Khartoum, Sudan

University of Khartoum

www.uofk.edu
Khartoum, Sudan

University of Khartoum is a multi-campus, co-educational, public university located in Khartoum. It is the largest and oldest university in Sudan. UofK was founded as Gordon Memorial College in 1902 and established in 1956 when Sudan gained independence. Since that date, the University of Khartoum has been recognized as a top university and a high-ranked academic institution in Sudan and Africa.It features several institutes, academic units and research centers including Mycetoma Research Center, Soba University Hospital, Saad Abualila Hospital, Dr. Salma Dialysis centre, Institute of Endemic Diseases and U of K publishing house. The Sudan Library, a section of the university's library, serves as the national library of Sudan. Wikipedia.


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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 6.45M | Year: 2010

Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis receive less than 5% of the global investment for tropical diseases research. Clinical praxis in disease-endemic countries (DEC) is rarely evidence based and does not make use of the latest innovations in diagnostic technology. NIDrelated research on diagnostics is particularly underfunded, and diagnostic tools are lacking for a number of NID. The aim of this proposal is to bridge the gap between existing technological innovation in diagnostics and clinical care practice for NID in resource-poor settings. The specific objectives are to develop simple, cost-effective diagnosis-treatment algorithms for three NID-related clinical syndromes: the persistent fever, the neurological and the digestive syndromes. Evidence-based algorithms for the primary care level will be designed with a patient-centred approach, following guidance from DEC stakeholders and making the best possible use of existing assays and treatments. Relevant diagnostic technology and diagnostic platforms will be introduced according to the specific epidemiological contexts in Africa and South-Asia. The research consortium brings together a network of clinical epidemiologists, a diagnostics development group, several partners from academia and SMEs. The consortium further includes workpackages on reference laboratory, economic evaluation, quality assurance and translation to policy. By developing accurate and affordable diagnostic platforms and by optimizing diagnostic-treatment algorithms, this project will rationalise treatment use, circumvent progression to severe presentations and thereby reduce NID morbidity/mortality and hinder the emergence of resistances. The project will result in two main deliverables: policy recommendation for health authorities in DEC, and a series of innovative diagnostic platforms.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.3.2-4 | Award Amount: 5.71M | Year: 2013

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if left untreated; East Africa is one of the key endemic areas in the world. Untreated patients are part of the retransmission cycle and VL-HIV co-infection is an additional emerging problem. Existing VL monotherapies are difficult to administer, toxic, costly and long with emerging resistance. Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin (SSG&PM) has been developed as the first combination treatment for VL in East Africa and it is currently recommended as first line therapy. Although this regimen is efficacious (91% cure at 6 months post treatment), it still has limitations on toxicity and parenteral administration. A new short-course combination (shorter than the 17 days of SSG-PM) is needed to improve treatment options, ideally as an efficacious safe and field-adapted oral treatment. There is also a major need for improved and effective management of VL in HIV co-infected patients, who require a different treatment course for the VL infection and suffer from recurrent VL. The AfriCoLeish project aims to carry out studies towards the development and delivery of a package of care for VL patients in East Africa through safe and cost-effective treatments, therefore improving current case management and contributing to disease control in the region. In the original proposal, it was planned to conduct a Phase III trial on short course combination treatment for VL with currently available drugs, pending results from LEAP 0208 clinical trial (Phase II clinical trial to evaluate two potential short course VL treatments as an alternative treatment option to the current recommended treatment of SSG&PM). In the risk assessment, it was acknowledged the risk of not observing sufficient efficacy of the regimens assessed. Indeed, the result of the trial indicated that none of the combinations tested reached the required 90% cure rate at 6 months post treatment to justify moving to a Phase III trial. Therefore, in the current proposal (June 2014), the focus will be on a replacement of the original proposal to focus on studies to assess oral treatments that can potentially be combined in a VL treatment. The studies proposed are a Phase II Proof-of-Concept trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a new oral treatment for VL (fexinidazole) and a miltefosine allometric dose pharmacokinetics and safety study in paediatric VL patients. Promising results of these two studies would allow moving forward with the development of new treatments, including the assessment of the efficacy and safety of the potential combination of fexinidazole and miltefosine for the treatment of VL, as a new oral combination treatment. For VL-HIV co-infections the AfriCoLeish project aims to deliver an intervention to prevent relapse as well as a safe and highly effective treatment. The project is led by a unique Consortium of European and African partners, which will design and carry out clinical studies for VL and the co-infection VL-HIV in East Africa. The studies proposed in WP1 provide a key necessary step towards not only evaluation the efficacy of a new chemical entity for VL (fexinidazole), but subject to promising results also opens the possibility of moving forward to a Phase III trial that could include the assessment of an innovative, affordable combination oral treatment of fexinidazole \ miltefosine for VL patients in East Africa. The results of WP2 and 3 will support national programmes in the adoption of new treatments and management of VL-HIV patients. The evidence base from the trials may additionally benefit VL patients in other endemic areas, including Europe. The original proposed timeline was to accomplish the projects by December 2015. However, due to unexpected factors, mainly the impossibility to import AmBisome in Ethiopia from June 2013 to June 2014, and revision of WP1, in the present amendment we are requesting a no cost extension until December 2016.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.3.2-1 | Award Amount: 16.97M | Year: 2009

