Karbala, Iraq
Karbala, Iraq
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Kassim H.H.,University of Kerbala
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2017

Interacting Boson Model (IBM -1) has been used to study the energy levels and (Formula presented.) transition rates in Ba–Dy ((Formula presented.)) isotones. A simplified Hamiltonian is used which is written in the creation and annihilation form and for each nucleus, by fitting the selected experimental energy levels and (Formula presented.) transition rates with the calculated ones to get the best model parameters. Using the (IBM) Hamiltonian with an intrinsic state formalism, the potential energy surfaces (PES) for even–even Ba–Dy nuclei have been obtained and the contour plot of PES show that the shape phase transitions from spherical (Formula presented.) to deformed shape (Formula presented.) has been determined for the (Formula presented.), while (Formula presented.)Ce, (Formula presented.)Nd, (Formula presented.)Sm, (Formula presented.)Gd and (Formula presented.)Dy nuclei are deformed and have rotational-like characters. The behavior of energy and (Formula presented.) ratios in the ground state band are examined. © 2017 World Scientific Publishing Company

Mahdi J.T.,University of Kerbala | Smith B.E.,Brunel University | Sharif A.O.,University of Surrey
Desalination | Year: 2011

A tilted wick-type solar still was designed and constructed. Its practical aspects and performance are presented. Charcoal cloth was used as an absorber/evaporator material and for saline water transport. The distillation system consists of five main parts: (1) the still, (2) main reservoir, (3) constant head device, (4) distillate bottle, and (5) brine reservoir. Indoor and outdoor experimental testings were carried out to investigate the effect of input water flow rate and salinity on the still productivity together with the variation of the solar still efficiency with absorber temperature. The representative daily efficiency of the still was about 53% on clear days in summer. It has been concluded that, the charcoal cloth is a good material for use as an absorber/evaporator and also as a water transport medium. Increase of the input water mass flow rate leads to a reduction in the efficiency of the wick-type solar still. The still efficiency decreased linearly with increase of salinity of the input saline water e.g. it decreased, by indoor testing, from 37.7% to 20% as the NaCl salt concentration increased from 0% to 10% by weight. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ahmed M.M.,University of Kerbala | Mohammed S.H.,University of Kerbala
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2011

Context: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) preferentially degrade the basement membrane, a key step in tumor invasion, metastases, and induction of vascularization of tumor tissue. Aim: To determine MMP-2 and MMP-9 in situ mRNA expressions in colorectal adenocarcinomas from Iraqi patients. Materials and Methods: Forty archived paraffin-embedded colorectal adenocarcinoma samples and their resection margins were enrolled in our study. Thin paraffin embedded sections (3-5 m thick) of both tumor and resection margins were prepared for each respective biopsy and were used to detect MMP-2 and MMP-9 in situ mRNA expressions based on in situ hybridization technique. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analyses were conducted to describe different variables and parameters in this research, and to describe relationships with each other as well. For the comparisons, the t test of significance was used. The associations were found by chi-square ( 2 ) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests, or as appropriate, as well as 95% confidence interval. The correlations were calculated using correlation coefficient (r). Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: Based on the current outcome, there were significant differences in MMP-2 and MMP-9 in situ mRNA expressions when each tumor sample were compared to its respective resection margin (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). When tumor samples were analyzed based on their depth of invasion, means of in situ mRNA expressions of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly increased in the group in which tumor invaded submucosa into muscularis properia (SMP) compared to that of tumor in serosa (SE) group and tumor invading other organs (OR) group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, when tumor lymph node metastases were questioned, exclusively, MMP-2 in situ mRNA expression was significantly differentiated among N0, N1, and N2 groups (P < 0.05). Regarding the possible correlation between the two investigated parameters with respect to various histopathological variables, both MMP-2 and MMP-9 in situ mRNA expressions have significant positive correlation in tumor samples (r = 0.88), whereas in resection margins, this correlation was absent. Interestingly, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in situ mRNA expressions were found to correlate positively as well as significantly within tumor differentiation [well-differentiated (WD) adenocarcinoma: r = 0.78; moderately differentiated (MD) adenocarcinoma: r = 0.90; and poorly differentiated (PD) adenocarcinoma: r = 0.91], tumor stage (A-B: r = 0.70 and C-D: r = 0.95), depth of invasion (SMP: r = 0.77; SE: r = 0.87; and OR: r = 0.97), lymph node metastasis (N0: r = 0.82; N1: r = 0.92; and N2: r = 0.96), and tumor size (<3 mm 3 : r = 0.76 versus 3 mm3: r = 0.94). Conclusions: Overexpression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 are often associated with increased invasive metastatic potential of colorectal adenocarcinoma. However, their activities are essential during the early stages of tumor progression.

Mohammed A.I.,University of Kerbala | Abboud Z.H.,University of Kerbala | Alghanimi A.H.O.,University of Kerbala
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2012

Readily available and low cost D-mannitol was converted into 1,2,5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (1) in the presence of acetone and zinc chloride. Williamson etherfication of 1 with propargyl bromide afforded the bisalkyne 2 in a very good yield. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of 2 with four different alkyl azides using click conditions gave four novel bistriazoles 3a-d. Removal of the acetal groups of 3a-d afforded the deprotected bistriazoles 4a-d in excellent yields. Products 3 and 4 represent models of gemini surfactants. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This study investigated the frequency of visits by bee-eaters, Merops spp., and their attacks on honey bee colonies in Iraq during 2010-2011. The blue-cheeked bee-eater, M. persicus, was a common summer breeder at the study site in Kerbala province, 100 km southwest of Baghdad. The European bee-eater, M. apiaster, was a passage migrant only during the spring. Between the first arrival of these birds in the spring and the end of the major honey bee activity period (around early July), attacks by M. persicus on apiaries were negligible in both years. There were few attacks by M. apiaster on apiaries in 2010, but in 2011, M. apiaster made a remarkable number of attacks on many days. Unstable weather conditions in Spring 2011 may have caused this high number of M. apiaster attacks, but they only lasted for a relatively short period. During its post-breeding season, the rates of attacks by M. persicus on apiary were much greater than those recorded earlier. © 2014 IBRA.

