underpin studies of how all galaxies evolve. The combination of the two ESA missions will allow us to study clusters and associations of stars when they are very young (much less than 1 Myr old), when the structures we see are a better match to the initial conditions. No one has attempted such a project before as the required datasets were not available. The novel data and complexity of the combined datasets require the development of new analysis and visualization tools. In particular we will statistically compare hybrid large scale N-body \ SPH models with the combined 6-dimensional Gaia plus Herschel and gas kinematical data. Our goals therefore are structured to develop new techniques that we will initially test on simulations. We will follow this with tests on observational data of slightly older clusters (about 1Myr old). We will then apply the tested methodologies to the very youngest clusters. This will address our final goal of cracking the problem of how the most massive stars and clusters form.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-01-2014 | Award Amount: 15.00M | Year: 2015
CRESCENDO brings together seven Earth System Modelling (ESM) groups with three Integrated Assessment Modelling teams, as well as experts in ESM evaluation, ESM projection and feedback analysis, climate impacts and science communication to address the following goals; (i) improve the process-realism and simulation-quality of European ESMs in order to increase the reliability of future Earth system projections; (ii) develop and apply a community ESM evaluation tool allowing routine ESM performance benchmarking, process-based ESM evaluation and the analysis of Earth system projections. The resulting tool will be installed and made openly-available on the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF); (iii) further develop the discipline of emergent constraints in order to better constrain the representation of key biogeochemical and aerosol feedbacks in ESMs and thereby reduce overall uncertainty in Earth system projections; (iv) quantify the effective radiative forcing of key biogeochemical and aerosol feedbacks in ESM projections; (v) contribute to the development of a new set of combined socio-economic and climate emission scenarios that more explicitly link future socio-economic development pathways with global radiative forcing; (vi) apply the project ESMs to these new scenario data to generate an ensemble of Earth system projections for the coming century and, in combination with the underlying socio-economic scenarios, use these projections to assess joint risks and co-benefits related to climate change, climate impacts, adaptation and mitigation; (vii) ensure data produced by CRESCENDO is available to the international community through timely archival on the ESGF and work closely with climate impact assessment and regional downscaling teams to ensure maximum uptake and use of these data in such complementary areas of science; (viii) actively disseminate knowledge generated in CRESCENDO to fellow scientists, policymakers and the general public.