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Kiel, Germany

The Kiel University is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany. It was founded in 1665 as the Academia Holsatorum Chiloniensis by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and has approximately 24,000 students today. The University of Kiel is the largest, oldest, and most prestigious in the state of Schleswig-Holstein. Until 1864/66 it was not only the northernmost university in Germany but at the same time the 2nd largest university of Denmark. Wikipedia.

Luning U.,University of Kiel
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

On/off catalysts: Control over catalysis can be gained when the catalysts can be switched between an active and a nonactive state by external stimuli. In recent examples, orthogonal signals-light, pH, or the addition of ions-are used for the switching. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Bacteria adapt to growth in lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by selection of heterogeneously resistant variants that are not detected by conventional susceptibility testing but are selected for rapidly during antibacterial treatment. Therefore, total bacterial counts and antibiotic susceptibilities are misleading indicators of infection and are not helpful as guides for therapy decisions or efficacy endpoints. High drug concentrations delivered by aerosol may maximize efficacy, as decreased drug susceptibilities of the pathogens are compensated for by high target site concentrations. However, reductions of the bacterial loadinsputum and improvements in lung function were within the same ranges following aerosolized and conventional therapies. Furthermore, the use of conventional pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) surrogates correlating pharmacokinetics in serum with clinical cure and presumed or proven eradication of the pathogen as a basis for PK/PD investigations in CF patients is irrelevant, as minimization of systemic exposure is one of the main objectives of aerosolized therapy; in addition, bacterial pathogens cannot be eradicated, and chronic infection cannot be cured. Consequently, conven-tional PK/PD surrogates are not applicable to CF patients. It is nonetheless obvious that systemic exposure of patients, with all its sequelae, is minimized and that the burden of oral treatment for CF patients suffering from chronic infections is reduced. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Bosch T.C.G.,University of Kiel
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2014

The ability of multicellular organisms to detect and respond to microorganisms is fundamental and has ancient evolutionary origins. In this review, I evaluate our current understanding of the evolution of epithelial-based innate immunity in Hydra, an apparently simple animal that shares deep evolutionary connections with all animals, including humans. I highlight growing evidence that the innate immune system with its host-specific antimicrobial peptides and rich repertoire of pattern recognition receptors has evolved in response to the need for controlling resident beneficial microbes rather than to defend against invasive pathogens. These findings provide new insight into how developmental pathways beyond those associated with the immune system, such as stem cell transcriptional programs, interact with environmental cues such as microbes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sauter M.,University of Kiel
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

A device for optically representing intraocular pressure, having an arrangement which is implanted into the eye with a membrane that curves outwards when the intraocular pressure changes, and a contact surface, these altering the polarization for a spectral range of incident and reflected light in the region of their contact with one another, as well as a read-out arrangement that optically reproduces a planar image of the light which is reflected by the photonic crystal and whose polarization has been altered, and that comprises a polarization filter for the irradiated light and the light reflected by the photonic crystal. Also, a method for measuring intraocular pressure.

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