University Of La Guyane

Cayenne, France

University Of La Guyane

Cayenne, France
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Scotto C.I.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Burger P.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Khodjet el Khil M.,Oleaflore | Ginouves M.,University Of La Guyane | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Essential Oil Research | Year: 2017

This study reports for the first time the chemical composition of the essential oil of Varronia schomburgkii (DC.) Borhidi cultivated in French Guiana. This essential oil was examined by a combination of GC/FID and GC-MS techniques and was further tested for antifungal activity against several Candida strains, as well as for anti-leishmanial activity against the reference strain Leishmania guyanensis. A total of 45 components accounting for 93.61% of the total GC/FID chromatogram were identified. The essential oil is dominated by sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes among which β-caryophyllene (46.99 ± 0.32%) is the major one. No anti-leishmania activity could be assessed, while a strong antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evidenced in vitro against a Candida albicans strain by the definition of a MIC value of 250 μg/mL. V. schomburgkii essential oil might hence be considered in the future for the development of natural antifungal agents. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Simon S.,University Of La Guyane | Simon S.,Laboratoire Hospito University Of Parasitologie Mycologie | Nacher M.,University Of La Guyane | Nacher M.,Cayenne General Hospital | And 12 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and Health | Year: 2017

Background: The development of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for species identification among patients presenting leishmaniasis allowed to better determine the main circulating species in French Guiana. Methods: A descriptive study of the Leishmania species was identified, and their spatiotemporal distribution was conducted using patient records between 2006 and 2013, with 1017 new cases of leishmaniasis diagnosed. Identification was realized by PCR-RFLP on 745 cases. Results: The average proportions for different species were 86.2% for Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis; 9.7% for Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis; 2.8% for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; and 1.3% for Leishmania (Vianna) lainsoni, and no case of Leishmania (Vianna) naiffi was identified. Over this period, the proportion of cases due to L. (V.) braziliensis seemed to increase from 8.9% in 2006 to 13.0% in 2013 notably near the gold mining zones. Conclusions: The use of molecular tools has transformed the view of the local epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana. © 2017 The Author(s).


Ajzenberg D.,University of Limoges | Lamaury I.,Center Hospitalier University Of Pointe tre | Demar M.,University Of La Guyane | Demar M.,Center Hospitalier Of Cayenne | And 14 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana. Methodology/Principal Findings: Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay. Conclusion/Significance: Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621 © 2016 Ajzenberg et al.


PubMed | University of Limoges, French Institute of Health and Medical Research, University of Bordeaux 1, Toulouse 1 University Capitole and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2016

Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana.Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay.Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621.


Scotto C.I.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Burger P.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Khodjet el Khil M.,Guyaromes | Ginouves M.,University Of La Guyane | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Essential Oil Research | Year: 2016

This study reports the chemical composition of the essential oil of Nashia inaguensis Millsp. organically cultivated in French Guiana. This essential oil was examined by a combination of GC/FID and GC-MS techniques. A total of thirty-one components accounting for 97% of the total GC/FID chromatogram were identified. The most abundant ones were carvacrol (23.1%), p-cymene (18.7%), γ-terpinene (14.6%), thymol methyl ether (10.3%), thymol (8.3%), trans-β-caryophyllene (8.0%) and myrcene (2.3%). The essential oil of N.inaguensis was tested for the first time for antifungal and antiparasitic activities against strains of several Candida spp. and Leishmania guyanensis respectively: the strong antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was confirmed in vitro by the definition of MIC values ranging from 125 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL according to the Candida species tested, while the anti-Leishmania activity assessed by the definition of an IC50 value seem negligible. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


PubMed | University of Oxford, Institute Investigaciones Of La Amazonia Peruana, Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Embrapa Acre and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: eLife | Year: 2016

When 2 Mha of Amazonian forests are disturbed by selective logging each year, more than 90 Tg of carbon (C) is emitted to the atmosphere. Emissions are then counterbalanced by forest regrowth. With an original modelling approach, calibrated on a network of 133 permanent forest plots (175 ha total) across Amazonia, we link regional differences in climate, soil and initial biomass with survivors and recruits C fluxes to provide Amazon-wide predictions of post-logging C recovery. We show that net aboveground C recovery over 10 years is higher in the Guiana Shield and in the west (21 3 Mg C ha-1) than in the south (12 3 Mg C ha-1) where environmental stress is high (low rainfall, high seasonality). We highlight the key role of survivors in the forest regrowth and elaborate a comprehensive map of post-disturbance C recovery potential in Amazonia.


Epelboin L.,Center hospitalier Andree Rosemon | Epelboin L.,University Of La Guyane | Douine M.,University Of La Guyane | Douine M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2016

Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries. © 2016, Springer-Verlag France.


PubMed | Institute Pasteur Of La Guyane, Center Hospitalier Of Louest Guyanais, University Of La Guyane, Center hospitalier Andree Rosemon and Paris-Sorbonne University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990) | Year: 2016

Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries.


PubMed | CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development, CIRAD, Montpellier University and University Of La Guyane
Type: | Journal: Global change biology | Year: 2017

While high resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially-explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables. By coupling a model of deforestation location based on spatial environmental variables with several sub-models of deforestation intensity based on socio-economic variables, we were able to create a map of predicted deforestation over the period 2001-2014 in French Guiana. This map was compared to a reference map for accuracy assessment, not only at the pixel scale but also over cells ranging from 1 to approx. 600 sq. km. Highly significant relationships were explicitly established between deforestation intensity and several socio-economic variables: population growth, the amount of agricultural subsidies, gold and wood production. Such a precise characterisation of socio-economic processes allows to avoid overestimation biases in high deforestation areas, suggesting a better integration of socio-economic processes in the models. While considering deforestation as a purely geographical process contributes to the creation of conservative models unable to effectively assess changes in the socio-economic and political contexts influencing deforestation trends, this explicit characterisation of the socio-economic dimension of deforestation is critical for the creation of deforestation scenarios in REDD+ projects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Sadefo Kamdem J.,University Of La Guyane | Sadefo Kamdem J.,Montpellier University | Nsouadi A.,Montpellier University | Terraza M.,Montpellier University
Environmental Modeling and Assessment | Year: 2016

In this paper, interactions or co-movement between the CER and EUA futures prices are examined in order to shed light on the dependency between the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and the clean development mechanism (MDP). Our analysis uses the wavelet method to model the correlation between CER and EUA in the time-frequency domain. It highlights the impact of different investors (according to their investment horizons) on the co-movement between the CER and EUA prices, and therefore, the behavior of individual investors as speculators, arbitrageurs, and hedgers on European allowance and CDM credits cumulatively. In this vein, we analyze according to the frequency intervals, price convergence, identification of potential factors that could explain a difference in futures prices, and structural changes in the EUA and CER prices. The application is made using daily EUA’s and CER’s prices data. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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