Bogota, Colombia

University of La Sabana

www.unisabana.edu.co
Bogota, Colombia

The University of La Sabana , is a Colombian private higher education institution founded in 1979. It is located in the municipality of Chía, 7 km north of Bogotá. The university has been given the High Quality Institutional Accreditation by the National Ministry of Education. One of the university's characteristics is the integral formation of the student. Apart from enhancing the student's intellectual growth, the university has implemented initiatives to ensure success in the development of a student as a whole. One such program is Personalized Academic Counseling that aims to promote the development of the person as a unique individual. Another program, Pharos, is aimed at students who are in search of excellence, leadership and solidarity.La Sabana has 21 research groups classified by Colciencias, the government office that certifies the quality of research groups in Colombian universities. There are also 20 emerging groups that promote “semilleros de investigación” for students in all programmes.The university currently runs 18 undergraduate programmes. There are also 31 specialization programmes and five master’s programmes: Master in Education, Master in Process Management and Direction, Master in Business Administration , Master of Nursing, and Master in English Language Teaching – Autonomous Learning Environments. The university expects to have 17 masters programmes and two Ph.D. programmes in the future. Wikipedia.

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Since 1991, when the current Colombian Constitution came into force and the Constitutional Court was appointed as its guardian and protector, constitutional values have permeated all subjects and areas of law, even those that were previously considered as private matters. Prepaid medicine contracts are a good example of this phenomenon, since the Colombian Constitutional Court has limited individual freedom of contract to private parties -prepaid medical companies- for the benefit of final users of this service through “acción de tutela”, in order to protect the right to healthcare and to prevent some behaviors that violate the principle of good faith. The Court has demanded private companies to assess the health condition of patients and has prohibited pre-existent and exclusion clauses that diminish the responsibilities of said companies. Nevertheless, there is a gap in the law regarding the duties of good faith that concern the user, which will be addressed in this paper. © 2016, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.


Garcia A.M.B.,University of La Sabana | Cardenas F.P.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Morato S.,University of Sao Paulo
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2011

The so-called anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs are considered to cause, respectively, increases and decreases in plus-maze open arm exploration, without modifying locomotor activity occurring in the closed arms in an elevated plus-maze when the animals are tested in an illuminated environment. Simply testing animals in the dark also increases open arm exploration, which may be interpreted as an anxiolytic effect. We investigated the effects of two GABAergic drugs, pentylenetetrazol (10 and 20. mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (1.5 and 3. mg/kg), and one non-GABAergic drug, caffeine (10 and 30. mg/kg) on anxiety levels of rats tested in the elevated plus-maze under two illumination conditions, light or dark. All animals explored more the open arms in the dark. In the light, pentylenetetrazol decreased open arm exploration while chlordiazepoxide had the opposite effect. Neither pentylenetetrazol nor chlordiazepoxide had any effect in the dark. Caffeine, increased open arms exploration in both illumination conditions. These results indicate that light triggers aversion, a response mediated by GABA since the GABAergic drugs, but not caffeine, were ineffective when the rats were tested in the dark. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Burgos L.R.,University of La Sabana
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science | Year: 2011

The work by Demuth et al. (Integrative Psychological and Bahavioral Science 45:1-20, 2011) is very important in the scenario of transcultural research, as it goes beyond the specific contexts of India and Germany. They successfully explored the dialogic relation between remembered autobiography, the self and the culture from a trans-generational development perspective, managing to identify common and unique processes of each culture. I, however, using a dynamical systems approach, present a supplementary way to the one chosen in the study, with the goal of analyzing how these new perspectives might contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon. The dynamical systems is a perspective sensitive to non-linearity of phenomena and interested in understanding how processes emerge, as it may be useful to analyze the family as a dynamical system under constant interaction with other systems, which makes the emergence of the self, possible. Besides, it would enable the identification of trajectories that individuals build over time, the moments of change and variability, as well as identifying different types of patterns in the process of construction of the self. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Figueroa-Garcia J.C.,University of Caldas | Kalenatic D.,University of La Sabana | Lopez-Bello C.A.,University of Caldas
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2012

This paper shows a general model of a Mixed Production Planning problem with fuzzy demands. The main focus is the development of a model for Production Planning using fuzzy sets in order to use classical mathematical programming techniques to reach an optimal solution over a multiple criteria context. The classical Fuzzy Linear Programming model namely the Soft Constraints Model is used to involve flexibility in the problem. Moreover, an Interval Fuzzy Set approach is used to involve uncertainty in the problem. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Sanabria A.,University of La Sabana
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

Cholecystectomy is a common surgical procedure. In the open cholecystectomy area, antibiotic prophylaxis showed beneficial effects, but it is not known if its benefits and harms are similar in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Some clinical trials suggest that antibiotic prophylaxis may not be necessary in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo or no prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2010), MEDLINE (1985 to August 2010), EMBASE (1985 to August 2010), SCI-EXPANDED (1985 to August 2010), LILACS (1988 to August 2010) as well as reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised clinical trials comparing antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo or no prophylaxis in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Our outcome measures were all-cause mortality, surgical site infections, extra-abdominal infections, adverse events, and quality of life. All outcome measures were confined to within hospitalisation or 30 days after discharge. We summarised the outcome measures by reporting odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models. We included eleven randomised clinical trials with 1664 participants who were mostly at low anaesthetic risk, low frequency of co-morbidities, low risk of conversion to open surgery, and low risk of infectious complications. None of the trials had low risk of bias. We found no statistically significant differences between antibiotic prophylaxis and no prophylaxis in the proportion of surgical site infections (odds ratio (OR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.54) or extra-abdominal infections (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.46). Heterogeneity was not statistically significant. This systematic review shows that there is not sufficient evidence to support or refute the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce surgical site infection and global infections in patients with low risk of anaesthetic complications, co-morbidities, conversion to open surgery, and infectious complications, and undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Larger randomised clinical trials with intention-to-treat analysis and patients also at high risk of conversion to open surgery are needed.


