Lausanne, Switzerland

University of Lausanne
Lausanne, Switzerland

The University of Lausanne in Lausanne, Switzerland was founded in 1537 as a school of theology, before being made a university in 1890. Today about 13,500 students and 2,200 researchers study and work at the university. Approximately 1,500 international students attend the university , which has a wide curriculum including exchange programs with world renowned universities.Since 2005, the University follows the requirements of the Bologna process. The 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked the University of Lausanne 116th globally. The CWTS Leiden Ranking 2013 ranks the University of Lausanne 17th in Europe and 68th globally.Together with the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne the university forms a vast campus at the shores of Lake Geneva. Wikipedia.

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University of Lausanne | Date: 2015-02-13

The present invention is related to miR-21-3p inhibitors, which are particularly useful in the prevention and/or treatment of skin disorders.

Franken P.,University of Lausanne
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2013

The timing and quality of both sleep and wakefulness are thought to be regulated by the interaction of two processes. One of these two processes keeps track of the prior sleep-wake history and controls the homeostatic need for sleep while the other sets the time-of-day that sleep preferably occurs. The molecular pathways underlying the latter, circadian process have been studied in detail and their key role in physiological time-keeping has been well established. Analyses of sleep in mice and flies lacking core circadian clock gene proteins have demonstrated, however, that besides disrupting circadian rhythms, also sleep homeostatic processes were affected. Subsequent studies revealed that sleep loss alters both the mRNA levels and the specific DNA-binding of the key circadian transcriptional regulators to their target sequences in the mouse brain. The fact that sleep loss impinges on the very core of the molecular circadian circuitry might explain why both inadequate sleep and disrupted circadian rhythms can similarly lead to metabolic pathology. The evidence for a role for clock genes in sleep homeostasis will be reviewed here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Jahn R.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Fasshauer D.,University of Lausanne
Nature | Year: 2012

Calcium-dependent exocytosis of synaptic vesicles mediates the release of neurotransmitters. Important proteins in this process have been identified such as the SNAREs, synaptotagmins, complexins, Munc18 and Munc13. Structural and functional studies have yielded a wealth of information about the physiological role of these proteins. However, it has been surprisingly difficult to arrive at a unified picture of the molecular sequence of events from vesicle docking to calcium-triggered membrane fusion. Using mainly a biochemical and biophysical perspective, we briefly survey the molecular mechanisms in an attempt to functionally integrate the key proteins into the emerging picture of the neuronal fusion machine. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Rossier B.C.,University of Lausanne
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) constitutes the rate-limiting step for sodium reabsorption in epithelial cells that line the distal part of the renal tubule, the distal colon, the duct of several exocrine glands, and the lung. The activity of this channel is regulated by aldosterone and hormones involved in the maintenance of sodium balance, blood volume and blood pressure. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of ENaC function and regulation relevant to the control of sodium balance and blood pressure. The identification of novel drug targets should help in the development of the next generation of diuretics and of new therapies for the treatment of hypertension. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The last several years have seen an increasing number of studies that describe effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on the behavior of animals or humans. Studies in humans have reported behavioral changes and, through fMRI, effects on brain function. These studies are paralleled by a large number of reports, mostly in rodents, that have also demonstrated neuromodulatory effects by oxytocin and vasopressin at the circuit level in specific brain regions. It is the scope of this review to give a summary of the most recent neuromodulatory findings in rodents with the aim of providing a potential neurophysiological basis for their behavioral effects. At the same time, these findings may point to promising areas for further translational research towards human applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Stoop R.,University of Lausanne
Neuron | Year: 2012

Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) are two closely related neuropeptides, widely known for their peripheral hormonal effects. Specific receptors have also been found in the brain, where their neuromodulatory actions have meanwhile been described in a large number of regions. Recently, it has become possible to study their endogenous neuropeptide release with the help of OT/VP promoter-driven expression of fluorescent proteins and light-activated ion channels. In this review, I summarize the neuromodulatory effects of OT and VP in different brain regions by grouping these into different behavioral systems, highlighting their concerted, and at times opposite, effects on different aspects of behavior.

