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Lexington, KY, United States

The University of Kentucky is a public co-educational university in Lexington, Kentucky. Founded in 1865 by John Bowman as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, the university is one of the state's two land-grant universities, the largest college or university in the state, with 28,928 students as of Fall 2012, and the highest ranked research university in the state according to U.S. News and World Report.The institution comprises 16 colleges, a graduate school, 93 undergraduate programs, 99 master programs, 66 doctoral programs, and four professional programs. The University of Kentucky has fifteen libraries on campus. The largest is William T. Young Library, a federal depository, hosting subjects related to social science, humanities and life science collections. In recent years, the university has focused expenditures increasingly on research, following a compact formed by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1997. The directive mandated that the university become a Top 20 public research institution, in terms of an overall ranking to be determined by the university itself, by the year 2020. Wikipedia.

Anaya P.,University of Kentucky
Current cardiology reports | Year: 2013

Due to their tissue specificity and ease of detection, the cardiac troponins (cTn) have emerged as the most important and most utilized biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The recent achievement of greater sensitivity by cTn assay systems, however, has resulted in the detection of cTn in a wide array of medical conditions, highlighting myocardial cellular necrosis as a feature in several, seemingly unrelated medical conditions, yet complicating the interpretation of a positive test. Since elevated cTn levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes and, thereby, influence medical decisions, careful consideration should be given to the method by which these biomarkers are measured, the patient population on which the test is being applied, and applicable thresholds based on particular clinical conditions. The objective of this review is to trace the clinical evolution of the cTn biomarker from a test for AMI to a general marker of myocardial cellular necrosis with clinically important prognostic information.

Wang J.,Indiana University Bloomington | Fertig H.A.,Indiana University Bloomington | Murthy G.,University of Kentucky
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We demonstrate that, in the presence of Coulomb interactions, electrons in graphene behave like a critical system, supporting power law correlations with interaction-dependent exponents. An asymptotic analysis shows that the origin of this behavior lies in particle-hole scattering, for which the Coulomb interaction induces anomalously close approaches. With increasing interaction strength the relevant power law changes from real to complex, leading to an unusual instability characterized by a complex-valued susceptibility in the thermodynamic limit. Measurable quantities, as well as the connection to classical two-dimensional systems, are discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Widiger T.A.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Personality Disorders | Year: 2011

The personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is currently being developed. The purpose of the current paper is to encourage the authors of DSM-V to integrate normal and abnormal personality structure within a common, integrative model, and to suggest that the optimal choice for such an integration would be the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. A proposal for the classification of personality disorder from the perspective of the FFM is provided. Discussed as well are implications and issues associated with an FFM of personality disorder, including validity, coverage, feasibility, clinical utility, and treatment implications. © 2011 The Guilford Press.

Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are commonly used for the marginal analysis of correlated data, although the quadratic inference function (QIF) approach is an alternative that is increasing in popularity. This method optimally combines distinct sets of unbiased estimating equations that are based upon a working correlation structure, therefore asymptotically increasing or maintaining estimation efficiency relative to GEE. However, in finite samples, additional estimation variability arises when combining these sets of estimating equations, and therefore the QIF approach is not guaranteed to work as well as GEE. Furthermore, estimation efficiency can be improved for both analysis methods by accurate modeling of the correlation structure. Our goal is to improve parameter estimation, relative to existing methods, by simultaneously selecting a working correlation structure and choosing between GEE and two versions of the QIF approach. To do this, we propose the use of a criterion based upon the trace of the empirical covariance matrix (TECM). To make GEE and both QIF versions directly comparable for any given working correlation structure, the proposed TECM utilizes a penalty to account for the finite-sample variance inflation that can occur with either version of the QIF approach. Via a simulation study and in application to a longitudinal study, we show that penalizing the variance inflation that occurs with the QIF approach is necessary and that the proposed criterion works very well. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Kaul R.K.,University of Kentucky
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We present a detailed study of the destruction of SU(N) magnetic order in square lattice bilayer antiferromagnets using unbiased quantum Monte Carlo numerical simulations and field theoretic techniques. We study phase transitions from an SU(N) Néel state into two distinct quantum disordered "valence-bond" phases: a valence-bond liquid (VBL) with no broken symmetries and a lattice-symmetry-breaking valence-bond solid (VBS) state. For finite interlayer coupling, the cancellation of Berry phases between the layers has dramatic consequences on the two phase transitions: the Néel-VBS transition is first order for all N5 accesible in our model, whereas the Néel-VBL transition is continuous for N=2 and first order for N4; for N=3 the Néel-VBL transition show no signs of first-order behavior. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Bonner S.,University of Kentucky
Methods in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Summary: Mark-recapture studies that rely on multiple marks to identify individuals pose modeling challenges if the marks for each individual are not always linked. If an individual with unlinked marks is encountered on two occasions and different marks are observed, then it will appear that two different individuals were captured. Failing to account for these missed matches will produce incorrect inference. Madon et al. (Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2011; 2: 390) proposes a modification of the Jolly-Seber estimator for such data computed by adjusting the observed counts of individuals first captured, recaptured or not captured but known to be alive on each occasion. The adjustment involves multiplying each of these counts by a constant factor, Iid, intended to correct for double counting of individuals and constrained between 0 and 1. Results of a simulation study provided in Madon et al. (Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2011; 2: 390) show that the proposed estimator is almost unbiased, but its uncertainty is underestimated and the true coverage of confidence intervals is consistently below the nominal value. I compute separate adjustment factors for each of the counts and show (i) that a constant adjustment is not appropriate and (ii) that the theoretical adjustment factor is sometimes >1. I believe that the use of a single adjustment factor between 0 and 1 is what causes the uncertainty to be underestimated and that complete models of the observation process are required to obtain valid results. © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Fox C.W.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013

Little is known about how inbreeding alters selection on ecologically relevant traits. Inbreeding could affect selection by changing the distribution of traits and/or fitness, or by changing the causal effect of traits on fitness. Here, I test whether selection on egg size varies with the degree of inbreeding in the seed-feeding beetle, Stator limbatus. There was strong directional selection favoring large eggs for both inbred and outbred beetles; offspring from smaller eggs had lower survivorship on a resistant host. Inbreeding treatment had no effect on the magnitude of selection on egg size; all selection coefficients were between ~0.078 and 0.096, regardless of treatment. However, inbreeding depression declined with egg size; this is because the difference in fitness between inbreds and outbreds did not change, but average fitness increased, with egg size. A consequence of this is that populations that differ in mean egg size should experience different magnitudes of inbreeding depression (all else being equal) and thus should differ in the magnitude of selection on traits that affect mating, simply as a consequence of variation in egg size. Also, maternal traits (such as egg size) that mediate stressfulness of the environment for offspring can mediate the severity of inbreeding depression. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

Murthy G.,University of Kentucky | Shankar R.,Yale University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

There is convincing numerical evidence that fractional quantum-Hall-like ground states arise in fractionally filled Chern bands. Here, we show that the Hamiltonian theory of composite fermions (CF) can be as useful in describing these states as it was in describing the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in the continuum. We are able to introduce CFs into the fractionally filled Chern-band problem in two stages. First, we construct an algebraically exact mapping which expresses the electron density projected to the Chern band ρFCB as a sum of Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman density operators ρGMP that obey the magnetic translation algebra. Next, following our Hamiltonian treatment of the FQH problem, we rewrite the operators ρGMP in terms of CF variables which reproduce the same algebra. This naturally produces a unique Hartree-Fock ground state for the CFs, which can be used as a springboard for computing gaps, response functions, temperature-dependent phenomena, and the influence of disorder. We give two concrete examples, one of which has no analog in the continuum FQHE with ν=15 and σxy=25. Our approach can be easily extended to fractionally filled, strongly interacting two-dimensional time-reversal- invariant topological insulators. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Chalkley J.J.,University of Kentucky
Current neurology and neuroscience reports | Year: 2013

AIDS generated a significantly increased interest in the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a disease previously considered to be very rare. Scrutiny increased after a second wave of PML following the introduction of biological agents, in particular, natalizumab and efalizumab. While efalizumab, a lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 inhibitor marketed for use in psoriasis, has been removed from the market, natalizumab, an α4β1 and α4β7 integrin inhibitor, remains widely used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Approximately 400 cases of natalizumab-associated PML have been reported from 2005 to August 2013. Additionally, other therapies currently employed or under development for the treatment of MS may also be associated with PML, such as mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, and alemtuzumab. Therefore, practitioners using these medications need to understand the risks associated with these agents, ways to mitigate the risk, and treatment of PML and the related condition PML immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. PML associated with the use of therapeutic agents, especially, natalizumab, does share similarities with HIV-related PML; however, distinct differences exist. Radiographically isolated PML is seen more commonly with natalizumab-associated PML and the disease appears to be heralded more often by cognitive and behavior disturbances. Furthermore, the mortality of natalizumab-associated PML is substantially lower. Risk mitigation strategies have been developed for the natalizumab-associated PML, which has been convincingly demonstrated to be linked to duration of therapy, JC virus seropositivity, and the prior use of immunosuppressive agents.

Schreiber J.A.,University of Louisville | Brockopp D.Y.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Cancer Survivorship | Year: 2012

Introduction: A diagnosis of cancer is a life-changing event for most people. The trauma and uncertainties of a breast cancer diagnosis can affect survivors' psychological well-being. Religion and/or spirituality can provide a means of support for many women as they live with the realities of a diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this focused review is to critically analyze and synthesize relationships among psychological well-being, religion, and spirituality among women with breast cancer. Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PsycINFO databases were searched: January 1985-March 2010. The search terms religi*(religious/religion), spiritu*(spiritual/spirituality), breast cancer, psychological adjustment, psychological outcomes, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and outcomes were searched for separately and in combination. Results: Eighteen quantitative studies were analyzed in order to examine associations among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being for women diagnosed with breast cancer. These three variables were operationally defined as follows: (a) religious practice, religious coping, and perception of God; (b) spiritual distress, spiritual reframing, spiritual well-being, and spiritual integration; and (c) combined measure of both the religion and spirituality constructs. Discussion/conclusions: Results of this review suggest that within this population, limited relationships exist among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being. Given the various definitions used for the three variables, the strength and clarity of relationships are not clear. In addition, the time of assessment along the course of the disease varies greatly and in some instances is not reported. Diagnosis and/or prognosis, factors that could influence psychological well-being, are frequently not factored into results. There does, however, appear to be sufficient evidence to include a brief, clinically focused assessment of women diagnosed with breast cancer regarding the importance of a given belief system as they face the diagnosis and treatment of their disease. Implications for cancer survivors: The implications for cancer survivors are as follows: (a) Psychological well-being of women diagnosed with breast cancer may depend to some extent on their belief system. (b) Coping through "turning to God" for women without a significant prior relationship with God, or minimal spiritual behaviors, may experience diminished well-being. (c) Longitudinal studies suggest that struggling with, or questioning, one's belief system in early survivorship may also be associated with lower levels of well-being. This diminished well-being often resolves over time. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Horbinski C.,University of Kentucky
Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2010

