Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Free University of Kinshasa

www.ulk-rdc.org
Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Time filter

Source Type

Ilunga-Ilunga F.,Free University of Kinshasa | Leveque A.,Free University of Colombia | Ngongo L.O.,University of Notre Dame | Kandolo F.T.,Congo Inc | Dramaix M.,Free University of Colombia
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

Introduction: Malaria remains a real problem of public health. Its hospital care generates important expenditures for affected households. The present study aimed to estimate direct and indirect costs of severe child malaria in reference hospitals in Kinshasa.Methodology: This prospective study included 1,350 children under 15 years of age suffering from severe malaria. The study was performed between 1 January and 30 November, 2011. Data were collected in nine reference hospitals. The studied parameters were direct pre-hospital costs, direct hospital costs, and indirect costs. Costs were assessed from the household point of view.Results: Median costs associated with the disease ranged from 114 USD in confessional hospitals to 173 USD in state hospitals and 308 USD in private hospitals. Direct pre-hospital median costs ranged between 3 and 11 USD. Direct hospital costs reached 72 USD in confessional hospitals, 139 USD in state hospitals, and 254 USD in private hospitals. Indirect costs ranged from 22 USD in state hospitals to 30 USD in confessional hospitals and 46 USD in private hospitals, regardless of the status of the accompanying parent or guardian. Factors explaining the variability of costs were the neurological form of malaria, indirect recourse to hospital, socioeconomic level, type of prescribing person, child’s status upon leaving the hospital, and child’s transfusion status.Conclusions: The care of severe child malaria appeared to be expensive in private and state hospitals. A state subsidy of health care and regulation of the private sector would contribute to the reduction of malaria’s financial impact. © 2014 Ilunga-Ilunga et al.


PubMed | Free University of Kinshasa, University of Notre Dame and Free University of Colombia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical medicine and health | Year: 2015

In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), few studies have focused on treatment-seeking paths selected by caretakers for the management of severe childhood malaria in an urban environment. The present study aims at describing the treatment-seeking paths according to the characteristics of households, as well as the subsequent impact on pre-hospitalisation delay and malarial fatality and on the main syndromes associated with severe childhood malaria.This descriptive study included data collected at nine hospitals in Kinshasa between January and November 2011. A total of 1,350 children, under 15 years of age and hospitalised for severe malaria, were included in the study.Regarding the management of malaria, 31.5% of households went directly to the health centre or hospital while 68.5% opted for self-medication, church and/or traditional healing therapy. The most frequent first-line option was self-medication, adopted by more than 61.5% of households. Nevertheless, rational self-medication using antimalarial drugs recommended by the WHO (artemisinin-based combinations) was reported for only 5.5% of children. Only 12.5% of households combined 2 or 3 traditional options. The following criteria influenced the choice of a modern vs. traditional path: household socioeconomic level, residential environment, maternal education level and religious beliefs. When caretakers opted for traditional healing therapy, the pre-hospitalisation delay was longer and the occurrence of respiratory distress, severe anaemia and mortality was higher.The implementation of a malaria action plan in the Democratic Republic of Congo should take into account the diversity and pluralistic character of treatment-seeking behaviours in order to promote the most appropriate options (hospital and rational self-medication) and to avoid detrimental outcomes.


Ilunga-Ilunga F.,Free University of Kinshasa | Leveque A.,Free University of Colombia | Dramaix M.,Free University of Colombia
Archives de Pediatrie | Year: 2016

