Stenberg G.,University of Kristianstad |
Stenberg G.,Lund University
Journal of Parkinson's Disease | Year: 2016
The group Parkinson Inside Out is composed of health professionals and academic researchers who have been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease. In our discussions we try to make use of both our inside perspective as patients, and our outside perspective as professionals. In this paper, we apply the two perspectives to the Impulse Control Disorders. These impulsive behaviour patterns are thought to be relatively uncommon side effects of some of the medication used in dopamine replacement therapy. The phenomenon is usually described as relatively rare (<15%), and mainly confined to patients with special vulnerabilities. In contrast, we propose that having some problems with controlling impulses is a very common experience for patients undergoing dopamine replacement therapy. They result from difficulties in decision making engendered by variations in dopamine accessibility in the reward centre of the brain. Only in a minority do the consequences grow to the damaging proportions of a disorder, but most patients are probably affected to some degree. Seeing, and measuring, decision difficulties as a continuous dimension, rather than as a discrete category, brings increased possibilities for early detection and continuous monitoring. With reliable measures of the propensity for impulsive decision making, it may become possible to both reap the benefits and avoid the dangers of the dopamine agonists. We point to ways of empirically testing our continuity hypothesis. © 2016 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
Hansson L.-A.,Lund University |
Ekvall M.K.,Lund University |
Ekvall M.T.,Lund University |
Ahlgren J.,Lund University |
And 3 more authors.
Ecosphere | Year: 2014
By combining a large-scale experimental assessment on timing of insect emergence with longterm monitoring of waterfowl hatching date, we here show that insect emergence is mainly driven by temperature, whereas there is only a weak effect of increasing spring temperatures on inter-annual variability in observations of waterfowl chicks. Hence, a change in timing of the mass-emergence of insects from lakes and wetlands, which is the crucial food source for waterfowl chicks, will likely result in a consumer/resource mismatch in a future climate change perspective. Specifically, we experimentally show that a moderate increase in temperature of 38C above ambient, expected to occur within 25-75 years, leads to a considerably (2 weeks) earlier, and more pronounced, peak in insect emergence (Chironomus sp). Moreover, by utilizing long-term Citizen Science databases, ranging over several decades, we also show that common waterfowl species are unable to significantly adjust their reproduction to fit future temperature increase. Hence, based on our data we predict a future mismatch between insect emergence and waterfowl species basing their reproduction on temperature. This will have a profound impact on reproductive success and population dynamics of many aquatic birds, as well as on freshwater biodiversity. Copyright: © 2014 Hansson et al.
Widen C.,University of Kristianstad |
Coleman M.,Aston University |
Criten S.,University of Kristianstad |
Karlgren-Andersson P.,University of Kristianstad |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015
Bioactive molecules in berries may be helpful in reducing the risk of oral diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bilberry consumption on the outcome of a routine dental clinical parameter of inflammation, bleeding on probing (BOP), as well as the impact on selected biomarkers of inflammation, such as cytokines, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in individuals with gingivitis. Study individuals who did not receive standard of care treatment were allocated to either a placebo group or to groups that consumed either 250 or 500 g bilberries daily over seven days. The placebo group consumed an inactive product (starch). A study group, receiving standard of care (debridement only) was also included to provide a reference to standard of care treatment outcome. Cytokine levels were assayed using the Luminex MagPix system. The mean reduction in BOP before and after consumption of test product over 1 week was 41% and 59% in the groups that consumed either 250 or 500 g of bilberries/day respectively, and was 31% in the placebo group, and 58% in the standard of care reference group. The analysis only showed a significantreduction in cytokine levels in the group that consumed 500 g of bilberries/day. A statistically significant reduction was observed for IL-1β (p = 0.025), IL-6 (p = 0.012) and VEGF (p = 0.017) in GCF samples in the group that consumed 500 g of bilberries daily. It appears that berry intake has an ameliorating effect on some markers of gingival inflammation reducing gingivitis to a similar extent compared to standard of care. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Mohnke S.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin |
Erk S.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin |
Schnell K.,University of Heidelberg |
Schutz C.,University of Bonn |
And 26 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014
The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 in ZNF804A is one of the best-supported risk variants for psychosis. We hypothesized that this SNP contributes to the development of schizophrenia by affecting the ability to understand other people's mental states. This skill, commonly referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM), has consistently been found to be impaired in schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously showed that in healthy individuals rs1344706 impacted on activity and connectivity of key areas of the ToM network, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and the posterior cingulate cortex, which show aberrant activity in schizophrenia patients, too. We aimed to replicate these results in an independent sample of 188 healthy German volunteers. In order to assess the reliability of brain activity elicited by the ToM task, 25 participants performed the task twice with an interval of 14 days showing excellent accordance in recruitment of key ToM areas. Confirming our previous results, we observed decreasing activity of the left temporo-parietal junction, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex with increasing number of risk alleles during ToM. Complementing our replication sample with the discovery sample, analyzed in a previous report (total N=297), further revealed negative genotype effects in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex as well as in the temporal and parietal regions. In addition, as shown previously, rs1344706 risk allele dose positively predicted increased frontal-temporo-parietal connectivity. These findings confirm the effects of the psychosis risk variant in ZNF804A on the dysfunction of the ToM network. © 2014 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Widen C.,University of Kristianstad |
Criten S.,University of Kristianstad |
Renvert S.,University of Kristianstad |
Persson G.R.,University of Kristianstad
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016
There is currently an interest in the possible anti-inflammatory effects of intake of fruits and berries. The aim of this study was to determine whether the twice daily administration of a berry beverage rich in polyphenols had effects on salivary levels of a selected group of pro-inflammatory cytokines for one week in a pre- and post-study design. Levels of selected cytokines were compared in whole saliva and saliva obtained using commercially available collection devices (Salivette® Cotton and Salivette® Synthetic rolls). Twenty healthy subjects drank 200 mL of a berry beverage consisting of equal parts of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) diluted with 50% water. Levels of cytokines, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF-α were assessed. Levels of cytokines differed between sources of collection but were highest in whole saliva. The use of cotton or synthetic rolls does not seem to be useful as a method for saliva collection and cytokine analysis. There was no significant change in the levels of selected cytokines at baseline and after intake of the berry beverage in whole stimulated saliva. There was a large inter-individual variation in cytokine levels.