Neuropathology is a challenging field, in large part because of the consequential decisions that must be made with small biopsy material. This is especially true concerning the most common primary brain tumor, the infiltrative glioma. Fortunately, abundant research has identified specific molecular alterations that are characteristic of gliomas, according to diagnostic class and tumor grade. Such alterations include 1p19q codeletion, EGFR amplification, p16 deletion, and IDH1/2 mutations. Using specific cases as examples, this review illustrates how molecular testing is of great help in avoiding misdiagnoses and enhancing the quality of information provided to clinicians. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Weisrock D.W.,University of Kentucky
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Here I advocate the utility of Bayesian concordance analysis as a mechanism for exploring the magnitude and source of phylogenetic signal in concatenated mitogenomic phylogenetic studies. While typically applied to the study of independently evolving gene trees, Bayesian concordance analysis can also be applied to linked, but individually analyzed, gene regions using a prior probability that reflects the expectation of similar phylogenetic reconstructions. For true branches in the mitogenomic tree, concordance factors should represent the number of gene regions that contain phylogenetic signal for a particular clade. As a demonstration of the application of Bayesian concordance analysis to empirical data, I analyzed two different salamander (Hynobiidae and Plethodontidae) mitogenomic data sets using a gene-based partitioning strategy. The results revealed many strongly supported clades in the concatenated trees that have high concordance factors, permitting the inference that these are robustly resolved through phylogenetic signal distributed across the mitogenome. In contrast, a number of strongly supported clades in the concatenated tree received low concordance factors, indicating that their reconstruction is either driven primarily by phylogenetic signal in a small number of gene regions, or that they are inconsistent reconstructions influenced by properties of the data that can produce inaccurate trees (e.g., compositional bias, selection, etc.). Exploration of the Bayesian joint posterior distribution of trees highlighted partitions that contribute phylogenetic information to similar clade reconstructions. This approach was particularly insightful in the hynobiid data, where different combinations of genes were identified that support alternative tree reconstructions. Concatenated analysis of these different subsets of genes highlighted through Bayesian concordance analysis produced strongly supported and contrasting trees, demonstrating the potential for inconsistency in concatenated mitogenomic phylogenetics. The overall results presented here suggest that Bayesian concordance analysis can serve as an effective exploration of the influence of different gene regions in mitogenomic (and other organellar genomic) phylogenetic studies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Prescription drug monitoring programs issue reports about a patient's controlled substance prescription history upon request to physicians, law enforcement officials, and pharmacists. The dual purposes of these programs are to reduce the abuse and diversion of controlled substances while not preventing access to these medications for legitimate medical need. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of Medicaid patients with Kentucky's Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP). A random sample of Medicaid patients was surveyed in 2010; respondents were matched with patient retrospective claims data from 6 months prior to the survey's administration. Kentucky Medicaid patients from across the state. A combination of patient surveys and Medicaid claims data was used to test the relationship between patient characteristics and patient-reported interactions with physicians regarding their PDMP reports and whether they experienced difficulty obtaining or filling a prescription for a controlled substance due to a PDMP report. Most Medicaid patients are unaffected by the PDMP; however, patients diagnosed with chronic non-cancer pain conditions and patients reporting a Hispanic ethnicity are significantly more likely to have a physician discuss their PDMP report with them. Patients diagnosed with chronic non-cancer pain conditions are also significantly more likely to report difficulty obtaining a prescription for a controlled substance than patients that have not been diagnosed with chronic non-cancer pain conditions. Patients living in rural areas are significantly less likely than patients in urban areas to report difficulty obtaining a prescription for a controlled substance. The utilization of controlled substance prescriptions by respondents was not measured or monitored. The Medicaid population examined in this study may not be representative of the population as a whole. These results suggest that more attention to the consumer/patient perspective is warranted in maintaining a balanced approach to decreasing drug abuse and diversion while not limiting access to controlled substances in cases of legitimate medical need.

Miller Z.,University of Kentucky
Current pharmaceutical design | Year: 2013

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a vital role in maintaining protein homeostasis and regulating numerous cellular processes. The proteasome, a multi-protease complex, is the key component of the UPS and has been validated as a therapeutic target by the FDA's approval of bortezomib and carfilzomib. These proteasome inhibitor drugs have substantially improved outcomes in patients with hematological malignancies and are currently being investigated for other types of cancer as well as several other diseases. These approved proteasome inhibitors target the catalytic activity of both the constitutive proteasome and the immunoproteasome indiscriminately, and their inhibitory effects on the constitutive proteasome in normal cells are believed to contribute to unwanted side effects. In addition, selective immunoproteasome inhibition has been proposed to have unique effects on other diseases, including those involving aberrant immune function. Initially recognized for its role in the adaptive immune response, the immunoproteasome is often upregulated in disease states such as inflammatory diseases and cancer, suggesting functions beyond antigen presentation. In an effort to explore the immunoproteasome as a potential therapeutic target in these diseases, the development of immunoproteasome-specific inhibitors has become the focus of recent studies. Owing to considerable efforts by both academic and industry groups, immunoproteasome-selective inhibitors have now been identified and tested against several disease models. These inhibitors also provide a valuable set of chemical tools for investigating the biological function of the immunoproteasome. In this review, we will focus on the recent efforts towards the development of immunoproteasome-selective inhibitors.

Harrington N.G.,University of Kentucky | Noar S.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Health Education Research | Year: 2012

Message tailoring is a promising innovative approach to persuasive communication that involves designing messages to meet a person's psychological, behavioral and/or demographic characteristics. Although the tailored intervention literature has many strengths, a weakness is inconsistency in reporting information related to intervention development, implementation and evaluation. The objective of this manuscript is to report recommendations for studies of tailored interventions. As part of ongoing original empirical and meta-analytical research, we reviewed the tailoring literature and identified inconsistencies in reporting. We compared these inconsistencies with existing reporting standards and developed recommendations specific to tailored interventions. An advisory board of preeminent tailoring researchers provided feedback on draft and final recommendations. This paper offers the resulting seven recommendations for reporting studies of tailored interventions. If we are to build a cumulative science of tailoring, both for theory development and research translation, then we should establish standards in the conduct and reporting of the science. © 2011 The Author.

Debolt S.,University of Kentucky
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Arabidopsis thaliana is the model plant and is grown worldwide by plant biologists seeking to dissect the molecular underpinning of plant growth and development. Gene copy number variation (CNV) is a common form of genome natural diversity that is currently poorly studied in plants and may have broad implications for model organism research, evolutionary biology, and crop science. Herein, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to identify and interrogate regions of gene CNV across the A. thaliana genome. A common temperature condition used for growth of A thaliana in our laboratory and many around the globe is 22 °C. The current study sought to test whether A thaliana, grown under different temperature (16 and 28 °C) and stress regimes (salicylic acid spray) for five generations, selecting for fecundity at each generation, displayed any differences in CNV relative to a plant lineage growing under normal conditions. Three siblings from each alternative temperature or stress lineage were also compared with the reference genome (22 °C) by CGH to determine repetitive and nonrepetitive CNVs. Findings document exceptional rates of CNV in the genome of A thaliana over immediate family generational scales. A propensity for duplication and nonrepetitive CNVs was documented in 28 °C CGH, which was correlated with the greatest plant stress and infers a potential CNV-environmental interaction. A broad diversity of gene species were observed within CNVs, but transposable elements and biotic stress response genes were notably overrepresented as a proportion of total genes and genes initiating CNVs. Results support a model whereby segmental CNV and the genes encoded within these regions contribute to adaptive capacity of plants through natural genome variation. © The Author(s) 2010.

Horbinski C.,University of Kentucky
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2013

Whole genome analyses have facilitated the discovery of clinically relevant genetic alterations in a variety of diseases, most notably cancer. A prominent example of this was the discovery of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) in a sizeable proportion of gliomas and some other neoplasms. Herein the normal functions of these enzymes, how the mutations alter their catalytic properties, the effects of their D-2-hydroxyglutarate metabolite, technical considerations in diagnostic neuropathology, implications about prognosis and therapeutic considerations, and practical applications and controversies regarding IDH1/2 mutation testing are discussed. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

BACKGROUND: Little research has identified the physical and mental health status of survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses. METHODS: By using data from the population-based 2009 National Health Information Survey, 154 survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses, 1427 survivors of a single cancer diagnosis, and 25,004 individuals without a history of cancer diagnosis were identified. The multiple cancer group was compared with the single cancer and no cancer groups with regard to physical and mental health status using analysis of covariance and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Relative to the no cancer group, the multiple cancer group reported significantly poorer mental health status, greater lifetime, recent, and current prevalence of a variety of medical conditions and comorbidities, and more health-related disability. Although observed group differences between the multiple cancer and single cancer groups were less pronounced than those between the multiple cancer and no cancer groups, a consistent pattern was also evident; the multiple cancer group reported significantly poorer status relative to the single cancer group across a range of mental and physical health and illness-related disability indices. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of 2 or more primary cancers (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers) is associated with increased risk for poorer physical and mental health status over and above that associated with diagnosis of a single primary cancer. Survivors of multiple and single primary cancer diagnoses should be considered as distinct subgroups, and increased attention should be devoted to the unique status and needs of survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Cummins D.R.,University of Louisville | Russell H.B.,University of Louisville | Jasinski J.B.,University of Louisville | Menon M.,University of Kentucky | Sunkara M.K.,University of Louisville
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

We report the phase transformation of hematite (α-Fe 2O3) single crystal nanowires to crystalline FeS nanotubes using sulfurization with H2S gas at relatively low temperatures. Characterization indicates that phase pure hexagonal FeS nanotubes were formed. Time-series sulfurization experiments suggest epitaxial growth of FeS as a shell layer on hematite. This is the first report of hollow, crystalline FeS nanotubes with NiAs structure and also on the Kirkendall effect in solid-gas reactions with nanowires involving sulfurization. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Arrington M.I.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Psychosocial Oncology | Year: 2010

This article inquires into whether and how uncertainty reduction theory and problematic integration theory, two theories relevant to social support as enacted within a chapter of the Man-to-Man prostate cancer support group, inform us of how such groups can assist group members most effectively. Interview data from members of a prostate cancer support group shed light on theoretical assumptions about uncertainty. Although the group applies elements of both theories, prostate cancer survivors likely would benefit from a more comprehensive and flexible treatment of social support theory. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Campbell K.S.,University of Kentucky
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Striated muscles are disproportionately stiff for small movements. This facet of their behavior can be demonstrated by measuring the force produced when the muscle is stretched more than about 1% of its initial length. When this is done, it can be seen that force rises rapidly during the initial phases of the movement and much less rapidly during the latter stages of the stretch. Experiments performed using chemically permeabilized skeletal and cardiac muscles show that the initial stiffness of the preparations increases in proportion with isometric force as the free Ca2+ concentration in the bathing solution is raised from a minimal to a saturating value. This is strong evidence that the short-range mechanical properties of activated muscle result from stretching myosin cross-bridges that are attached between the thick and thin filaments. Relaxed intact muscles also exhibit short-range mechanical properties but the molecular mechanisms underlying this behavior are less clear. This chapter summarizes some of the interesting features of short-range mechanical properties in different types of muscle preparation, describes some of the likely underlying mechanisms and discusses the potential physiological significance of the behavior. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Veling M.C.,University of Kentucky
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the association between allergic disease and pediatric rhinosinusitis. For this purpose, allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were the areas chosen for further discussion. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of allergy as a major immunopathologic mechanism causing inflammation in pediatric rhinosinusitis is becoming better defined. However, despite the fact that allergic rhinitis and CRS are characterized by inflammation, there appears to be a distinct difference in the inflammatory response of children and adults with CRS, which may attest to a difference in the pathophysiologic pathways. Local allergic rhinitis, a recently described pathological entity, appears to affect a significant number of patients with a previous diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis, making this a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis. With regard to the relationships between allergy and infectious diseases, it has been reported that basophils are activated in the presence of suboptimal doses of allergens and bacteria and may explain the clinical behavior of allergy exacerbation. SUMMARY: Allergic rhinitis is frequently associated with CRS. The management of CRS should include evaluation of the pediatric patient for allergic disease and the management should be targeted at decreasing the inflammatory response, which will most likely result in better control of the CRS patient. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Koffler B.H.,University of Kentucky | Sears J.J.,Centre College at Danville
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of orthokeratology as a nonsurgical treatment for myopia in children with alternate methods, such as soft contact lenses, rigid gas permeable lenses, and spectacles, throughout multiple studies. Design: Perspective with literature review. Methods: Analysis of recent studies to determine the safety and effectiveness of orthokeratology versus soft contact lenses, rigid gas permeable lenses, and spectacles in children. Results: In all of the studies reviewed, the use of orthokeratology lenses proved to reduce myopia, to improve visual acuity, and, with the exception of the SMART study, to reduce the rate of axial elongation. Orthokeratology has been shown to be as effective as other methods in treating myopia and to be more effective at treating axial elongation. There were no major adverse events in any of the studies comparing orthokeratology with other methods of myopia treatment. Conclusions: Studies show that the use of orthokeratology is a safe and efficacious nonsurgical treatment for myopia and that it is capable of slowing axial elongation, making it an effective myopic treatment for children. © 2013 BY ELSEVIER INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Truszczynski M.,University of Kentucky
Theory and Practice of Logic Programming | Year: 2011

We present trichotomy results characterizing the complexity of reasoning with disjunctive logic programs. To this end, we introduce a certain definition schema for classes of programs based on a set of allowed arities of rules. We show that each such class of programs has a finite representation, and for each of the classes definable in the schema, we characterize the complexity of the existence of an answer set problem. Next, we derive similar characterizations of the complexity of skeptical and credulous reasoning with disjunctive logic programs. Such results are of potential interest. On the one hand, they reveal some reasons responsible for the hardness of computing answer sets. On the other hand, they identify classes of problem instances, for which the problem is "easy" (in P) or "easier than in general" (in NP). We obtain similar results for the complexity of reasoning with disjunctive programs under the supported-model semantics. © Cambridge University Press 2010.