When dealing with non-State actors such as terrorists or guerilla groups, States often have to act in a grey area between International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and International Human Rights Law (IHRL). The constant question is which of these two legal regimes is applicable and what their relationship is. Colombia, a veteran in dealing with non-State actors and internal conflicts, has recently set out to answer that question by applying a new approach of combining IHL and IHRL in a hybrid model. The legal basis for this approach is the new operational law for the Colombian armed forces, which offers guidance to the acting soldiers in the field. The Colombian approach is novel and unique and has to be scrutinized and analysed against the broader background of States' struggles with non-State armed groups. © Oxford University Press 2011; all rights reserved.


This study focuses on the problematic situations adolescents have to face resulting from their own alcohol use. These situations were described according to their type and frequency of occurrence, and possible explanatory variables were explored. In particular, we considered the effect of perceived peer intake of alcohol, social and family permissiveness, patterns of use and parental norms. The sample comprised 9276 adolescents from nine cities and municipalities in Colombia, with an average age of 14. Results indicate that the most common problematic situations experienced by the adolescents are: getting drunk, vomiting, and having problems at home or with one's boyfriend or girlfriend because of the drinking. As in previous studies, the behavior of peers is associated with severity of the drinking-related problems experienced by the adolescents. The study also suggests that easy access to alcohol is related to the perception that their peers use it, and appears to be more closely associated with the possibility of accessing alcohol at parties and among friends than with the perception that it is easy to buy it. It was also found that excessive drinking habits were associated with greater likelihood of negative consequences, that in Colombia the presence of alcohol use in the family is associated with fewer reports of extreme and difficult situations, and that having problems at home because of alcohol use is associated with a larger number of problems such as drunkenness and vomiting, among others.


Cardenas V.H.G.,University of La Sabana
Revista Colombiana de Anestesiologia | Year: 2012

Massive transfusion is considered a key component in the acute management of massive hemorrhage. While the existing protocols do not standardize its use, they do recommend its timely administration and a dose adjusted to the type of blood product, a proportionate ratio between hemocomponents and appropriate adjuvant drug support, in addition to techniques that promote bleeding control and prevent syndromes that could trigger a fatal outcome. This non-systematic reviewis intended to summarize the current concepts on the acute management of massive bleeding in trauma, from a non-surgical perspective. The search was limited to the articles of the last 10 years and included primary and secondary data basis, leading to a snowball technique. © 2012 Published by Elsevier España.


Chacon-Lee T.L.,University of La Sabana | Gonzalez-Marino G.E.,University of La Sabana
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010

Microalgae have the potential to become a novel source of bioactive molecules, especially for those who might wish to enhance the nutritional and functional quality of foods. Spirulina, one of the most popular microalgae, has been described by the World Health Organization as one of the greatest superfoods on earth serving as an example of the potential of microalgae. This review provides background on current and future uses of microalgae in the human diet, lists the most common species of microalgae used to this end, and describes some production methods used in research and industrial production and recovery. The review also discusses some of the difficulties so far encountered such as low productivities and recovery rates, as well as challenges in the production of compounds of interest. Many scientists and engineers in research centers around the globe are currently dedicated to solve these problems as the various capabilities of microalgae have caught the attention of the energy, environmental, and agricultural industries, we propose that the food industry should as well evaluate the potential of microalgae as a novel source of "health promoting" compounds. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Rodriguez G.,University of La Sabana
Leprosy review | Year: 2013

Agua de Dios was a leprosarium for leprosy patients' obligatory isolation (1872-1961). Its leprosy incidence is the highest in Colombia (1.5-7/10000). Relapses are common. Government grant of US$ 200 per month subsidy is available to patients with disabilities. Spontaneous consultation with neural symptoms is frequent and simulation to get the subsidy has to be considered. We studied 36 subjects (2007-2009), with ages from 29-78, 19 of them men, with neural symptoms of 6 months to 20 years evolution. All had clinical examination, bacteriological examination, skin and nerve biopsies, electromyography (EMG), PCR for M. leprae, IgM anti-PGL1, and lepromin A. All but two are household contacts of leprosy patients. Symptoms were hypoesthesia of the hands and feet, and difficulty using hands with loss of muscular strength. None had skin lesions. Three had thickening of ulnar nerve. Lepromin was positive in all; bacteriology and biopsies were negative in all. The speed and amplitude of neural conduction were altered in 34 patients; two women had normal EMG and were considered to be feigning the disease; 21 were diagnosed as PNL by clinical, epidemiological and EMG findings; five of them had a positive PCR and one, high titers for IgM anti PGL1. Nine other subjects had diabetes and six carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Slow progression of disease, the lack of neural enlargement and the neural biopsies without inflammation suggest that most of these patients could have spontaneously cured PNL, as happens with other cases of paucibacillary leprosy. Diabetes and CTS are important differential diagnoses of PNL. Patients were treated with MDT and received the state subsidy.

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