Introduction: This study aimed to determine the influence of the age and the level of malaria transmission on the clinical and biological expression of severe malaria in children. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was conducted in nine referral hospitals in Kinshasa. A total of 1350 children, less than 15 years old and hospitalized for severe malaria, were progressively included in the study between January and November 2011. Results: The majority of these children (74.5%) were less than 5 years of age. Major syndromes were severe anemia (11.4%), cerebral malaria (27.1%), and respiratory distress (20.5%). Severe anemia and cerebral malaria were associated with the age of the child and not the area transmission. On the other hand, respiratory distress was associated with high malaria transmission areas (P < 0.05). After adjustment, these associations were maintained. High malaria lethality was observed in the group of children aged 12-59 months (11.6%) and those from areas of high malaria transmission (8.4%). Conclusion: The child's age and level of transmission are associated with certain severe types of childhood malaria. Early and appropriate support would reduce the most fatal consequences associated with severe childhood malaria. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Description. This article deals with the improvement of the productivity of (poor) sandy and acidic soils in Kinshasa (DRC) using local natural resources in addition to mineral fertilization. Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ground charcoal (biochar) and Tithonia diversifolia leaves combined with mineral fertilizer on soil properties and on the performance of the maize crop. Method. Five treatments and an eyewitness: T0 (control), T1 (N120 P141 K134), T2 ([N60 P71 K67] + 30 t.ha-1 biochar), T3 ([N60 P71 K67] + 8 t.ha-1 T. diversifolia), T4 ([N120 P141 K134] + 30 t.ha-1 biochar), T5 (N160 P188 K179) repeated four times were compared in a randomized complete block. Physical and/or chemical analyses were carried out on the ground, on T. diversifolia leaves and on maize biomass. Results. The results showed that application of biochar and T. diversifolia leaves combined with mineral fertilizers increased the carbon content, the potassium content and the cation exchange capacity of the soil as well as grain yield, exports of mineral elements and the apparent coefficient of mineral elements use by the crop. Treatments under biochar reduced acidity and aluminum saturation with an improvement of the soil’s phosphorus availability. Taking into account the acceptability index, the T3 (AI = 3.06), T4 (AI = 2.92) and T2 (AI = 2.14), it would be possible for these treatments to be easily accepted by farmers. Conclusions. The results of this study provide an opportunity to improve the productivity of poor soils in Kinshasa and to increase the crop performance for a period of two campaigns with the use of biochar and T. diversifolia leaves in addition to mineral fertilizer. © 2016, FAC UNIV SCIENCES AGRONOMIQUES GEMBLOUX. All rights reserved.


Serckx A.,University of Liège | Serckx A.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Serckx A.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Huynen M.-C.,University of Liège | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos' grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits across their habitat range, in order to make accurate inter-species comparisons. In this study we investigated bonobo social cohesiveness at nesting sites depending on fruit availability in the forest-savannah mosaic of western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a bonobo habitat which has received little attention from researchers and is characterized by high food resource variation within years. We collected data on two bonobo communities. Nest counts at nesting sites were used as a proxy for night grouping patterns and were analysed with regard to fruit availability. We also modelled bonobo population density at the site in order to investigate yearly variation. We found that one community density varied across the three years of surveys, suggesting that this bonobo community has significant variability in use of its home range. This finding highlights the importance of forest connectivity, a likely prerequisite for the ability of bonobos to adapt their ranging patterns to fruit availability changes. We found no influence of overall fruit availability on bonobo cohesiveness. Only fruit availability at the nesting sites showed a positive influence, indicating that bonobos favour food 'hot spots' as sleeping sites. Our findings have confirmed the results obtained from previous studies carried out in the dense tropical forests of DRC. Nevertheless, in order to clarify the impact of environmental variability on bonobo social cohesiveness, we will need to make direct observations of the apes in the forest-savannah mosaic as well as make comparisons across the entirety of the bonobos' range using systematic methodology. © 2014 Serckx et al.


Ilunga-Ilunga F.,Free University of Kinshasa | Leveque A.,Free University of Colombia | Laokri S.,Free University of Colombia | Dramaix M.,Free University of Colombia
Journal of Infection and Public Health | Year: 2015

This study aimed to estimate the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures faced by households in Kinshasa with children affected by severe malaria. A total of 1350 children below the age of 15 year who were hospitalized due to severe malaria were included in the study. We analyzed the incidence of households facing catastrophic expenditures according to two thresholds: 40% of the household's capacity to pay and 10% of the household's total consumption. Based on the '40% of the capacity to pay' threshold, the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures reached 81.1%, and this estimate reached 46.4% for the '10% above total consumption' threshold. Regarding the ≥40% capacity to pay threshold, the incidences of catastrophic expenditures was higher among households with children who were admitted to state hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.7) and private hospitals (aOR 59.1), for poor households (aOR 13), for households with medium socioeconomic statuses (aOR 3.2), for female-headed households (aOR 2.9), for households with children affected by the neurological form (aOR 4.8) and respiratory distress (aOR 3.6), and for households who opted for a pre-hospital resort (aOR 2.7). Similar results were obtained when the 10% above the total consumption threshold was applied. Greater government financing of medical attention would lead to a reduction in the catastrophic health expenditures faced by the poorest households. © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.