The involvement of two steps in the physical dormancy (PY)-breaking process previously has been demonstrated in seeds of Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae. Even though there is a claim for a moisture-controlled stepwise PY-breaking in some species of Geraniaceae, no study has evaluated the role of temperature in the PY-breaking process in this family. The aim of this study was to determine whether a temperature-controlled stepwise PY-breaking process occurs in seeds of the winter annuals Geranium carolinianum and G. dissectum. Seeds of G. carolinianum and G. dissectum were stored under different temperature regimes to test the effect of storage temperature on PY-break. The role of temperature and moisture regimes in regulating PY-break was investigated by treatments simulating natural conditions. Greenhouse (non-heated) experiments on seed germination and burial experiments (outdoors) were carried out to determine the PY-breaking behaviour in the natural habitat. Irrespective of moisture conditions, sensitivity to the PY-breaking step in seeds of G. carolinianum was induced at temperatures ≥20 °C, and exposure to temperatures ≤20 °C made the sensitive seeds permeable. Sensitivity of seeds increased with time. In G. dissectum, PY-break occurred at temperatures ≥20 °C in a single step under constant wet or dry conditions and in two steps under alternate wet-dry conditions if seeds were initially kept wet. Timing of seed germination with the onset of autumn can be explained by PY-breaking processes involving (a) two temperature-dependent steps in G. carolinianum and (b) one or two moisture-dependent step(s) along with the inability to germinate under high temperatures in G. dissectum. Geraniaceae is the third of 18 families with PY in which a two-step PY-breaking process has been demonstrated.

Glauert H.P.,University of Kentucky
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2012

In this review, the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hepatocarcinogenesis is examined. The administration of several hepatic tumor promoters leads to the activation of NF-κB in the liver of rats and mice. Many studies support the hypothesis that the activation of NF-κB in the liver is inhibited by antioxidants. The role of NF-κB in hepatocarcinogenesis has been examined using NF-κB overexpression and knockout models. The role of NF-κB in liver carcinogenesis is complex; some models show that NF-κB contributes to carcinogenesis whereas others see no effect or an inhibition. Overall, although hepatic tumor promoting agents can activate NF-κB and this activation can be inhibited by antioxidants, the significance of this activation is unclear. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Trigeminal neuropathic pain attacks can be excruciating for patients, even after being lightly touched. Although there are rodent trigeminal nerve research models to study orofacial pain, few models have been applied to studies in mice. A mouse trigeminal inflammatory compression (TIC) model is introduced here which successfully and reliably promotes vibrissal whisker pad hypersensitivity. The chronic orofacial neuropathic pain model is induced after surgical placement of chromic gut suture in the infraorbital nerve fissure in the maxillary bone. Slight compression and chemical effects of the chromic gut suture on the portion of the infraorbital nerve contacted cause mild nerve trauma. Nerve edema is observed in the contacting infraorbital nerve bundle as well as macrophage infiltration in the trigeminal ganglia. Centrally in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, increased immunoreactivity for an activated microglial marker is evident (OX42, postoperative day 70). Mechanical thresholds of the affected whisker pad are significantly decreased on day 3 after chromic gut suture placement, persisting at least 10 weeks. The mechanical allodynia is reversed by suppression of microglial activation. Cold allodynia was detected at 4 weeks. A simple, effective, and reproducible chronic mouse model mimicking clinical orofacial neuropathic pain (Type 2) is induced by placing chromic gut suture between the infraorbital nerve and the maxillary bone. The method produces mild inflammatory compression with significant continuous mechanical allodynia persisting at least 10 weeks and cold allodynia measureable at 4 weeks.

Braun B.,University of Kentucky
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2011

For integers n ≥ 1, k ≥ 0, the stable Kneser graph SGn,k (also called the Schrijver graph) has as vertex set the stable n-subsets of [2n + k] and as edges disjoint pairs of n-subsets, where a stable n-subset is one that does not contain any 2-subset of the form {i, i + 1} or {1, 2n + k}. The stable Kneser graphs have been an interesting object of study since the late 1970's when A. Schrijver determined that they are a vertex critical class of graphs with chromatic number k + 2. This article contains a study of the independence complexes of SGn,k for small values of n and k. Our contributions are two-fold: first, we prove that the homotopy type of the independence complex of SG2,k is a wedge of spheres of dimension two. Second, we determine the homotopy types of the independence complexes of certain graphs related to SGn,2.

Studts C.R.,University of Kentucky | Van Zyl M.A.,University of Louisville
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2013

Screening preschool-aged children for disruptive behavior disorders is a key step in early intervention. The study goal was to identify screening items with excellent measurement properties at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems within the developmental context of preschool-aged children. Parents/caregivers of preschool-aged children (N = 900) were recruited from four pediatric primary care settings. Participants (mean age = 31, SD = 8) were predominantly female (87 %), either white (55 %) or African-American (42 %), and biological parents (88 %) of the target children. In this cross-sectional survey, participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and two parent-report behavioral rating scales: the PSC-17 and the BPI. Item response theory analyses provided item parameter estimates and information functions for 18 externalizing subscale items, revealing their quality of measurement along the continuum of disruptive behaviors in preschool-aged children. Of 18 investigated items, 5 items measured only low levels of disruptive behaviors among preschool-aged children. The remaining 13 items measured sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems (i.e.; >1.5 SD); however, 5 of these items offered less information, suggesting unreliable measurement. The remaining 8 items had high discrimination and difficulty parameters, offering considerable measurement information at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems. Behaviors measured by the 8 selected parent-report items were consistent with those identified in recent efforts to distinguish developmentally typical misbehaviors from clinically concerning behaviors among preschool-aged children. These items may have clinical utility in screening young children for disruptive behavior disorders. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Wilcock D.M.,University of Kentucky
Neurodegenerative Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. While once considered immunologically privileged due to the blood-brain barrier, it is now understood that the glial cells of the brain are capable of complex inflammatory responses. Objective: The goal of the study is to assess the neuroinflammatory state of the early and late AD brain using the macrophage categorizations of M1, M2a, M2b and M2c. Methods: We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to assess a number of inflammatory markers in the frontal cortex and cerebellar tissue from early and late AD patients. We then used neuropathological and clinical outcomes to determine whether there were any correlations. Results: We found that the AD brain is capable of generating all macrophage-like responses. In addition, we found that early AD is distinct from late AD with respect to the inflammatory profiles expressed in the brain. Most interestingly, however, we found that the early AD samples were biased to one of two phenotypes, M1 or M2a. Conclusion: Heterogeneity in the neuroinflammatory state of the early AD brain may represent a source of variability among the AD population. It may also reflect the presence of comorbidities. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Jia J.,University of Kentucky
Vitamins and Hormones | Year: 2012

The study of posttranslational regulation of proteins has occupied biochemists for well over a half century. Understanding balanced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the proteins may be the key to meeting some of the most pressing scientific challenges. A detailed examination of the phosphorylation of many components in the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway leads to a better understanding of the Hh signaling mechanisms. This chapter describes the precise phosphorylation that evolves during the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of players in the Hh signaling cascade, including the signal transducer Smoothened and the transcription factor Ci/Gli. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Hans J.D.,University of Kentucky
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2014

Policy and medical decision-making has been hindered by the absence of reliable data on attitudes toward having one's own gametes retrieved posthumously and used to produce a child in the event of an untimely death. The purpose of this study is to directly and empirically examine whether the presumption against consent is justified in the case of posthumous gamete retrieval following sudden death. Respondents ( N=2064) were contacted using a random-digit dialing method that gave every household telephone in the continental United States an equal probability of being contacted, and were asked: "Suppose you were to experience an early death and your spouse wanted to have a biological child with you. Would you or would you not want your spouse to be able to use your sperm/eggs following your death to have a child with you?" Among reproductive age respondents (18-44 years), 70% of males and 58% of females wanted their spouse to be able to use their gametes and, for the most part, attitudes were fairly consistent across demographic characteristics. Religiosity was the best predictor of attitudes-those who described themselves as more religious were less likely to desire posthumous gamete retrieval-but the majority (58%) of respondents who were very religious approved of retrieval. Overall, these data indicate that abandoning the prevailing presumption against consent in favor of a presumption of consent on the part of the deceased will result in the deceased's wishes being honored two and three times more often for females and males, respectively. Three main arguments against a presumption of consent in this context are discussed: autonomy of the deceased, conflict of interest, and the decision-making capacity of a grieving spouse. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Facultative bacterial endosymbionts can transfer horizontally among lineages of their arthropod hosts, providing the recipient with a suite of traits that can lead to rapid evolutionary response, as has been recently demonstrated. But how common is symbiont-driven evolution? Evidence suggests that successful symbiont transfers are most likely within a species or among closely related species, although more distant transfers have occurred over evolutionary history. Symbiont-driven evolution need not be a function of a recent horizontal transfer, however. Many endosymbionts infect only a small proportion of a host population, but could quickly increase in frequency under favorable selection regimes. Some host species appear to accumulate a diversity of facultative endosymbionts, and it is among these species that symbiont-driven evolution should be most prevalent. It remains to be determined how frequently symbionts enable rapid evolutionary response by their hosts, but substantial ecological effects are a likely consequence whenever it does occur. © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

Head E.,University of Kentucky
Age | Year: 2011

Aged canines naturally accumulate several types of neuropathology that may have links to cognitive decline. On a gross level, significant cortical atrophy occurs with age along with an increase in ventricular volume based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Microscopically, there is evidence of select neuron loss and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of aged dogs, an area critical for intact learning and memory. The cause of neuronal loss and dysfunction may be related to the progressive accumulation of toxic proteins, oxidative damage, cerebrovascular pathology, and changes in gene expression. For example, aged dogs naturally accumulate human-type beta-amyloid peptide, a protein critically involved with the development of Alzheimer's disease in humans. Further, oxidative damage to proteins, DNA/ RNA and lipids occurs with age in dogs. Although less well explored in the aged canine brain, neuron loss, and cerebrovascular pathology observed with age are similar to human brain aging and may also be linked to cognitive decline. Interestingly, the prefrontal cortex appears to be particularly vulnerable early in the aging process in dogs and this may be reflected in dysfunction in specific cognitive domains with age. © 2010 American Aging Association.

Frances A.J.,Duke University | Widiger T.,University of Kentucky
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2012

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders provides the authoritative list of what are considered to be mental disorders. This list has a tremendous impact on research, funding, and treatment, as well as a variety of civil and forensic decisions. The development of this diagnostic manual is an enormous responsibility. Provided herein are lessons learned during the course of the development of the fourth edition. Noted in particular is the importance of obtaining and publishing critical reviews, restraining the unbridled creativity of experts, conducting field trials that address key issues and concerns, and conducting forthright risk-benefit analyses. It is suggested that future editions of the diagnostic manual be developed under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine. The goal would be broad representation, an evidence-based approach, disinterested recommendations, and a careful attention to the risks and benefits of each suggestion for change to the individual patient, to public policy, and to forensic applications. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Zhou C.,University of Kentucky
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2016

Cardiometabolic disease emerges as a worldwide epidemic and there is urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this chronic disease. The chemical environment to which we are exposed has significantly changed in the past few decades and recent research has implicated its contribution to the development of many chronic human diseases. However, the mechanisms of how exposure to chemicals contributes to the development of cardiometabolic disease are poorly understood. Numerous chemicals have been identified as ligands for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor functioning as a xenobiotic sensor to coordinately regulate xenobiotic metabolism via transcriptional regulation of xenobiotic-detoxifying enzymes and transporters. In the past decade, the function of PXR in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism has been extensively studied by many laboratories and the role of PXR as a xenobiotic sensor has been well-established. The identification of PXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for the study of new mechanisms through which xenobiotic exposure impacts human chronic diseases. Recent studies have revealed novel and unexpected roles of PXR in modulating obesity, insulin sensitivity, lipid homeostasis, atherogenesis, and vascular functions. These studies suggest that PXR signaling may contribute significantly to the pathophysiological effects of many known xenobiotics on cardiometabolic disease in humans. The discovery of novel functions of PXR in cardiometabolic disease not only contributes to our understanding of "gene-environment interactions" in predisposing individuals to chronic diseases but also provides strong evidence to inform future risk assessment for relevant chemicals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Scutchfield F.D.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

The field of public health services and systems research (PHSSR) has emerged over the past decade to produce the evidence needed to address critical uncertainties about how best to organize, finance, and deliver effective public health strategies to all Americans. To advance these efforts, a national PHSSR research agenda-setting process was used to identify a broad inventory of information needs and uncertainties that public health stakeholders face in the domains of public health workforce, public health system structure and performance, public health financing, and public health information and technology. This paper presents the results of an expert review process used to transform the identified information needs into a concise set of research questions that can be pursued through new scientific inquiry in PHSSR. Established research frameworks were used to specify the contexts, mechanisms of action, and outcomes within the public health system that require further study. A total of 72 research questions were developed from the 113 original items in the PHSSR inventory of information needs. The questions include both persistent problems and newly emerging needs in public health practice and policy. The resulting research agenda provides a starting point for mobilizing the public health scientific enterprise around contemporary, high-priority uncertainties identified by broad cross sections of public health stakeholders. Regular updates to this agenda will be required to achieve continuous improvements in both the science and practice of public health. © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Egli D.B.,University of Kentucky
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2010

The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plant matches its reproductive potential to environmental conditions by adjusting the number of fruits and seeds that it produces. This adjustment is an important, but not well understood, part of the yield pro-duction process. Developing a model of fruit set will contribute greatly to a better understanding of the determination of fruit number and yield. The model (SOYPOD) is based on the well documented principle that fruit number is related to assimilate availability during flowering. Inputs, including daily photosynthesis, flower production, and potential pod and seed growth rates, were taken from field and greenhouse experiments. Fruit survival at an isolated node was determined by comparing the daily assimilate supply with the assimilate requirement of the developing fruits, which are sensitive to supply only until the pod wall reaches its maximum size. Abortion occurs when the fruit does not receive assimilate for ABRTM consecutive days during the sensitive period (SEN). The most mature fruits receive assimilate first when assimilate is limiting. It was possible to find real-istic combinations of ABRTM and SEN that mimicked the curvilinear response of fruit number to increasing assimilate supply observed in planta. Increasing the individual seed growth rate decreased fruit number when the assimilate supply was held con-stant, as it does in planta. SOYPOD accurately mimics the fruit set process at isolated nodes in soybean suggesting that it can be used as the basic building block of a whole plant model. © 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy.