Jasim N.F.,University of Kerbala
EPC-IQ01 2010 - 2010 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Control | Year: 2010

This paper addresses the problem of pitch angle regulation of floating wind turbines with the presence of dynamic uncertainty and unknown disturbances usually encountered in offshore wind turbines, where two control laws are derived for two different cases to continuously achieve zero pitch angle for the floating turbine. In the first case, the time-varying unknown coefficients that characterize the turbine's dynamics are assumed reasonably bounded by known functions, where robust controller is designed in terms of these known functions to achieve zero pitch angle for the turbine with exponential rate of convergence. While in the second case, the turbine's dynamics are considered to be characterized by unknown coefficients of unknown bounds. In this case, a sliding-mode adaptive controller is constructed in terms of estimated values for the unknown coefficients, where these values are continuously updated by adaptive laws associated with the proposed controller to ensure asymptotic convergence to zero for the turbine's pitch angle. Simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity of the proposed controllers to achieve the required regulation objective. © 2010 Universtiy of Basrah.

Kassim H.H.,University of Kerbala | Sharrad F.I.,University of Kerbala
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2015

In this paper, the negative parity low-spin states of even-odd 187-197Pt isotopes have been studied within the framework of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Model (IBFM-1). The single fermion is assumed to be in one of the 2f5/2, 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 single-particle orbits. The calculated negative parity low-states energy spectra agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values have been also calculated and compared with the experimental data. The calculated energy levels and B(E2) are in good agreement with experimental data than that in the previous study for 195Pt isotope. Furthermore, the energy levels, electric quadrupole transition probabilities and the potential energy surface for even-even platinum isotopes (as core for even-odd nuclei) have been calculated within framework of the Interacting Boson Model (IBM-1). The predicted energy levels and B(E2) transition probabilities results are reasonably consistent with the experimental data. The contour plot of the potential energy surfaces shows all interesting nuclei are deformed and have γ-unstable-like characters. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Abood Z.H.,University of Kerbala
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

5-(4-Aminophenyl)-2-thiol-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1) was synthesized via the reaction of carbon disulfide with 4-aminobenzoyl hydrazide. Compound 1 was converted to the corresponding diazonium salt which was introduced in coupling reaction with sodium phenoxide as coupling reagent to give azo-oxadiazole derivative containing aldehyde group 2. The resulting aldehyde 2 was then introduced in acid-catalyzed condensation reactions with both 2-aminobenzothiazole and 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole to obtain the oxadiazolicimines 3a and 3b, respectively. Treatment of the resulting imines 3a and 3b with each succinic acid, maleic acid, phthalic acid and 3-nitrophthalic anhydrides, respectively, under (2+5) cycloaddition conditions afforded eight new oxadiazoles substituted with 1,3-oxazepane and 1,3-oxazepine moieties 4a-d and 5a-d, respectively. The resulting imines 3a and 3b were also treated with sodium azide under (2+3) cycloaddition conditions to obtain two new oxadiazoles containing tetrazole moiety 4e and 5e, respectively. The newly synthesized oxadiazoles might have some biological, pharmaceutical and medicinal applications. © 2016, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.

Mohammed H.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Abbas A.K.,University of Kerbala | Sheriff J.M.,University of Technology Malaysia
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2013

A numerical investigation is performed to study the effects of different geometrical parameters on the thermal and flow fields through transversely corrugated circular tubes with Reynolds number ranging from 5000 to 60,000 and heat flux of 50W/cm2. The optimization through nineteen transversely corrugated (roughened) tubes having 10mm inner diameter was studied by changing the dimensions of roughness such as relative roughness height (e/d) in the range of 0.025-0.1, relative roughness pitch (p/d) in the range of 0.5-1.5 and relative roughness width (w/d) in the range of 0.05-0.2. For water as a working fluid, heat transfer can be increased with optimal roughness dimensions and maximum performance evaluation criterion (PEC). The results show that the corrugated tube performance was greatly influenced by the geometrical parameters. The Nusselt number increased as the roughness height, width and Reynolds number increased and with the decrease of roughness pitch. The highest Nusselt number was obtained with e/d=0.1, while the efficient flow (max. PEC) was achieved with e/d=0.025 for p/d=0.5 and w/d=0.2. For the rib-roughened tubes, the influence of Reynolds number on the friction factor is quite weak while it is increased with the increase of roughness height compared with the smooth tube. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Umran N.M.,Panjab University | Umran N.M.,University of Kerbala | Kumar R.,Panjab University
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2014

The electronic and magnetic properties of Si and Ge doped C60 fullerene are investigated with ab initio density functional theory calculations. In endohedral Sin (n=1-10) and Gen (1-9) doped C60 complexes we have seen that Si and Ge doped complexes are stable up to 9 and 4 atoms, respectively. We have also investigated binding energy and ionization potential of the endohedral fullerene C60. Endohedral fullerenes have been found to be more chemically reactive. Mullikan charge analysis shows the presence of the magnetic moment in these systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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