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Karbala, Iraq

This study investigated the frequency of visits by bee-eaters, Merops spp., and their attacks on honey bee colonies in Iraq during 2010-2011. The blue-cheeked bee-eater, M. persicus, was a common summer breeder at the study site in Kerbala province, 100 km southwest of Baghdad. The European bee-eater, M. apiaster, was a passage migrant only during the spring. Between the first arrival of these birds in the spring and the end of the major honey bee activity period (around early July), attacks by M. persicus on apiaries were negligible in both years. There were few attacks by M. apiaster on apiaries in 2010, but in 2011, M. apiaster made a remarkable number of attacks on many days. Unstable weather conditions in Spring 2011 may have caused this high number of M. apiaster attacks, but they only lasted for a relatively short period. During its post-breeding season, the rates of attacks by M. persicus on apiary were much greater than those recorded earlier. © 2014 IBRA. Source

CONTEXT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has a heterogeneous course, spanning from mild forms tending to remission and reacting well to treatment, to aggressive forms resistant to classical therapeutic measures. Reliable predictive parameters of the disease course in RA are needed. Raised levels of Rheumatoid Factors (RFs) are associated with RA and that this RF is found in IgM, IgA and IgG classes (isotypes). AIMS: To figure out the value of RF isotypes titers as predictors for RA processes and outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty three RA patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were diagnosed based on ACR criteria. Blood sample was taken from each patient at time of attending; sera were separated immediately and kept frozen at -70oC until used. Disease Activity Score (DAS) was calculated using DAS28-3 formula. Radiographs were read by expert radiologists. Sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for the separate quantitative detection of RF of the IgG, IgM and IgA classes in serum. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square, Pearson's correlation coefficient and ROC statistical analyses was performed using SPSS version 15.0. RESULTS: Among the 53 RA patients who were enrolled in this study, there were statistically significant positive correlations between the presence of radiological joint changes with serum levels of IgG-RF, IgM-RF and IgA-RF as measured by calculation of area under curve (0.772, 0.703 and 0.769, respectively). However, no correlation could be found between those RF isotypes with any of other disease processes and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These results may indicate the importance of the titers of those isotypes as good predictors of erosive RA and may reflect a causal relationship between their titers and joint damage during the course of RA. Source

Mahdi J.T.,University of Kerbala | Smith B.E.,Brunel University | Sharif A.O.,University of Surrey

A tilted wick-type solar still was designed and constructed. Its practical aspects and performance are presented. Charcoal cloth was used as an absorber/evaporator material and for saline water transport. The distillation system consists of five main parts: (1) the still, (2) main reservoir, (3) constant head device, (4) distillate bottle, and (5) brine reservoir. Indoor and outdoor experimental testings were carried out to investigate the effect of input water flow rate and salinity on the still productivity together with the variation of the solar still efficiency with absorber temperature. The representative daily efficiency of the still was about 53% on clear days in summer. It has been concluded that, the charcoal cloth is a good material for use as an absorber/evaporator and also as a water transport medium. Increase of the input water mass flow rate leads to a reduction in the efficiency of the wick-type solar still. The still efficiency decreased linearly with increase of salinity of the input saline water e.g. it decreased, by indoor testing, from 37.7% to 20% as the NaCl salt concentration increased from 0% to 10% by weight. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

CONTEXT: Counting of newly formed microvessel may prove to be a useful tool in the early detection of metastatic potential and selection of patients for whom antiangiogenesis drugs might be beneficial. AIMS: We designed this study to assess the significance of microvessel quantification in colorectal cancer with respect to different clinicopathological variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty archived paraffin-embedded colorectal adenocarcinoma samples and their resection margins were enrolled in our study. Thin paraffin-embedded sections (3-5 m thick) of both tumor and resection margins were prepared for each respective biopsy and were used to detect endothelial cell (EC) surface expression of PECAM-1 and vWF by immunohistochemistry technique. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: For the comparison between tumor and resection margin regarding the investigated parameters, the t-test of significance was conducted. The association between surface expression of PECAM-1 and vWF along with tumor differentiation, depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis was performed by Chi-square (chi2 ) and ANOVA test as well as 95% confidence interval. On the other hand, the association between the investigated parameters and tumor stage as well as tumor size was performed by student t-test. The correlations between the two investigated parameters in respect to various clinicopathological parameters were calculated by correlation coefficient (r). Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistical package for social and medical science version 15.0. RESULTS: Based on the current outcome, there were significant differences in microvessel density based on PECAM-1 or vWF immunostaining when each tumor sample was compared to its respective resection margin (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, tumors >or=3 mm 3 in size demonstrated a significant increase in their microvessel density compared to their counterparts whether PECAM-1 or vWF immunostaining was applied (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, when tumor samples were analyzed based on their depth of invasion, for intratumoral microvessel count, exclusively, vWF immunostaining analysis demonstrated significant differences among the three groups: submucosa into muscularis propria (SMP), tumor reaches serosa (SE) and tumors invade other organs (OR), since the latter came up with the highest microvessel count (P < 0.05). When tumor lymph node metastases were questioned, exclusively, vWF immunostaining were significantly differentiated among N0, N1 and N2 groups (P < 0.05). Concerning the possible correlations between the two investigated parameters in respect to various histopathological variables, both PECAM-1 and vWF immunostaining demonstrated significant positive correlations in tumor samples (r = 0.37), whereas in resection margins, these correlations were absent. Although, PECAM-1 and vWF immunostaining revealed significant and positive correlations within tumor differentiation (WD: r = 0.56, MD: r = 0.57 and PD: r = 0.89) as well as with tumor stage (A-B: r = 0.39 and C-D: r = 0.31), still, they seem to correlate significantly and exclusively within SE group (r = 0.74), tumors <3 mm 3 in size (r = 0.66), N0 (r = 0.36) and N1 (r = 0.85) groups. However, PECAM-1 and vWF immunostaining revealed significant but negative correlation exclusively within N2 group (r = -0.38). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, microvessel count could be useful as a predictor for tumor metastases in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Possible interpretations of the current outcome are explained thoroughly in the text. Source

Mohammed H.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Abbas A.K.,University of Kerbala | Sheriff J.M.,University of Technology Malaysia
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer

A numerical investigation is performed to study the effects of different geometrical parameters on the thermal and flow fields through transversely corrugated circular tubes with Reynolds number ranging from 5000 to 60,000 and heat flux of 50W/cm2. The optimization through nineteen transversely corrugated (roughened) tubes having 10mm inner diameter was studied by changing the dimensions of roughness such as relative roughness height (e/d) in the range of 0.025-0.1, relative roughness pitch (p/d) in the range of 0.5-1.5 and relative roughness width (w/d) in the range of 0.05-0.2. For water as a working fluid, heat transfer can be increased with optimal roughness dimensions and maximum performance evaluation criterion (PEC). The results show that the corrugated tube performance was greatly influenced by the geometrical parameters. The Nusselt number increased as the roughness height, width and Reynolds number increased and with the decrease of roughness pitch. The highest Nusselt number was obtained with e/d=0.1, while the efficient flow (max. PEC) was achieved with e/d=0.025 for p/d=0.5 and w/d=0.2. For the rib-roughened tubes, the influence of Reynolds number on the friction factor is quite weak while it is increased with the increase of roughness height compared with the smooth tube. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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