Vanderford N.L.,University of Kentucky
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2012

To provide formal education and training required for PhDs to perform their complex, multidisciplinary job functions, traditional PhD curricula should be restructured to include mandatory professional development course work. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Deane A.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2012

Despite the relatively large size of anthropoid incisors in relation to the remainder of the dental arcade, and their prominent role in the preprocessing of food prior to ingestion, comparatively little is known about the functional morphology of anthropoid incisor shape and crown curvature. The relationship between incisor allometry and diet is well documented for both platyrrhines and catarrhines; however, similar relationships between incisor shape and crown curvature have to date only been reported for living and fossil members of the superfamily Hominoidea. Given the limited taxonomic diversity among the extant members of that group, it is difficult to firmly establish the relative influence of phylogeny and dietary function in the governance of incisor crown curvature. Unlike hominoids, which are represented by only five living genera, extant platyrrhines are a more varied group that includes 16 ecologically diverse genera. In an effort to clarify the functional relationship between maxillary and mandibular incisor crown curvature and diet, this study uses high resolution polynomial curve fitting to quantify mesiodistal and cervicoincisal curvature for a taxonomically diverse platyrrhine sample (n = 133 individuals representing 18 taxa) with well documented dietary behavior. Results were consistent with prior analyses of hominoid incisor curvature and identify a significant and positive correlation between incisor crown curvature and diet such that increasing curvature is associated with a proportionate increase in frugivory. These results are independent confirmation of the results reported from a previous analysis of hominoid incisor curvature and provide new evidence to suggest that diet is the primary governing factor influencing anthropoid incisor curvature. Am J Phys Anthropol 148:249-261, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Egli D.B.,University of Kentucky
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield is often associated with the number of pods per unit area, which can be construed to suggest that the number of pod bearing structures (nodes) plays a role in determining yield. This hypothesis was tested in a 2-yr field experiment at Lexington, KY (38° N latitude). Four cultivars that varied in relative maturity (0.7 to 5.3) and high and low populations (one cultivar) were used to create variation in nodes per square meter. The experiments were planted on 25 May 2010 and 31 May 2011 in 38-cm rows (19 cm for the high population) and the target populations were approximately 43 (four cultivars), 26 (low population), and 78 (high) plants m-2. Irrigation was used to minimize water stress. There were four replications of each treatment in a randomized complete block design. A 30-cm section of bordered row was harvested at maturity to determine flower scars, pods, and nodes. The photosynthetically active radiation interception was roughly 90% or above at R1 for all treatments and there was little difference in incident solar radiation or temperature among treatments during flowering and pod set. There was a two-fold variation in nodes per square meter in both years. Pods per square meter increased in concert with nodes per square meter up to approximately 70% of the maximum node number; above that level there was no change in pods per square meter. At low node levels, pods per square meter seems to be limited by the number of nodes, but at higher node levels there was no relationship between nodes and pods. © Crop Science Society of America.

Van Dyke C.,University of Kentucky
Progress in Physical Geography | Year: 2015

Critical physical geography (CPG) proposes to bridge the lingering gap between human and physical geographers. To rejuvenate conversations among different corners of the discipline about the possibility of trans-disciplinary collaboration, CPG must provide unique epistemological, methodological, and conceptual frameworks that human and physical geographers alike will find appealing, relevant, and timely. These should help them perceptively characterize, narrate, and anticipate changes in socio-biophysical landscapes. This paper outlines a conceptual framework that can be harnessed in future CPG studies and reflects on what it means to be a critical geographer. To solve the epistemological dilemmas confronting CPG, this paper demonstrates that state-and-transition models (STMs) can provide a unifying framework to address questions about socio-biophysical landscape evolution. Originally developed to account for nonlinear dynamics in rangeland ecosystems, STMs have been used to analyze a variety of ecological, geomorphic, and hydrological transitions in complex biophysical landscapes. STMs have epistemological commonalities with explanatory frameworks pioneered by political ecologists, and while thus far they have been used to account for complex biophysical dynamics, they can be expanded to accommodate critical investigations of the social dynamics underpinning landscape change. By foregrounding the transitional dynamics of socio-biophysical landscape – a theme that has interested physical and critical human geographers – STMs establish a conceptual space in which to holistically interpret the interacting drivers that underwrite socio-biophysical landscape change. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Pavlik E.J.,University of Kentucky
Obstetrics and gynecology | Year: 2013

To examine the prevalence, incidence, persistence, and resolution of ovarian abnormalities using serial transvaginal ultrasonography. A group of 39,337 women in the University of Kentucky Ovarian Cancer Screening Program were monitored with 221,576 baseline and interval transvaginal ultrasonography. The transvaginal ultrasonogram was normal for first and all subsequent visits for 31,834 participants (80.9%), whereas 6,807 women (17.3%) had transvaginal ultrasonograms interpreted as abnormal and were monitored over 21,588 ultrasonograms. Ovarian cysts were more common in premenopausal (prevalence 34.9%, incidence 15.3%) than in postmenopausal women (prevalence 17.0%, incidence 8.2%). For the group with abnormalities, the initial transvaginal ultrasonogram was abnormal in 46.7% of the cases, of which 63.2% resolved to normal on subsequent ultrasonograms. Of 35,314 cases classified as normal on the first examination, 9.9% were abnormal on subsequent annual examinations. The abnormal findings were classified as follows: unilocular cysts (11.5%), cysts with septations (9.8%), cysts with solid areas (7.1%), and solid masses (1.8%). Many transvaginal ultrasonographic abnormalities were followed to resolution. Surgery was performed on 557 participants for 85 ovarian malignancies and 472 nonmalignancies. Over the duration of the study, the positive predictive value (PPV) increased from 8.1% to 24.7%. Serial ultrasonography has shown that many ovarian abnormalities resolve, even if the initial appearance is complex, solid, or bilateral. Thus, it is advantageous to avoid a single transvaginal ultrasonographic abnormality as the sole trigger for surgery and to take a measured serial approach to reduce false-positive results and increase the PPV. II.

Wagner L.M.,University of Kentucky
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2015

Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an attractive therapeutic strategy because of the importance of this pathway in restoring DNA damage. Small-molecule inhibitors of PARP appear most effective when used to treat tumors with underlying defects in DNA repair, or when combined with DNA-damaging agents. Veliparib is one of several recently developed oral inhibitors of PARP currently in clinical trials. This review summarizes the pharmacology, mechanisms of action, toxicity, and activity of veliparib seen in clinical trials to date. Also discussed are proposed mechanisms of resistance, potential biomarkers of activity, and issues regarding patient selection and combination therapies that may optimize use of this exciting new agent. © 2015, 2015 Wagner.

Wang Z.,University of Kentucky
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2011

Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. © 2010 Springer Basel AG.

Widiger T.A.,University of Kentucky
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment | Year: 2011

The major accomplishment of the fourth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual was not in the development of surprising new content but rather in the careful, cautious, and systematic method with which it was constructed. The authors of the forthcoming fifth edition may have reversed the priorities, instead emphasizing radical changes without first conducting careful, systematic, thorough, or objective reviews of the scientific literature. Of particular concern are the proposals to cut half of the diagnoses from the manual, to abandon diagnostic criterion sets, and to include a dimensional model that lacks empirical support, fails to be integrated with normal personality functioning, and will lack official recognition. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Young A.,University of Kentucky
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

Objective: To inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs in the Asian Pacific region by elucidating factors associated with women's intent to receive the vaccine. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative studies on female HPV vaccine acceptance within countries of the Asian Pacific region were systematically reviewed. Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Medline, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, and Sociological Collection were searched for original research articles exploring primary acceptance of the HPV vaccine among women published between January 1995 and February 2010. Results: Of the 60 studies yielded by the search, 18 met inclusion criteria (13 quantitative, 5 qualitative). All quantitative studies were cross-sectional and all but one assessed vaccination intent rather than actual uptake. Awareness and knowledge of HPV, HPV-related conditions, and HPV vaccination varied greatly among studies. Several studies found women's perceived susceptibility to HPV-related conditions to be positively associated with HPV vaccine intent. Across seven quantitative studies in five countries, women's concerns about the vaccine's safety and efficacy were associated with their intent to be vaccinated. Social consequences and support from social referents were also influential in many women's decisions. Qualitative research also revealed that many women were concerned that the vaccine would affect fertility. Conclusion: HPV vaccine campaigns should address gaps in knowledge regarding HPV, genital warts, and cervical cancer, and should attend to concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy. Strategies should also be undertaken to decrease social stigma surrounding receipt of the HPV vaccine and to foster familial and partner support of women's decision to be vaccinated.

Schneider D.J.,University of Kentucky | Schneider D.J.,Pediatric Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory
Seminars in Perinatology | Year: 2012

During fetal life, the ductus arteriosus is a normal and essential structure that connects the pulmonary artery to the distal aortic arch, permitting right ventricular ejection into the aorta. After birth, with commencement of pulmonary blood flow and a 2-ventricle circulation, a variety of physiological and biochemical signals normally result in complete closure of the ductus. Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus may impair systemic cardiac output and result in deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system and lungs. Although surgery is still the treatment of choice for most premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), transcatheter techniques have largely supplanted surgery for closure of PDA in children and adults. This article is a review of the PDA in term infants, children, and adults, with focus on the clinical manifestations and management. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Huang M.,Nanchang University | Man C.-S.,University of Kentucky
International Journal of Plasticity | Year: 2013

We consider rolled sheets of cubic metals which are macroscopically orthorhombic and microscopically aggregates of tiny crystallites. The preferred orientations of the crystallites create crystallographic texture, which is a main cause for the plastic anisotropy of the sheet metal. Crystallographic texture is characterized by the orientation distribution function or, equivalently, the texture coefficients. In this paper we propose, for weakly textured sheets of cubic metals, a new generalization of the Hosford yield criterion, which is applicable for any state of stress and, as a distinguishing feature, incorporates explicitly the effects of crystallographic texture on plastic anisotropy. Besides the principal stresses, our new yield function depends on the principal stress directions, certain texture coefficients (which can be measured by X-ray diffraction or electron backscatter diffraction), and three material parameters, namely the exponent η, the uniaxial yield stress Yiso for the isotropic polycrystal, and a parameter β which describes the strength of the effects of crystallographic texture. We derive formulas with which the three material parameters can be calibrated by uniaxial and/or balanced biaxial tension tests. As examples, the three material parameters are calibrated against (i) the predictions of the Taylor model in uniaxial and balanced biaxial tension tests and (ii) experimental data on directional dependence of the q-value and uniaxial yield stress that pertain to two aluminum alloys. The values of the exponent η determined by calibration with the Taylor model are approximately 10 and 6.6 for FCC and BCC sheet metals, respectively, which square well with the earlier findings of Hosford and coworkers. For the two aluminum alloys studied, it is found that both the plastic anisotropy of the q-value and of the uniaxial yield stress can be described reasonably well by the new yield criterion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lyon S.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Political Ecology | Year: 2014

Fair trade is both a movement and a market, and the tension between these two domains reflects an ambiguity at the center of fair trade in the United States, resulting from long-standing debates within the contemporary movement. In practice, this ideological division produces a struggle between companies that offer a small number of fair trade products aside a vast number of conventional items, and those that sell only fair trade certified products. However, it also shapes the experience of on-the-ground fair trade advocacy work. This article uses Gibson-Graham's diverse economies framework to explore three arenas in which this is most clearly evidenced. First, some fair trade advocates are wary of Fair Trade USA's (FTUSA) power and strategies. They are aware that multiple fair trade certification frameworks currently exist; however they aren't always sure which ones are most desirable and why. This confusion can be problematic in Fair Trade Towns (FTT) advocacy work which involves convincing community members, institutions and governments to purchase more fair trade products. Second, in light of FTUSA's strategic marketization of fair trade and the entry of large corporate players into the U.S. fair trade market, fair trade advocates increasingly find themselves in the equivocal position of providing free labor and marketing for large corporations. Third, the efforts of some FTT advocates are stymied by the determined localvores in their community who are more focused on minimizing carbon footprints and supporting local farmers than promoting social justice and environmental stewardship in the developing world. These tensions raise important questions about the scalar politics of alternative markets and diverse economies.