This is a proposal from 55 partners from 36 institutes to form a NoE that will seek to integrate European malaria research that is directed towards a better understanding of the basic biology of the parasite, its vector and of the biology of the interactions between the parasite and both its mammalian host and vectors. All the member institutes and researchers have demonstrated both their excellence and their ability to contribute to a successful network. The structure of the proposed network significantly evolves prior concepts of network structure introducing new modes of research that have recently emerged. Comprising of 4 research clusters the core activities will include molecular cell biology of the parasite, host immunity, vector biology, population biology and systems biology. One arm of the network activities will be concerned with the timely and effective translation of research respecting the IP rights of partner institutes. The network will also contribute significantly to the production of the next generation of malaria researchers through the operation of an expanded European PhD School for malaria research based at EMBL, students enjoying two supervisors based in different member states. Bespoke training courses for PhD students and network personnel will be offered throughout the duration of the network to maximise individual potential. To create a long term benefit from network activities a limited programme of post-doctoral fellowships within the network will be established. Furthermore, individual career mentoring facilities and an alumni association will continue to guide and engage network graduates. New members will be affiliated annually on a competitive basis with an emphasis on young, emerging Principle Investigators. Through the establishment of an umbrella Foundation and active lobbying of government and non-government funding agencies as well as the establishment of a charitable profile the network will strive to become self-determining.


Elshoush H.T.,University of Khartoum | Osman I.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2011

As complete prevention of computer attacks is not possible, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) play a very important role in minimizing the damage caused by different computer attacks. There are two intrusion detection methods: namely misuse- and anomaly-based. A collaborative, intelligent intrusion detection system (CIIDS) is proposed to include both methods, since it is concluded from recent research that the performance of an individual detection engine is rarely satisfactory. In particular, two main challenges in current collaborative intrusion detection systems (CIDSs) research are highlighted and reviewed: CIDSs system architectures and alert correlation algorithms. Different CIDSs system, architectures are explained and compared. The use of CIDSs together with other multiple security systems raise certain issues and challenges in, alert correlation. Several different techniques for alert correlation are discussed. The focus will be on correlation of CIIDS alerts. Computational, Intelligence approaches, together with their applications on IDSs, are reviewed. Methods in soft computing collectively provide understandable, and autonomous solutions to IDS problems. At the end of the review, the paper suggests fuzzy logic, soft computing and other AI techniques, to be exploited to reduce the rate of false alarms while keeping the detection rate high. In conclusion, the paper highlights opportunities for an integrated solution to large-scale CIIDS. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Fahal A.H.,University of Khartoum
Expert Review of Dermatology | Year: 2010

Mycetoma is a chronic specific granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease. It is caused by true fungi or by bacteria, and hence it is usually classified as eumycetoma and actinomycetoma, respectively. It is a serious health problem in many tropical and subtropical areas, and has many medical, social and economical impacts. The treatment of mycetoma depends mainly on its etiological agent and the extent of the disease. Actinomycetoma is amenable to medical treatment by antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, while the medical treatment of eumycetoma by various antifungals is inadequate and disappointing. Combined medical and surgical treatment is the gold standard in eumycetoma. In general, the current treatment for mycetoma is unsatisfactory, it needs a long duration to affect cure, has many side effects, has a high relapse rate and is expensive for patients and health authorities. Controlled clinical trials for novel antibiotics and antifungals are needed for the management of mycetoma patients. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.


Merghani T.H.,University of Khartoum | Saeed A.M.,University of Khartoum
Tobacco Control | Year: 2013

Background Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke at home has been linked to many complications, including impaired lung ventilatory function; however, there is great variation in intensity of this complication between individuals of different countries. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between regular secondhand smoke exposure at home and the spirometric derived values forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow 50% and peak expiratory flow rate in healthy school boys in Khartoum. Methods A total of 135 male school pupils were selected randomly from three governmental primary schools for boys in Khartoum. Inclusion criteria were healthy school pupil, 9e14 years old, not active smoker, either exposed regularly to cigarette smoke at home since birth or not exposed to cigarette smoke or any other type of smoke inside or outside the house. All spirometric measurements were performed using Clement Clarke All-flow Spirometer. Results 69 school pupils were exposed regularly to second-hand smoke at home, whereas 66 pupils were not. Fathers were responsible for 67.5% of second-hand smoke at home; relatives for 30% and mothers for 2.5%. Mean FVC (6SD) was 2.21 60.57 l for the exposed pupils and 2.41 60.35 l for the non-exposed, showing reduction by about 8%. Mean FEV1 (mean 6SD) was 2.03 60.46 l for the exposed and 2.20 60.42 l for the non-exposed, indicating reduction by about 7%. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Regular second-hand smoke exposure at home causes significant reduction in FVC and FEV1 by about 7%e8% in school pupils in Khartoum.