Santello M.,University of Lausanne | Volterra A.,University of Lausanne
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2012

Pathological brain states are known to induce massive production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). At much lower levels, these cytokines are also present in the healthy brain, where it is increasingly being recognized that they exert regulatory influences. Recent studies suggest that TNFα plays important roles in controlling synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we discuss the evidence in support of synaptic regulation by TNFα and the underlying cellular mechanisms, including control of AMPA receptor trafficking and glutamate release from astrocytes. These findings suggest that increases in TNFα levels (caused by nervous system infection, injury, or disease) transform the physiological actions of the cytokine into deleterious ones. This functional switch may contribute to cognitive alterations in several brain pathologies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing narcolepsy. To further define the genetic basis of narcolepsy risk, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 562 European individuals with narcolepsy (cases) and 702 ethnically matched controls, with independent replication in 370 cases and 495 controls, all heterozygous for DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602. We found association with a protective variant near HLA-DQA2 (rs2858884; P < 3 x 10(-8)). Further analysis revealed that rs2858884 is strongly linked to DRB1*03-DQB1*02 (P < 4 x 10(-43)) and DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 (P < 3 x 10(-7)). Cases almost never carried a trans DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 haplotype (odds ratio = 0.02; P < 6 x 10(-14)). This unexpected protective HLA haplotype suggests a virtually causal involvement of the HLA region in narcolepsy susceptibility.

Kaessmann H.,University of Lausanne
Genome Research | Year: 2010

Ever since the pre-molecular era, the birth of new genes with novel functions has been considered to be a major contributor to adaptive evolutionary innovation. Here, I review the origin and evolution of new genes and their functions in eukaryotes, an area of research that has made rapid progress in the past decade thanks to the genomics revolution. Indeed, recent work has provided initial whole-genome views of the different types of new genes for a large number of different organisms. The array of mechanisms underlying the origin of new genes is compelling, extending way beyond the traditionally well-studied source of gene duplication. Thus, it was shown that novel genes also regularly arose from messenger RNAs of ancestral genes, protein-coding genes metamorphosed into new RNA genes, genomic parasites were coopted as new genes, and that both protein and RNA genes were composed from scratch (i.e., from previously nonfunctional sequences). These mechanisms then also contributed to the formation of numerous novel chimeric gene structures. Detailed functional investigations uncovered different evolutionary pathways that led to the emergence of novel functions from these newly minted sequences and, with respect to animals, attributed a potentially important role to one specific tissue - the testis - in the process of gene birth. Remarkably, these studies also demonstrated that novel genes of the various types significantly impacted the evolution of cellular, physiological, morphological, behavioral, and reproductive phenotypic traits. Consequently, it is now firmly established that new genes have indeed been major contributors to the origin of adaptive evolutionary novelties. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Geldner N.,University of Lausanne
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2013

A Casparian strip-bearing endodermis is a feature that has been invariably present in the roots of ferns and angiosperms for approximately 400 million years. As the innermost cortical layer that surrounds the central vasculature of roots, the endodermis acts as a barrier to the free diffusion of solutes from the soil into the stele. Based on an enormous body of anatomical and physiological work, the protective endodermal diffusion barrier is thought to be of major importance for many aspects of root biology, reaching from efficient water and nutrient transport to defense against soil-borne pathogens. Until recently, however, we were ignorant about the genes and mechanisms that drive the differentiation of this intricately structured barrier. Recent work in Arabidopsis has now identified the first major players in Casparian strip formation. A mechanistic understanding of endodermal differentiation will finally allow us to specifically interfere with endodermal barrier function and study the effects on plant growth and survival under various stress conditions. Here, I critically review the major findings and models related to endodermal structure and function from other plant species and assess them in light of recent molecular data from Arabidopsis, pointing out where the older, descriptive work can provide a framework and inspiration for further molecular dissection. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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