Mott C.,University of Kentucky | Roberts S.M.,University of Turku
Antipode | Year: 2014

In geographic scholarship, urban exploration (urbex) has been examined as an embodied practice with radical potential for re-appropriating urban spaces. However, geographic literature on urban exploration has largely ignored the particular qualities of the urban explorer as a subject and neglected feminist scholarship on embodiment and social difference. Based on our examination of both popular and academic treatments of urbex we identify a prevalent and largely unacknowledged culture of masculinism. We ask: Whose bodies explore? What counts as experience? What constitutes the exchange between body and place? And, with what effects? Addressing these questions permits considerations of exclusions and marginalizations left unaddressed in much geographic literature on urbex. © 2013 The Authors. Antipode © 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd..

Roberts S.M.,University of Kentucky
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2014

Development assistance from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is conceptualized as flowing through an assemblage that includes heterogeneous subjects and objects and that has coevolved with USAID's contracting regime. Key assemblage elements are contractors (firms, nongovernmental organizations, individuals), contracts, and procurements, and key flows include capital, knowledge, and people. The focus of this article is the rise over the past forty years of a lucrative development contracting industry in the United States, through a relational examination of USAID contractors and other key elements in the assemblage. This article traces the contemporary U.S. development assistance contracting assemblage and its geographies. This entails identifying and mapping the assemblage's component elements, its networks and flows, with the overall aim being to take steps toward building a critical geographical understanding of development capital. © 2014 © 2014 by Association of American Geographers.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms | Year: 2014

Landform and landscape evolution may be convergent, whereby initial differences and irregularities are (on average) reduced and smoothed, or divergent, with increasing variation and irregularity. Convergent and divergent evolution are directly related to dynamical (in)stability. Unstable interactions among geomorphic system components tend to dominate in earlier stages of development, while stable limits often become dominant in later stages. This results in mode switching, from unstable, divergent to stable, convergent development. Divergent-to-convergent mode switches emerge from a common structure in many geomorphic systems: mutually reinforcing or competitive interrelationships among system components, and negative self-effects limiting individual components. When the interactions between components are dominant, divergent evolution occurs. As threshold limits to divergent development are approached, self-limiting effects become more important, triggering a switch to convergence. The mode shift is an emergent phenomenon, arising from basic principles of threshold modulation and gradient selection. As an example, the relationships among flow concentration, erosive force, and channel incision in fluvial systems are examined in the context of mode switching and thresholds. The commonly observed divergence in channel growth and fluvial dissection and network development, eventually transitioning to a stable, convergent configuration, is an emergent outcome of gradient selection and threshold modification, and does not imply any goal functions of balancing mass fluxes or limiting change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Jahangiri A.,University of Kentucky
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2010

Purpose of Review: Inflammation and the concomitant acute phase response induce marked changes in the lipoprotein profile, particularly the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. The present Review describes the transfer proteins and lipases that remodel HDL and regulate its plasma levels, discusses the changes occurring in their activities during inflammation, and the influence of this altered remodeling on HDL function. The Review will also discuss the contribution of the ATP-binding-membrane-cassette transporters to the protective actions of HDL. Recent Findings: Studies using different models showed that remodeling of acute phase HDL in vitro generates pre-β migrating particles capable of cholesterol efflux. Induction of the acute phase response in humans resulted in a reduction of HDL phospholipids without a change in HDL-cholesterol. However, the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol efflux ex vivo was impaired. Studies with ATP-binding-membrane-cassette transporter A1 and ATP-binding-membrane-cassette transporter G1 knockout mice demonstrated anti-inflammatory roles for these transporters by virtue of reducing cell-membrane-free cholesterol and lipid raft content, thus attenuating proinflammatory signaling pathways. Summary: It is well known that HDL has anti-inflammatory properties that are diminished during inflammation. Acute phase HDL contains serum amyloid A that can be liberated during remodeling by cholesteryl ester transfer protein and secretory phospholipase A2, or other inflammatory factors. The ability of serum amyloid A and apolipoprotein A-I to promote cholesterol efflux may confer protective effects during the acute phase response. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ambrose C.,University of Kentucky
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2015

This essay begins by proposing that muscle weakness of old age from sarcopenia is due in large part to reduced capillary density in the muscles, as documented in 9 reports of aged persons and animals. Capillary density (CD) is determined by local levels of various angiogenic factors, which also decline in muscles with aging, as reported in 7 studies of old persons and animals. There are also numerous reports of reduced CD in the aged brain and other studies showing reduced CD in the kidney and heart of aged animals. Thus a waning angiogenesis throughout the body may be a natural occurrence in later years and may account significantly for the lesser ailments (physical and cognitive) of elderly people. Old age is regarded here as a deficiency state which may be corrected by therapeutic angiogenesis, much as a hormonal deficiency can be relieved by the appropriate hormone therapy. Such therapy could employ recombinant angiogenic factors which are now commercially available. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Bix G.J.,University of Kentucky
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

The sad reality is that in the year 2012, people are still dying or suffering from the extreme morbidity of ischemic stroke. This tragedy is only compounded by the graveyard full of once promising new therapies. While it is indeed true that the overall mortality from stroke has declined in the United States, perhaps due to increased awareness of stroke symptoms by both the lay public and physicians, it is clear that better therapies are needed. In this regard, progress has been tremendously slowed by the simple fact that experimental models of stroke and the animals that they typically employ, rats and mice, do not adequately represent human stroke. Furthermore, the neuroprotective therapeutic approach, in which potential treatments are administered with the hope of preventing the spread of dying neurons that accompanies a stroke, typically fail for a number of reasons such as there is simply more brain matter to protect in a human than there is in a rodent! For this reason, there has been somewhat of a shift in stroke research away from neuroprotection and toward a neurorepair approach. This too may be problematic in that agents that might foster brain repair could be acutely deleterious or neurotoxic and vice versa, making the timing of treatment administration after stroke critical. Therefore, in our efforts to discover a new stroke therapy, we decided to focus on identifying brain repair elements that were (1) endogenously and actively generated in response to stroke in both human and experimental animal brains, (2) present acutely and chronically after ischemic stroke, suggesting that they could have a role in acute neuroprotection and chronic neurorepair, and (3) able to be administered peripherally and reach the site of stroke brain injury. In this review, I will discuss the evidence that suggests that perlecan domain V may be just that substance, a potential beacon of hope for stroke patients. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Whayne T.F.,University of Kentucky
Angiology | Year: 2013

The clinical importance of lowering of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to decrease cardiovascular (CV) risk has been verified over many years starting with significant support in 1984 of the then previous lipid hypothesis. Significant support of this hypothesis began that year with publication of the Lipid Research Clinic study. Since then, multiple other studies including outcomes studies have established the value of LDL-C reduction in decreasing CV risk. In addition, multiple other factors such as inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide, antioxidant properties, and plaque stabilization appear important for modifying CV risk and possible favorable alterations by medications such as statins must be considered. Nevertheless, reduction of LDL-C has well-established value and is being accepted by clinicians as a major guideline for CV disease prevention. However, there are still problems with adherence by many clinicians to CV risk modification. Therefore, abandoning LDL-C reduction as a target, as has been advocated by some, appears premature and contraindicated. A strategy of LDL-C reduction in no way interferes with increased understanding of the complexities of atherosclerosis and new approaches to CV disease prevention as they become supported by outcomes studies. © 2012 The Author(s).

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Climatic Change | Year: 2010

Efforts to predict responses to climate change and to interpret modern or paleoclimate indicators are influenced by several levels of potential amplifiers, which increase or exaggerate climate impacts, and/or filters, which reduce or mute impacts. With respect to geomorphic responses and indicators, climate forcings are partly mediated by ecological, hydrological, and other processes which may amplify or filter impacts on surface processes and landforms. Then, geomorphic responses themselves may be threshold-dominated or dynamically unstable, producing disproportionately large and long-lived responses to climate changes or disturbances. Or, responses may be dynamically stable, whereby resistance or resilience of geomorphic systems minimizes the effects of changes. Thus a given geomorphic response to climate could represent (at least) two levels of amplification and/or filtering. An example is given for three fluvial systems in Kentucky, U. S. A, the Kentucky, Green, and Big South Fork Rivers. Climate impacts in the early Quaternary were amplified by glacially-driven reorganization of the ancestral Ohio River system to the North, and by dynamical instability in the down-cutting response of rivers incising plateau surfaces. Effects of more recent climate changes, however, have been filtered to varying extents. Using alluvial terraces as an example, the study rivers show distinctly different responses to climate forcings. The lower Green River has extensive, well-developed terraces recording several episodes of aggradation and downcutting, while the Big South Fork River has no alluvial terraces. The Kentucky River is intermediate, with limited preservation of relatively recent terraces. The differences can be explained in terms of differences among the rivers in (1) filtering effects of constraints on fluvial responses imposed by strongly incised, steep-walled bedrock controlled valleys; and (2) amplifier effects of periodic damming of lower river reaches by glaciofluvial outwash. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sheng Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Abreu I.A.,New University of Lisbon | Abreu I.A.,Institute Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica | Cabelli D.E.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

A scientific review presents information about superoxide dismutases and superoxide reductases. The review reveals that the superoxide reductase (SOR) and three very different types of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes are redox-active metalloenzymes that have evolved entirely independently from one another for the purpose of lowering superoxide concentrations. SODs catalyze the disproportionation of superoxide to give O2 and H2O 2, a reaction requiring one proton per superoxide reacted without external reductant. All of the SOR enzymes contain only iron, while the three types of SODs are the nickel-containing SODs (NiSOD), the iron- or manganese-containing SODs (FeSOD and MnSOD), and the copper- and zinc-containing SODs (CuZnSOD).

Yokel R.A.,University of Kentucky | MacPhail R.C.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public in industrialized nations) are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) or ENM-containing products. However, our understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of ENMs is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified, and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment, and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards. These latter approaches include engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness - or lack thereof - of some of these controls are also included. This review is presented in the context of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework, as a paradigm to systematically work through issues regarding human health hazards of ENMs. Examples are discussed of current knowledge of nanoscale materials for each component of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations. This review may serve as an overview for health and safety personnel, management, and ENM workers to establish and maintain a safe work environment. Small start-up companies and research institutions with limited personnel or expertise in nanotechnology health and safety issues may find this review particularly useful. © 2011 Yokel and MacPhail.