This paper describes a review of the possibilities of improving HIV/AIDS prevention and reproductive health of teenagers and adolescents in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This approach was based on compilation of institutional, political, legislative and national strategy data. The document review was completed by information collected from 15 key informants and by direct observation of the work of peer educators and community workers, allowing evaluation of the possibilities of development of the priority domains of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in young adolescents. Health promotion interventions for adolescents are globally ensured institutionally by three specialized programmes of the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with numerous national and international partners. Organized operationally outside of the primary health care circuit, strategic actions are more specifically directed towards acquisition of knowledge than individual skills by means of IEC (information, education and communication) and (BCC) (behaviour change communication) approaches, but with disappointing results. Although traces of these five priority domains of the Ottawa Charter are perceptible in the national response to the health problems of adolescents, the work of the various actors is not coordinated and organized in compliance with health promotion guidelines. The training of health workers appears to be a major determinant to structure this response around a dynamic federating the actions of all stakeholders to orient them towards the options of the health promotion approach. © S.F.S.P.. Tous droits réservés pour tous pays.


PubMed | Free University of Kinshasa and Free University of Colombia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medecine et sante tropicales | Year: 2015

Malaria is a major health problem in tropical Africa. In DRC, little is known about the characteristics of households of children with severe malaria or the factors associated with its lethality, especially relative to hospital status.This study of 9 hospitals of the city-province of Kinshasa studied 1350 children younger than 15 years and hospitalized for severe malaria from January to November 2011.More than three quarters of children admitted to public (state) and church hospitals were from poor households and with uneducated mothers (P < 0.001). The case-fatality rate (5.9% of all children) differed according to hospital status: 5.3% in state hospitals, 8.4% in private hospitals, and 4.0% in the faith-based hospitals (P < 0.001). The risk of death was significantly associated with circulatory collapse (odds ratio, OR = 10.3), number of associated syndromes >2 (OR = 3.5), z-score of weight-for-age -2 (OR = 3.5), delay in seeking medical care (OR = 4.9), body temperature 40C (OR = 2.9), respiratory distress (OR = 1.9) and home rental (versus ownership) a tenant (OR = 2.8), and anorexia was a protective factor (odds ratio = 0.5).Severe cases of malaria are rife in poor households and periurban residential areas. Orienting prevention, control, and care- according to the vulnerability of affected households and providing early treatment are imperative if we are to reduce mortality from malaria.


PubMed | Free University of Kinshasa and Free University of Colombia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives de pediatrie : organe officiel de la Societe francaise de pediatrie | Year: 2016

This study aimed to determine the influence of the age and the level of malaria transmission on the clinical and biological expression of severe malaria in children.A prospective descriptive study was conducted in nine referral hospitals in Kinshasa. A total of 1350children, less than 15years old and hospitalized for severe malaria, were progressively included in the study between January and November2011.The majority of these children (74.5%) were less than 5years of age. Major syndromes were severe anemia (11.4%), cerebral malaria (27.1%), and respiratory distress (20.5%). Severe anemia and cerebral malaria were associated with the age of the child and not the area transmission. On the other hand, respiratory distress was associated with high malaria transmission areas (P<0.05). After adjustment, these associations were maintained. High malaria lethality was observed in the group of children aged 12-59months (11.6%) and those from areas of high malaria transmission (8.4%).The childs age and level of transmission are associated with certain severe types of childhood malaria. Early and appropriate support would reduce the most fatal consequences associated with severe childhood malaria.


PubMed | Free University of Kinshasa and Free University of Colombia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of infection and public health | Year: 2015

This study aimed to estimate the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures faced by households in Kinshasa with children affected by severe malaria. A total of 1350 children below the age of 15 year who were hospitalized due to severe malaria were included in the study. We analyzed the incidence of households facing catastrophic expenditures according to two thresholds: 40% of the households capacity to pay and 10% of the households total consumption. Based on the 40% of the capacity to pay threshold, the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures reached 81.1%, and this estimate reached 46.4% for the 10% above total consumption threshold. Regarding the 40% capacity to pay threshold, the incidences of catastrophic expenditures was higher among households with children who were admitted to state hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.7) and private hospitals (aOR 59.1), for poor households (aOR 13), for households with medium socioeconomic statuses (aOR 3.2), for female-headed households (aOR 2.9), for households with children affected by the neurological form (aOR 4.8) and respiratory distress (aOR 3.6), and for households who opted for a pre-hospital resort (aOR 2.7). Similar results were obtained when the 10% above the total consumption threshold was applied. Greater government financing of medical attention would lead to a reduction in the catastrophic health expenditures faced by the poorest households.

Loading Free University of Kinshasa collaborators
Loading Free University of Kinshasa collaborators