Cilek S.,University of Kinkkale |
Gotoh T.,Kyushu University
Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University | Year: 2012
This study was conducted to investigate the environmental factors affecting milk yield traits of Turkish Brown cows raised at the Ulaş state farm under a sub-tropical climate. First the effect of calving years on actual milk yield, daily milk yield, 305-day milk yield, 305-day mature age milk yield, lactation duration and dry period days were investigated. In 2000 to 2006, the actual milk yield, daily milk yield, 305-day milk yield, 305-day mature age milk yield, lactation duration and dry period days were significantly related to calving years. Second the effect of calving times on actual milk yield, daily milk yield, 305-day milk yield, 305-day mature age milk yield, lactation duration and dry period days were detected. These data indicate that the peak milk yield is at the 5th-7th calving times with maturity in Brown Swiss cows reared in the Central Anatolia region in Turkey. We carried out the effect of calving season on the identical items. The seasons of calving affect actual milk yield, days of lactation duration and days of dry period. Cows that calve in winter have the highest actual milk yield. This could be due to stable nutrition during the important first lactation period to avoid cold stress. However, better management is required for cows calved in autumn that are under high temperature stress during an important lactation period.
Cilek S.,University of Kinkkale |
Cilek S.,Kyushu University |
Gotoh T.,University of Kinkkale
Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University | Year: 2011
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental factors on reproductive traits of pure Brown Swiss cows reared under steppe climate conditions in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. In this study, 1502 reproductive records of Brown Swiss cows, which were reared in Ulas State Farm, were analyzed. The least squares means for gestation period, calving interval, non-pregnant period, insemination number for cows, insemination number per conception for heifers at first insemination, first insemination age, and age at first calving were 287 days, 416 days, 128 days, 1.8 times, 1.6 times, 608 days, and 928 days, respectively. Calving times significantly affected the non-pregnant period, calving interval and gestation period (P<0.05). The calving intervals were significantly the longest in the 2 nd calving time and the shortest in the 8 th and 9 th calving times (P<0.01). The birth season of heifers significantly affected first insemination age and age at first calving (P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively). For the calving season analysis, gestation period was the longest in autumn (P<0.01). The number of inseminations per conception for cows was significantly larger in spring and autumn than that in summer (P<0.01). The first calving ages were significantly earlier in autumn than in the other seasons (P<0.01). For analysis of insemination season, regarding insemination number per conception, first insemination age and first calving age, heifers in spring and summer were significantly larger than those in winter and autumn (P<0.01). These results suggested that 1) birth and insemination season affected first insemination age and first calving age, 2) Cows born in autumn and winter showed an earlier first insemination and first calving age than in spring and summer, and 3) the same trend would be observed for insemination season.