Jindra M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Palli S.R.,University of Kentucky | Riddiford L.M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2013

The molecular action of juvenile hormone (JH), a regulator of vital importance to insects, was until recently regarded as a mystery. The past few years have seen an explosion of studies of JH signaling, sparked by a finding that a JH-resistance gene, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), plays a critical role in insect metamorphosis. Here, we summarize the recently acquired knowledge on the capacity of Met to bind JH, which has been mapped to a particular ligand-binding domain, thus establishing this bHLH-PAS protein as a novel type of an intracellular hormone receptor. Next, we consider the significance of JH-dependent interactions of Met with other transcription factors and signaling pathways. We examine the regulation and biological roles of genes acting downstream of JH and Met in insect metamorphosis. Finally, we discuss the current gaps in our understanding of JH action and outline directions for future research. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Palli S.R.,University of Kentucky
Current Opinion in Insect Science | Year: 2014

Colorado potato beetle (CPB) is a notorious pest on potatoes and has a remarkable ability to detoxify plant chemicals and develop resistance against insecticides. dsRNA targeting CPB genes could be expressed in potato plants to control this pest. However, previous attempts at introducing transgenic potato plants to control CPB were not highly successful. Recent studies showed that feeding dsRNA expressed in bacteria works very well to kill CPB. To realize the potential of RNAi to control this and other economically important pests, more efficient methods for production and delivery of dsRNA need to be developed. Extensive research to determine off-target and non-target effects, environmental fate and potential for resistance development is also essential. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Elitzur M.,University of Kentucky
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2012

The inevitable spread in properties of the toroidal obscuration of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) invalidates the widespread notion that type 1 and 2 AGNs are intrinsically the same objects, drawn randomly from the distribution of torus covering factors. Instead, AGNs are drawn preferentially from the distribution; type 2 are more likely drawn from the distribution higher end, type 1 from its lower end. Type 2 AGNs have a higher IR luminosity, lower narrow-line luminosity, and a higher fraction of Compton thick X-ray obscuration than type 1. Meaningful studies of unification statistics cannot be conducted without first determining the intrinsic distribution function of torus covering factors. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Syngeneic graft-versus-host disease (SGVHD) develops following lethal irradiation, reconstitution with syngeneic bone marrow (BM) and treatment with a 21 day course of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA). Clinical symptoms of SGVHD appear 2-3 weeks post-CsA with inflammation occurring in the colon and liver. Previously we have demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells and a T helper cell type 1 cytokine response (T(H)1) are involved in the development of SGVHD associated intestinal inflammation. Studies have recently discovered an additional T cell lineage that produces IL-17 and is termed T(H)17. It has been suggested that inflammatory bowel disease is a result of a T(H)17 response rather than a T(H)1 response. This study was designed to investigate T(H)17 involvement in SGVHD-associated colitis. Following induction of SGVHD, the levels of T(H)17 and T(H)1 cytokine mRNA and protein were measured in control and SGVHD animals. In vivo cytokine neutralization was performed to determine the role of the prototypic T(H)17 cytokine, IL-17, in the disease process. We found that during CsA-induced murine SGVHD there was an increase in both T(H)17 and T(H)1 mRNA and cytokines within the colons of diseased mice. The administration of an anti-mouse IL-17A mAb did not alter the course of disease. However, neutralization of IL-17A resulted in an increased production of IL-17F, a related family member, with an overlapping range of effector activities. These results demonstrate that in the pathophysiology of SGVHD, there is a redundancy in the T(H)17 effector molecules that mediate the development of SGVHD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Johnson A.M.,North Carolina A&T State University | Lederer A.L.,University of Kentucky
Information and Management | Year: 2010

Mutual understanding between the CEO and CIO is thought to facilitate the alignment of an organization's IS with its business strategy, and thereby enhance the contribution of the IS to business performance. A survey of 202 pairs of CEOs and CIOs was taken to investigate the relationships between them. Mutual understanding was measured as the role of IS in the organization, using the perspectives of both executives. Strategic alignment was measured as the fit between the CEO's assessment of eight STROBE dimensions and the CIO's assessment of the analogous STROEPIS dimensions; both the CEO and CIO evaluated IS contribution. Mutual understanding of the role of IT led to seven alignment dimensions whereas six alignment dimensions led to IS contributions. Our study extended the theory of IT strategic alignment and provided direction for CEOs and CIOs interested in improving the IS contribution of their organization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Shapere A.,University of Kentucky | Wilczek F.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We consider the possibility that classical dynamical systems display motion in their lowest-energy state, forming a time analogue of crystalline spatial order. Challenges facing that idea are identified and overcome. We display arbitrary orbits of an angular variable as lowest-energy trajectories for nonsingular Lagrangian systems. Dynamics within orbits of broken symmetry provide a natural arena for formation of time crystals. We exhibit models of that kind, including a model with traveling density waves. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Camptothecin analogues are anticancer drugs effective when dosed in protracted schedules. Such treatment is best suited for oral formulations. AR-67 is a novel lipophilic analogue with potent efficacy in preclinical models. Here we assessed factors that may influence its oral bioavailability in rats. Plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were conducted following administration of AR-67 lactone or carboxylate doses alone or after pre-dosing with inhibitors of the efflux transporters P-gp and Bcrp. A population PK model that simultaneously fitted to oral and intravenous data was used to estimate the bioavailability (F) and clearance of AR-67. An inverse Gaussian function was used as the oral input into the model and provided the best fits. Covariate analysis showed that the bioavailability of the lactone, but not its clearance, was dose dependent. Consistent with this observation, the bioavailability of AR-67 increased when animals were pretreated orally with GF120918 or Zosuquidar. Absorption of AR-67 is likely affected by solubility of its lactone form and interaction with efflux pumps in the gut. AR-67 appears to be absorbed as the lactone form, most likely due to gastric pH favoring its formation and predominance. F increased at higher doses suggesting saturation of efflux mechanisms.

Shapere A.,University of Kentucky | Wilczek F.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We propose a method for quantization of Lagrangians for which the Hamiltonian, as a function of momentum, is a branched function, possibly with cusps. Appropriate boundary conditions, which we identify, ensure unitary time evolution. In special cases a dual (canonical) transformation maps the problem into a problem of quantum mechanics on singular spaces, which we also develop. Several possible applications are indicated. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Berger J.R.,University of Kentucky
Discovery medicine | Year: 2011

Interest in pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) followed the observation of the high risk for the disease in HIV infection and the recent observation of an association with a variety of newer therapeutic modalities, e.g., natalizumab, an α4β1 integrin inhibitor, and efalizumab, an anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody. Any hypothesis of PML pathogenesis must account for a number of facts. Firstly, the causative agent JC virus is ubiquitously present, yet only a vanishingly small number of infected persons develop the disease. Secondly, disorders of cell-mediated immunity increase the risk of the disease, particularly HIV infection. Impaired innate immunity is not a risk for PML, and antibodies against JC virus are not protective. Thirdly, a latent period of several months appears necessary following the administration of natalizumab and efalizumab before PML develops. Fourthly, restoration of the immune system can arrest the PML. It is possible that infection with JC virus occurs with a form of the virus shed in the urine of as many as 40% of all adults and present in sewage worldwide. Once acquired, perhaps through an oropharyngeal route, it may replicate and disseminate. A neurotropic form of JC virus that replicates in glial tissues causes PML when immunosurveillance is impaired. There are many unanswered questions with respect to PML pathogenesis. How is virus acquired? What tissues are infected? What is the origin of the neurotropic form? When does virus enter brain? What is the role of central nervous system immunosurveillance? The lack of an animal model has made answering these questions challenging. © Discovery Medicine

Widiger T.A.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Personality Assessment | Year: 2015

The purpose of this article is to present an approach to defining, identifying, and assessing personality disorders, including the links between these definitions and personality assessment, with a particular reference to the proposed revisions to the personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The article discusses measures of maladaptive variants of the Five-factor model (FFM) that are coordinated with both the traditional personality disorder syndromes as well as the DSM-5 dimensional trait model. Discussed as well is the assessment of the more psychodynamically oriented deficits in sense of self and interpersonal relatedness that are also included within the hybrid model proposed for DSM-5. © 2015 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Sultana R.,University of Kentucky
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2012

Oxidative stress is involved in the onset, progression and pathogenesis of a number of diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. It is critical to develop a pharmacological approach to combat oxidative stress which may reduce the risk of diseases and help in promoting healthy life. In an attempt to reduce the side effects associated with allopathic medicines a number of studies are now focusing on developing treatment regimens from naturally occurring plant products. In this review, the protective role of ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA), a naturally occurring antioxidant compound found in fruit, some vegetables, and grains, and its ethyl ester derivative are discussed with respect to neurodegeneration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bonner S.J.,University of Kentucky | Holmberg J.,ECOCEAN
Biometrics | Year: 2013

Non-invasive marks, including pigmentation patterns, acquired scars, and genetic markers, are often used to identify individuals in mark-recapture experiments. If animals in a population can be identified from multiple, non-invasive marks then some individuals may be counted twice in the observed data. Analyzing the observed histories without accounting for these errors will provide incorrect inference about the population dynamics. Previous approaches to this problem include modeling data from only one mark and combining estimators obtained from each mark separately assuming that they are independent. Motivated by the analysis of data from the ECOCEAN online whale shark (Rhincodon typus) catalog, we describe a Bayesian method to analyze data from multiple, non-invasive marks that is based on the latent-multinomial model of Link et al. (2010, Biometrics 66, 178-185). Further to this, we describe a simplification of the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm of Link et al. (2010, Biometrics 66, 178-185) that leads to more efficient computation. We present results from the analysis of the ECOCEAN whale shark data and from simulation studies comparing our method with the previous approaches. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

Gundersen C.,Urbana University | Ziliak J.P.,University of Kentucky
Health Affairs | Year: 2015

Almost fifty million people are food insecure in the United States, which makes food insecurity one of the nation's leading health and nutrition issues. We examine recent research evidence of the health consequences of food insecurity for children, nonsenior adults, and seniors in the United States. For context, we first provide an overview of how food insecurity is measured in the country, followed by a presentation of recent trends in the prevalence of food insecurity. Then we present a survey of selected recent research that examined the association between food insecurity and health outcomes. We show that the literature has consistently found food insecurity to be negatively associated with health. For example, after confounding risk factors were controlled for, studies found that food-insecure children are at least twice as likely to report being in fair or poor health and at least 1.4 times more likely to have asthma, compared to food-secure children; and foodinsecure seniors have limitations in activities of daily living comparable to those of food-secure seniors fourteen years older. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) substantially reduces the prevalence of food insecurity and thus is critical to reducing negative health outcomes. © 2015 Project HOPE The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Dekker R.L.,University of Kentucky
Heart Failure Clinics | Year: 2011

Depression is a significant problem in patients with heart failure (HF). This article examines the evidence for the use of cognitive therapy (CT) in treating depression and depressive symptoms in patients with HF and cardiovascular related illnesses. In 8 of the 14 studies reviewed, researchers found that CT reduced depressive symptoms; however, the limitations of the studies prevent wide generalization of the results. Evidence to support the use of CT for the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with cardiovascular illness is insufficient at this time. Large randomized controlled trials that demonstrate the efficacy of CT are needed before clinicians routinely refer patients with HF to CT for the purpose of improving depression or depressive symptoms. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Miller A.-F.,University of Kentucky
FEBS Letters | Year: 2012

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyze the de toxification of superoxide. SODs therefore acquired great importance as O 2 became prevalent following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Thus the three forms of SOD provide intriguing insights into the evolution of the organisms and organelles that carry them today. Although ancient organisms employed Fe-dependent SODs, oxidation of the environment made Fe less bio-available, and more dangerous. Indeed, modern lineages make greater use of homologous Mn-dependent SODs. Our studies on the Fe-substituted MnSOD of Escherichia coli, as well as redox tuning in the FeSOD of E. coli shed light on how evolution accommodated differences between Fe and Mn that would affect SOD performance, in SOD proteins whose activity is specific to one or other metal ion. © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mid-life obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) confer a modest, increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), though the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We have created a novel mouse model that recapitulates features of T2DM and AD by crossing morbidly obese and diabetic db/db mice with APPΔNL/ΔNLx PS1P264L/P264L knock-in mice. These mice (db/AD) retain many features of the parental lines (e.g. extreme obesity, diabetes, and parenchymal deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ)). The combination of the two diseases led to additional pathologies-perhaps most striking of which was the presence of severe cerebrovascular pathology, including aneurysms and small strokes. Cortical Aβ deposition was not significantly increased in the diabetic mice, though overall expression of presenilin was elevated. Surprisingly, Aβ was not deposited in the vasculature or removed to the plasma, and there was no stimulation of activity or expression of major Aβ-clearing enzymes (neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme, or endothelin-converting enzyme). The db/AD mice displayed marked cognitive impairment in the Morris Water Maze, compared to either db/db or APPΔNLx PS1P264L mice. We conclude that the diabetes and/or obesity in these mice leads to a destabilization of the vasculature, leading to strokes and that this, in turn, leads to a profound cognitive impairment and that this is unlikely to be directly dependent on Aβ deposition. This model of mixed or vascular dementia provides an exciting new avenue of research into the mechanisms underlying the obesity-related risk for age-related dementia, and will provide a useful tool for the future development of therapeutics.

Kaul R.K.,University of Kentucky
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2015

We consider bipartite SU(N) spin Hamiltonians with a fundamental representation on one sublattice and a conjugate to fundamental on the other sublattice. By mapping these antiferromagnets to certain classical loop models in one higher dimension, we provide a practical strategy to write down a large family of SU(N) symmetric spin Hamiltonians that satisfy Marshall's sign condition. This family includes all previously known sign-free SU(N) spin models in this representation and in addition provides a large set of new models that are Marshall positive and can hence be studied efficiently with quantum Monte Carlo methods. As an application of our idea to the square lattice, we show that in addition to Sandvik's Q term, there is an independent nontrivial four-spin R term that is sign free. Using numerical simulations, we show how the R term provides a new route to the study of quantum criticality of Néel order. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Whiteheart S.W.,University of Kentucky
Blood | Year: 2013

In this issue of Blood, Kahr et al report the description of a mouse model lacking the Nbeal2 protein and demonstrate its utility in the study of a-granule biogenesis and megakaryocyte development in gray platelet syndrome (GPS). © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology.