Kheir A.E.M.,University of Khartoum
Italian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Infantile colic is one of the major challenges of parenthood. It is one of the common reasons parents seek medical advice during their childs first 3 months of life. It is defined as paroxysms of crying lasting more than 3 hours a day, occurring more than 3 days in any week for 3 weeks in a healthy baby aged 2 weeks to 4 months. Colic is a poorly understood phenomenon affecting up to 30% of babies, underlying organic causes of excessive crying account for less than 5%. Laboratory tests and radiological examinations are unnecessary if the infant is gaining weight normally and has a normal physical examination. Treatment is limited and drug treatment has no role in management. Probiotics are now emerging as promising agents in the treatment of infantile colic. Alternative medicine (Herbal tea, fennel, glucose and massage therapy) have not proved to be consistently helpful and some might even be dangerous. In conclusion infantile colic is a common cause of maternal distress and family disturbance, the cornerstone of management remains reassurance of parents regarding the benign and self-limiting nature of the illness. There is a critical need for more evidence based treatment protocols. © 2012 Kheir; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


El-Doma M.,University of Khartoum
Applied Mathematics Letters | Year: 2012

The stability of a size-structured population dynamics model of Daphnia coupled with the dynamics of an unstructured algal food source is investigated for the case where there is also an inflow of newborns from an external source. We determine the steady states and study the stability of the nontrivial steady states. We also identify a demographic-algae parameter that determines a condition for the stability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hamid M.E.,University of Khartoum
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Bovine farcy (which is caused by Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense) is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation of the skin and lymphatics of cattle and is seen mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is not yet certain whether Nocardia farcinica causes cutaneous nocardiosis (farcy) in animals that mimics bovine farcy. Epidemiological data have steadily reported finding bovine farcy in adult cattle of the transhumance pastoralist tribes of the Sahel and the Sudanian savannah zones. M. farcinogenes and or M. senegalense do not affect other domestic or non-domestic animals; it is not known whether these bacteria are zoonotic. The disease - once widespread in many regions - has disappeared from some countries historically known to have it. Reports of bovine farcy prevalence seem to be linked to the existence of survey initiatives by governments and diagnostic capabilities in each country. Farcy causes economic loss due to damaged hides and also is a public-health burden (because the lymphadenitis due to farcy resembles the lesions of bovine tuberculosis in carcasses and the meat is considered inappropriate for human consumption). The current literature is deficient in establishing definitely the prevalence, transmission patterns, and risk factors of bovine farcy. Ixodid ticks transmit other skin diseases (such as dermatophilosis) and might play a role in bovine farcy (given the similarity in the bio-physiology and geographic distribution of the disease). In addition, the tick-resistance of cattle breeds such as the N'Dama, Fulani or the Nilotic might explain their resistance to bovine farcy. Apart from the judicious use of conventional smear-and-culture methods, few diagnostic tests have been developed; the molecular and serological tests have not been evaluated for reproducibility and accuracy. This review points out aspects of bovine farcy that need further research and updates available data on the prevalence, distribution, risk factors, economic and public health implications, diagnosis, and control. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Balla S.A.,University of Khartoum
Global journal of health science | Year: 2014

Hypertension is emerging as an alarming public-health problem causes organ damage. To identify prevalence of hypertension and predictor factors among rural population in four states in Sudan. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in sixteen rural areas in Sudan during April 2012. A total of 3020 adult were interviewed using structured questionnaire and blood pressure was measured before and after the interview. Hypertension was taken as ≥140 mmHg and ≥90 mmHg for systole and diastole respectively. Descriptive statistic was presented; Sex and mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were tested using ANOVA for individuals on antihypertensive medication. Predictor factors to hypertension were tested by logistic regression. Prevalence of hypertension among rural population was 15.8%. Overall means of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 128.6 ± 17.7 and 81.5 ± 11.6 respectively while the means among hypertensive individuals was 154.74 ±14.4 and 97.98±8.4 respectively Known hypertensive individuals were 20.1%; out of whom 71.7% were hypertensive and 22.4% have Target Organ Damage. Those on anti-hypertensive medications were 76.4% and normotensive were 55.1%. Individuals having both diabetes and hypertension were 3.3% and 80.2% were hypertensive. Log regression model showed age, smoking, diabetes and family hypertension were predictors of hypertension by 3.6%, 34.9%, 49.7% and 56.8% respectively (P-value < 0.05). Prevalence of hypertension among rural Sudan was 15.8%. Family history was the strongest predictor of hypertension.

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