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Khartoum, Sudan

University of Khartoum is a multi-campus, co-educational, public university located in Khartoum. It is the largest and oldest university in Sudan. UofK was founded as Gordon Memorial College in 1902 and established in 1956 when Sudan gained independence. Since that date, the University of Khartoum has been recognized as a top university and a high-ranked academic institution in Sudan and Africa.It features several institutes, academic units and research centers including Mycetoma Research Center, Soba University Hospital, Saad Abualila Hospital, Dr. Salma Dialysis centre, Institute of Endemic Diseases and U of K publishing house. The Sudan Library, a section of the university's library, serves as the national library of Sudan. Wikipedia.

Cases of extreme natural selection could lead either to rapid fixation or extinction of alleles depending on the population structure and size. It may also manifest in excess of heterozygosity and the locus concerned will be displaying such drastic features of allele change. We suspect the 5q31 in chromosome 5 to mirror situation of such extreme natural selection particularly that the region encompasses genes of type 2 cytokine known to associate with a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases. We typed two sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) in two populations: an initial limited set of only 4 SNP within the genes of IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-9 in 108 unrelated individuals and a replicating set of 14 SN P in 924 individuals from the same populations with disregard to relatedness. The results suggest the 5q31 area to be under intense selective pressure as indicated by marked heterozygosity independent of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD); difference in heterozygosity, allele, and haplotype frequencies between generations and departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (DHWE). The study area is endemic for several infectious diseases including malaria and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Malaria caused by Plasmodiumfalciparum, however, occurs mostly with mild clinical symptoms in all ages, which makes it unlikely to account for these indices. The strong selection signals seems to emanate from recent outbreaks of VL which affected both populations to varying extent. Source

Kheir A.E.M.,University of Khartoum
Italian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Infantile colic is one of the major challenges of parenthood. It is one of the common reasons parents seek medical advice during their childs first 3 months of life. It is defined as paroxysms of crying lasting more than 3 hours a day, occurring more than 3 days in any week for 3 weeks in a healthy baby aged 2 weeks to 4 months. Colic is a poorly understood phenomenon affecting up to 30% of babies, underlying organic causes of excessive crying account for less than 5%. Laboratory tests and radiological examinations are unnecessary if the infant is gaining weight normally and has a normal physical examination. Treatment is limited and drug treatment has no role in management. Probiotics are now emerging as promising agents in the treatment of infantile colic. Alternative medicine (Herbal tea, fennel, glucose and massage therapy) have not proved to be consistently helpful and some might even be dangerous. In conclusion infantile colic is a common cause of maternal distress and family disturbance, the cornerstone of management remains reassurance of parents regarding the benign and self-limiting nature of the illness. There is a critical need for more evidence based treatment protocols. © 2012 Kheir; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Suliman A.,University of Khartoum
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa | Year: 2011

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide and an important cause of disability. In Africa, the burden of CVD is increasing rapidly and it is now a public health concern. Epidemiological data on diseases is scarce and fragmented on the continent. Aim: To review available data on the epidemiology and pattern of heart disease in Sudan. Methods: Data were obtained from the Sudan Household Survey (SHHS) 2006, annual health statistical reports of the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, the STEPS survey of chronic disease risk factors in Sudan/Khartoum, and journal publications. Results: The SHHS reported a prevalence of 2.5% for heart disease. Hypertensive heart disease (HHD), rheumatic heart disease (RHD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cardiomyopathy constitute more than 80% of CVD in Sudan. Hypertension (HTN) had a prevalence of 20.1 and 20.4% in the SHHS and STEPS survey, respectively. There were poor control rates and a high prevalence of target-organ damage in the local studies. RHD prevalence data were available only for Khartoum state and the incidence has dropped from 3/1 000 people in the 1980s to 0.3% in 2003. There were no data on any other states. The coronary event rates in 1989 were 112/100 000 people, with a total mortality of 36/100 000. Prevalence rates of low physical activity, obesity, HTN, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and smoking were 86.8, 53.9, 23.6, 19.8, 19.2 and 12%, respectively, in the STEPS survey. Peripartum cardiomyopathy occurs at a rate of 1.5% of all deliveries. Congenital heart disease is prevalent in 0.2% of children. Conclusion: Heart diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Sudan. The tetrad of hypertension, RHD, IHD and cardiomyopathy constitute the bulk of CVD. Hypertension is prevalent, with poor control rates. A decline in rheumatic heart disease was seen in the capital state and no data were available on other parts of the country. No recent data on IHD were available. Peripartum cardiomyopathy and congenital heart disease occur at similar rates to those in other African countries. Source

Elshoush H.T.,University of Khartoum | Osman I.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2011

As complete prevention of computer attacks is not possible, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) play a very important role in minimizing the damage caused by different computer attacks. There are two intrusion detection methods: namely misuse- and anomaly-based. A collaborative, intelligent intrusion detection system (CIIDS) is proposed to include both methods, since it is concluded from recent research that the performance of an individual detection engine is rarely satisfactory. In particular, two main challenges in current collaborative intrusion detection systems (CIDSs) research are highlighted and reviewed: CIDSs system architectures and alert correlation algorithms. Different CIDSs system, architectures are explained and compared. The use of CIDSs together with other multiple security systems raise certain issues and challenges in, alert correlation. Several different techniques for alert correlation are discussed. The focus will be on correlation of CIIDS alerts. Computational, Intelligence approaches, together with their applications on IDSs, are reviewed. Methods in soft computing collectively provide understandable, and autonomous solutions to IDS problems. At the end of the review, the paper suggests fuzzy logic, soft computing and other AI techniques, to be exploited to reduce the rate of false alarms while keeping the detection rate high. In conclusion, the paper highlights opportunities for an integrated solution to large-scale CIIDS. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Background: Although enhanced cholinergic activity of asthmatics has been established early on, little heart rate variability (HRV) studies were done on asthma patients. Previous HRV studies were based on 24-hour recordings and therefore have not considered the extremely labile activity of bronchial asthma. Objective: To evaluate the pattern of autonomic modulations in asthmatic patients based on short-term HRV studies. Materials and Methods: The study involved 100 asthmatic patients with an age range of 20-40 years. Asthma activity was evaluated over the last month prior to patients′ assessment using asthma control test (ACT). Allflow Spirometer was used for assessing pulmonary function, while Biocom 3000 electrocardiography recorder was used for studying 5-minute HRV. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software. Heart rate and asthma medications were introduced as a covariate when studied variables were screened for significant correlation between measurements of asthma severity and heart rate variability indices using partial correlations. Results: The level of asthma control correlate positively with both normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and the ratio of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) (CC = 0.302, 0.212 and P = 0.002, 0.036, respectively) and negatively with HF Norm (CC =-0.317, P = 0.001). Duration of asthma correlates positively with normalized high frequency (HF Norm) (CC = 0.235, P = 0.020) and negatively with LF Norm (CC =-0.250, P = 0.013). Conclusion: Poor asthma control is associated with lower HRV, depressed sympathetic and enhanced parasympathetic modulations especially in those with longer asthma duration. Source

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