The last decade has brought forth substantial growth in the study of diverse economies and alternative economic spaces within the field of geography. The publication of Gibson-Graham's (1996) groundbreaking work The end of capitalism (as we knew it): a feminist critique of political economy was essential for creating a space in which researchers could explore economic alternatives and bring into being the diverse economies research program. In this article, I first explore the 'birth' of the diverse economies research program. Then, I examine the critical mass of scholarship in which geographers, as well as researchers in other fields, have begun 'reading for difference' in the economic landscape. Finally, I consider criticisms of this literature as well as new intellectual pathways for research, focusing primarily on the role of the state and circuits of value. In many ways, literature on diverse economies and alternative economic spaces may seem polarized between believers and skeptics. However, this polarization has been fruitful. In essence, it has prevented 'blindness' in this field of study. Geographers continue to refine what constitutes a diverse economy and alternative economic space, and there is recognition of continuing need for further development of ideas and refinement of existing knowledge. © 2011 The Author. Geography Compass © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Synthesis gas (syngas) produced from coal typically has hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios in the range of approximately 0.7-1.1, depending on the gasification method. In order to produce liquid fuels from this syngas by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), these ratios must be raised to 2.0 or higher. If this is accomplished by the water-gas shift reaction, the traditional method, large emissions of carbon dioxide are produced. In this paper, it is shown that catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous C1-C4 products of FT synthesis and recycling of the resulting hydrogen to the syngas feed-stream can increase the H2/CO ratio to the desired values with little or no production of carbon dioxide. All carbon from the CDH reaction is in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The amounts of hydrogen and MWCNT produced, carbon dioxide emissions avoided, and water saved are calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day FTS-CDH plant and it is demonstrated that the energy balance for the process is favorable. Methods of utilizing the large quantity of MWCNT produced are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Despa F.,University of Kentucky
Molecular neurodegeneration | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: We recently found that brain tissue from patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D) and cognitive impairment contains deposits of amylin, an amyloidogenic hormone synthesized and co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic β-cells. Amylin deposition is promoted by chronic hypersecretion of amylin (hyperamylinemia), which is common in humans with obesity or pre-diabetic insulin resistance. Human amylin oligomerizes quickly when oversecreted, which is toxic, induces inflammation in pancreatic islets and contributes to the development of T2D. Here, we tested the hypothesis that accumulation of oligomerized amylin affects brain function.METHODS: In contrast to amylin from humans, rodent amylin is neither amyloidogenic nor cytotoxic. We exploited this fact by comparing rats overexpressing human amylin in the pancreas (HIP rats) with their littermate rats which express only wild-type (WT) non-amyloidogenic rodent amylin. Cage activity, rotarod and novel object recognition tests were performed on animals nine months of age or older. Amylin deposition in the brain was documented by immunohistochemistry, and western blot. We also measured neuroinflammation by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and cytokine protein levels.RESULTS: Compared to WT rats, HIP rats show i) reduced exploratory drive, ii) impaired recognition memory and iii) no ability to improve the performance on the rotarod. The development of neurological deficits is associated with amylin accumulation in the brain. The level of oligomerized amylin in supernatant fractions and pellets from brain homogenates is almost double in HIP rats compared with WT littermates (P < 0.05). Large amylin deposits (>50 μm diameter) were also occasionally seen in HIP rat brains. Accumulation of oligomerized amylin alters the brain structure at the molecular level. Immunohistochemistry analysis with an ED1 antibody indicates possible activated microglia/macrophages which are clustering in areas positive for amylin infiltration. Multiple inflammatory markers are expressed in HIP rat brains as opposed to WT rats, confirming that amylin deposition in the brain induces a neuroinflammatory response.CONCLUSIONS: Hyperamylinemia promotes accumulation of oligomerized amylin in the brain leading to neurological deficits through an oligomerized amylin-mediated inflammatory response. Additional studies are needed to determine whether brain amylin accumulation may predispose to diabetic brain injury and cognitive decline.

Whayne T.F.,University of Kentucky
Current Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2015

With a history that began in 800 A.D., coffee is the most popular drink known and as a result, the issues regarding its physiologic effects deserve attention. Maintaining alertness is a well-known benefit and in addition, the cardiovascular (CV) effects of the active compounds, which include polyphenols and caffeine, must be considered. Genetics are relevant and where slow caffeine metabolism is inherent, the risk of nonfatal myocardial (MI) has been shown to be increased. Overall risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is not supported and unless there is excessive intake, congestive heart failure (CHF) is not adversely affected; in moderation, there may be some benefit for CHF. There is no apparent increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Overall, there also appears to be a beneficial inverse association with all-cause mortality, although this is not absolute for extra heavy intake. Benefit in reducing stroke also has supportive evidence. Hypertension is not increased by coffee. Boiled and unfiltered coffee appears to increase plasma cholesterol and triglycerides but for the overall metabolic syndrome, there appears to be benefit. There is also some evidence that paper-filtered coffee results in an increase in some markers of inflammation. Association of coffee with arrhythmias has been a major concern though in moderation it is not a significant overall problem. Therefore, only if a patient were to associate major arrhythmic symptoms with coffee would cessation have to be advised. Where coffee clearly shines from a CV standpoint is in the established decrease in onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Any benefit or harm has always been attributed to caffeine as the apparent major component. However, coffee contains a myriad of compounds, including polyphenols. These other substances may be most relevant for potential benefit or harm and some of these may be partially removed or altered by coffee preparation methods such as paper filtration. Multiple studies support this by what appears to be no CV advantage or disadvantage for decaffeinated coffee. The bottom line on coffee, for those who enjoy the brew, is that it is a wonderful beverage with rare associated CV disadvantage and with much to recommend it from an overall CV standpoint. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Brogden N.K.,University of Kentucky | Brogden K.A.,University of Iowa
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2011

The concept of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as potent pharmaceuticals is firmly established in the literature, and most research articles on this topic conclude by stating that AMPs represent promising therapeutic agents against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, early research in this field showed that AMPs were diverse in nature, had high activities with low minimal inhibitory concentrations, had broad spectrums of activity against bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens, and could easily be manipulated to alter their specificities, reduce their cytotoxicities and increase their antimicrobial activities. Unfortunately, commercial development of these peptides, for even the simplest of applications, has been very limited. With some peptides there are obstacles with their manufacture, in vivo efficacy and in vivo retention. More recently, the focus has shifted. Contemporary research now uses a more sophisticated approach to develop AMPs that surmount many of these prior obstacles. AMP mimetics, hybrid AMPs, AMP congeners, cyclotides and stabilised AMPs, AMP conjugates and immobilised AMPs have all emerged with selective or 'targeted' antimicrobial activities, improved retention, or unique abilities that allow them to bind to medical or industrial surfaces. These groups of new peptides have creative medical and industrial application potentials to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and septic shock, to preserve food or to sanitise surfaces both in vitro and in vivo. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.

Lisenkov S.,University of South Florida | Andriotis A.N.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Menon M.,University of Kentucky
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate the existence of anisotropic ferromagnetic interactions in Co embedded graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Spin polarization of the edge states is found to alter significantly compared to the metal-free cases. Our findings can all be well-justified as the output of the interplay between the development of an induced spin polarization in the neighborhood of the Co atoms and the maintaining of the polarization picture of the Co-free GNR. Based on our results, we propose an efficient pathway for graphene-based spintronics applications. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Hultmark M.,Princeton University | Vallikivi M.,Princeton University | Bailey S.C.C.,University of Kentucky | Smits A.J.,Princeton University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Both the inherent intractability and complex beauty of turbulence reside in its large range of physical and temporal scales. This range of scales is captured by the Reynolds number, which in nature and in many engineering applications can be as large as 105-106. Here, we report turbulence measurements over an unprecedented range of Reynolds numbers using a unique combination of a high-pressure air facility and a new nanoscale anemometry probe. The results reveal previously unknown universal scaling behavior for the turbulent velocity fluctuations, which is remarkably similar to the well-known scaling behavior of the mean velocity distribution. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Klapper A.,University of Kentucky
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2016

We introduce a new transform on Boolean functions generalizing the Walsh-Hadamard transform. For Boolean functions q and f, the q-transform of f measures the proximity of f to the set of functions obtained from q by change of basis. This has implications for security against certain algebraic attacks. In this paper, we derive the expected value and second moment (Parseval's equation) of the q-transform, leading to a notion of q-bentness. We also develop a Poisson summation formula, which leads to a proof that the q-transform is invertible. © 2016 IEEE.

Eckman A.M.,University of Kentucky
Pharmaceutical research | Year: 2012

To test physicochemical and biological properties of PEG-poly(aspartate) [PEG-p(Asp)] block copolymer micelles entrapping doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) through ionic interaction. PEG-p(Asp) was synthesized from 5 kDa PEG and 20 Asp units. Carboxyl groups of p(Asp) were present as benzyl ester [PEG-p(Asp/Bz)], sodium salt [PEG-p(Asp/Na)] or free acid [PEG-p(Asp/H)]. Block copolymers and DOX were mixed at various ratios to prepare polymer micelles, which were subsequently characterized to determine particle size, drug loading and release patterns, and cytotoxicity against prostate (PC3 and DU145) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines. PEG-p(Asp/Bz), Na- and H-micelles entrapped 1.1, 56.8 and 40.6 wt.% of DOX, respectively. Na- and H-micelles (<100 nm) showed time-dependent DOX release at pH 7.4, which was accelerated at pH 5.0. Na-micelles were most stable at pH 7.4, retaining 31.8% of initial DOX for 48 h. Cytotoxicity of Na-micelles was 23.2% (A549), 28.5% (PC3) and 45.9% (DU145) more effective than free DOX. Ionic interaction appeared to entrap DOX efficiently in polymer micelles from PEG-p(Asp) block copolymers. Polymer micelles possessing counter ions (Na) of DOX in the core were the most stable, releasing drugs for prolonged time in a pH-dependent manner, and suppressing cancer cells effectively.

Goff R.D.,University of West Florida | Thorson J.S.,University of Kentucky
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

The Veratrum alkaloid cyclopamine, an inhibitor of cancer stem cell growth, was used as a representative scaffold to evaluate the inhibitory impact of glycosylation with a group of nonmetabolic saccharides, such as d-threose. In a five-step divergent process, a 32-member glycoside library was created and assayed to determine that glycosides of such sugars notably improved the GI 50 value of cyclopamine while metabolic sugars, such as d-glucose, did not. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Perry B.L.,University of Kentucky
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2012

Existing research demonstrates a relationship between mental illness and social network attrition over time - a pattern attributed to dysfunctional psychosocial and interpersonal processes and rejection. Yet, according to the social network perspective, personal network dynamics naturally accompany important biographical transitions or events, suggesting that our current understanding of mechanisms underlying network instability in mental illness may be incomplete. This research uses data from the Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study, a longitudinal study of social network dynamics spanning five years. It focuses on in-depth interviews with 135 individuals making their first major contact with the mental health treatment system. First, levels of tie attrition and replacement in the core discussion networks of individuals with mental illness are compared to a sample with no self-reported history of mental illness. Second, using open-ended responses describing why specific individuals mentioned in previous waves were not listed again, respondents' explanations of attrition are analysed qualitatively. In addition to providing support for existing perspectives, the themes suggest a need to also consider: (i) interaction strategies that maximise the supportiveness of social networks and minimise burden and (ii) changing life circumstances external to social networks that influence opportunities for social interaction. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zentall T.R.,University of Kentucky
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2011

When humans buy a lottery ticket or gamble at a casino they are engaging in an activity that on average leads to a loss of money. Although animals are purported to engage in optimal foraging behavior, similar sub-optimal behavior can be found in pigeons. They show a preference for an alternative that is associated with a low probability of reinforcement (e.g., one that is followed by a red hue on 20% of the trials and then reinforcement or by a green hue on 80% of the trials and then the absence of reinforcement) over an alternative that is associated with a higher probability of reinforcement (e.g., blue or yellow each of which is followed by reinforcement 50% of the time). This effect appears to result from the strong conditioned reinforcement associated with the stimulus that is always followed by reinforcement. Surprisingly, although it is experienced four times as much, the stimulus that is never followed by reinforcement does not appear to result in significant conditioned inhibition (perhaps due to the absence of observing behavior). Similarly, human gamblers tend to overvalue wins and undervalue losses. Thus, this animal model may provide a useful analog to human gambling behavior, one that is free from the influence of human culture, language, social reinforcement, and other experiential biases that may influence human gambling behavior. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ambati J.,University of Kentucky
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2011

The study and therapy of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness worldwide, have taken great strides over the past decade. During the same time, a central role for RNA in many human diseases has been discovered. We have identified anti-angiogenic functions for synthetic double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in neovascular AMD and cytotoxic functions for endogenous dsRNAs in atrophic AMD. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis and therapy of both forms of AMD. © 2011 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Choi N.,University of Kentucky
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2013

With the increasing use of information systems (IS) in our everyday lives, people may feel an attachment to their software applications beyond simply perceiving them as a tool for enhancing task performance. However, attachment is still a largely unexplored concept in both IS research and practice. Drawing from the literature on attachment in consumer behavior research and auxiliary theories in IS use and community participation research, this study theoretically identifies and empirically explores the concept of attachment and its antecedents (i.e., relative visual aesthetics, personalization, relative performance) and outcome (i.e., community participation intention) in the IS context. Using web browsers as the target IS, an online survey was conducted. Results show that relative expressive visual aesthetics is the strongest antecedent of IS attachment, and that personalization is the second strongest antecedent of IS attachment, followed by relative performance. Furthermore, this study reveals that IS attachment has a strong positive impact on community participation intention. This study contributes theoretically and empirically to the body of IS use research and has managerial implications, suggesting that although superior performance is a necessary condition for attachment formation, improving users' experience through expressive visual aesthetics and personalization is critical to build strong attachment relationships with users. © 2013 ASIS&T.

Terada M.,University of Kentucky
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2016

INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Previous investigations have identified impaired trunk and postural stability in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). The diaphragm muscle contributes to trunk and postural stability by modulating the intra-abdominal pressure. A potential mechanism that could help to explain trunk and postural stability deficits may be related to altered diaphragm function due to supraspinal sensorimotor changes with CAI. The purpose of this study was to examine the diaphragm contractility in individuals with CAI and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-seven participants with self-reported CAI and 28 healthy control participants volunteered. A portable ultrasound unit was used to visualize and measure the right and left hemi-diaphragm thickness at the end of resting inspiration and expiration in supine while breathing quietly. The diaphragm movement was imaged and recorded on B-mode ultrasonography. The degree of diaphragm contractility was calculated from the mean of three images from the end of resting inspiration and expiration. Independent t-tests were utilized to compare the degree of diaphragm thickness of right and left sides between the CAI and control groups. RESULTS: The CAI group had a smaller degree of left hemi-diaphragm contractility compared to the control group (p=0.03). There was no between-group difference in other diaphragm variables. CONCLUSION: Individuals with CAI appear to have altered diaphragm contractility, which may be an illustration of diaphragm dysfunction and central nervous system changes in CAI population. The association between CAI and altered diaphragm contractility provides clinicians a more comprehensive awareness of proximal impairments associated with CAI. Future investigation is needed to determine if altered contractility of the diaphragm contributes to functional impairments, activity limitations, and participant restrictions commonly observed in patients with CAI. © 2016 American College of Sports Medicine

Scott D.,University of Kentucky
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Mithramycin (MTM), a natural product of soil bacteria from the Streptomyces genus, displays potent anticancer activity but has been limited clinically by severe side effects and toxicities. Engineering of the MTM biosynthetic pathway has produced the 3-side-chain-modified analogs MTM SK (SK) and MTM SDK (SDK), which have exhibited increased anticancer activity and improved therapeutic index. However, these analogs still suffer from low bioavailability, short plasma retention time, and low tumor accumulation. In an effort to aid with these shortcomings, two nanoparticulate formulations, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate hydrazide) self-assembled and cross-linked micelles, were investigated with regard to the ability to load and pH dependently release the drugs. Micelles were successfully formed with both nanoparticulate formulations of each drug analog, with an average size of 8.36 ± 3.21 and 12.19 ± 2.77 nm for the SK and SDK micelles and 29.56 ± 4.67 nm and 30.48 ± 7.00 nm for the SK and SDK cross-linked micelles respectively. All of the drug-loaded formulations showed a pH-dependent release of the drugs, which was accelerated as pH decreased from 7.4 to 5.0. The micelles retained biological activity of SK and SDK entrapped in the micelles, suppressing human A549 lung cancer cells effectively.

Ettensohn F.R.,University of Kentucky
Special Paper of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2010

In mid-Mohawkian time at the Turinian-Chatfieldian (Blackriverian-Trenton) transition, the extensive, shallow-, warm-water Blackriverian carbonate platform, in a low-latitude, subtropical setting across east-central Laurentia, underwent an abrupt change to temperate-water, sedimentary and faunal regimes. The change occurs across a regional unconformity, the formation of which is coincident with inception of a major Taconian tectophase and the related breakup of the Blackriverian Platform along old zones of structural weakness into smaller and higher platforms and shelves separated by a linear low area called the Sebree Trough. This breakup is interpreted to reflect far-field, foreland deformation, and temperate-water carbonates soon predominated across the resulting shelves and platforms, some 1000 km from the nearest open continental margin. Yet, paleogeographic models, the presence of warm-water carbonates distal to the trough as well as warm-water faunal and lithologic inliers in protected back-shoal settings on the Lexington Platform still indicate the presence of warm surface waters in a subtropical setting. Most interpretations support the necessity of upwelling from the Sebree Trough to explain this seeming anomaly, reflecting the significance of coeval tectonism in generating necessary conditions for the upwelling. Others have called upon glaciation for generating cooler oceanic waters and the enhanced oceanic circulation that would have developed coastal upwelling, sufficiently intense and widespread to have penetrated far across the open continental margin. Although latest Ordovician Hirnantian glaciation is well supported, evidence for the timing, extent, and likelihood of earlier Late Ordovician (Chatfieldian) glaciation is uncertain and contradictory. Although it is not possible to preclude the effects of such glaciation, the synergetic effects of tectonics and paleogeography may offer a more plausible explanation for upwelling during the time of syn-Taconic, far-field, foreland deformation on southeastern Laurentia; these effects may have even accentuated any glacial influence. Inasmuch as the Late Ordovician was a time of global tectonism, there may have been other low-latitude Ordovician cratonic settings in which changes in nearby orogens offer explanations for abrupt changes in sedimentary and faunal regimes on the adjacent forelands. © 2010 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Thomas W.A.,University of Kentucky
Memoir of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2010

Basement faults in the southern Appalachian-Ouachita footwall and foreland include crustal-scale rift and transform elements of the late Proterozoic-Cambrian Iapetan rifted margin of southern Laurentia, synrift intracratonic basement fault systems in rift-parallel and transform-parallel orientations, and down-to-basin basement faults in late Paleozoic foreland basins. Late Paleozoic emplacement of allochthons accommodated a sinuous trace, mimicking the embayments and promontories of the Iapetan continental margin. Late Paleozoic tectonic loading reactivated synrift intracratonic faults, and either reactivated or initiated down-to-basin fault systems in foreland basins. Basement faults in the orogenic footwall localized thin-skinned thrust ramps, demonstrating interplay of causes and effects in the interactions between basement faults and the southern Appalachian-Ouachita orogen. © 2010 Geological Society of America.

Brock L.M.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Thermal Stresses | Year: 2012

In one case, a rigid ellipsoidal die translates over the surface of a coupled thermoelastic half-space under compression, and because of sliding friction, shear. In the other, a rigid sphere rolls on the surface under a compressive force. Both motions occur along a straight path at constant sub-critical speed. A dynamic steady state is treated, i.e., the contact zone and its traction remain constant in the frame of the die or sphere. Robust asymptotic expressions in analytic form for contact zone traction, temperature and geometry are derived. Axial symmetry is not required in the solution process. Instead Cartesian coordinate formulations are used, but a system of quasi-polar coordinates is introduced that allow problem reduction to integral equations similar in form to those found in 2D contact. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms | Year: 2010

Earth scientists have traditionally conceptualized rivers and streams as geomorphic machines, whose role is to transfer sediment and to sculpt the landscape. Steady-state relationships between sediment supply and transport capacity have traditionally been considered normative in fluvial systems. Rivers are hydrological entities, however, whose function is to redis- tribute excess moisture on land. The geomorphic work of the river - erosion, transport, deposition, etc. - is a byproduct of the hydrological job of the river. There is therefore no reason to expect any particular relationship between sediment supply and transport capacity to develop as a normative condition in fluvial systems. The apparent steady-state equilibrium slope adjustments of rivers are a byproduct of four basic phenomena: (1) hydraulic selection, which favors channels and branching networks over other flux patterns; (2) water flows along the available path of least resistance; (3) energy dissipation; and (4) finite relaxation times. Recognizing converging trends of stream power or slope and sediment supply as common (but far from inevitable) side effects rather than self-regulation has important implications for interpreting and predicting fluvial systems, and for river manage- ment and restoration. Such trends are variable, transient, contingent, and far from universal. Where they occur, they are an emergent byproduct of fundamental physical mechanisms, not a goal function or attractor state. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wilson M.E.,University of Kentucky
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2013

Stroke is a significant cause of death and long-term disability in the USA. The incidence, mortality, and outcomes of stroke are significantly different between men and women. As with many diseases that affect men and women differently, an understanding on the reasons underlying those differences is critical to effective diagnosis and treatment. This review will examine the sex differences in stroke in both humans and animal models of stroke and review what is known about potential mechanisms underlying these differences. It is clear that there is a complex interaction between hormonal, genetic, and unknown factors at play in generating the sex differences in stroke. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Phelps N.A.,University College London | Wood A.M.,University of Kentucky
Urban Studies | Year: 2011

Settlements variously termed 'ex-urbs', 'edge cities', 'technoburbs' are taken to signal something different from suburbia and as a consequence might be considered post-suburban. Existing literature has focused on defining post-suburbia as a new era and as a new form of settlement space. Whether post-suburbia can also be delimited in terms of its distinctive politics is the open question explored here. The paper begins by considering the need to make urban political theory more tailored to the different settlements that populate the heavily urbanised regions of nations. The paper stresses the structural properties of capitalism that generate differences within the unity of the urbanisation process. It then discusses what is new about a class of post-suburban settlements, concentrating on what the increasing economic gravity of post-suburbia, the difficulty of bounding post-suburban communities and the continuing role of the state imply for understanding urban politics and the reformulation of urban political theory. © 2011 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Seifert A.W.,University of Kentucky | Maden M.,University of Florida
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Adams D.R.,University of Kentucky | Xiao J.,Memorial University of Newfoundland
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011

This paper discusses trace estimates for Morrey potentials (i.e., Riesz potential integrals of Morrey functions), leading to a consideration of the C∞ smoothness of a class of generalized harmonic maps. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Gervais W.M.,University of Kentucky
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Scientific research yields inconsistent and contradictory evidence relating religion to moral judgments and outcomes, yet most people on earth nonetheless view belief in God (or gods) as central to morality, and many view atheists with suspicion and scorn. To evaluate intuitions regarding a causal link between religion and morality, this paper tested intuitive moral judgments of atheists and other groups. Across five experiments (N = 1,152), American participants intuitively judged a wide variety of immoral acts (e.g., serial murder, consensual incest, necrobestiality, cannibalism) as representative of atheists, but not of eleven other religious, ethnic, and cultural groups. Even atheist participants judged immoral acts as more representative of atheists than of other groups. These findings demonstrate a prevalent intuition that belief in God serves a necessary function in inhibiting immoral conduct, and may help explain persistent negative perceptions of atheists. © 2014 Will M. Gervais.

Gervais W.M.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General | Year: 2014

Many people view religion as a crucial source of morality. However, 6 experiments (total N = 1,078) revealed that good deeds are perceived as less moral if they are performed for religious reasons. Religiously motivated acts were seen as less moral than the exact same acts performed for other reasons (Experiments 1-2 and 6). Religious motivations also reduced attributions of intention and responsibility (Experiments 3-6), an effect that fully mediated the effect of religious motivations on perceived morality (Experiment 6). The effects were not explained by different perceptions of motivation orientation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) across conditions (Experiment 4) and also were evident when religious upbringing led to an intuitive moral response (Experiment 5). Effects generalized across religious and nonreligious participants. When viewing a religiously motivated good deed, people infer that actually helping others is, in part, a side effect of other motivations rather than an end in itself. Thus, religiously motivated actors are seen as less responsible than secular actors for their good deeds, and their helping behavior is viewed as less moral than identical good deeds performed for either unclear or secular motivations. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Westgate P.M.,University of Kentucky
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2016

In this paper, we give focus to cluster randomized trials, also known as group randomized trials, which randomize clusters, or groups, of subjects to different trial arms, such as intervention or control. Outcomes from subjects within the same cluster tend to exhibit an exchangeable correlation measured by the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC). Our primary interest is to test if the intervention has an impact on the marginal mean of an outcome. Using recently developed methods, we propose how to select a working ICC structure with the goal of choosing the structure that results in the smallest standard errors for regression parameter estimates and thus the greatest power for this test. Specifically, we utilize small-sample corrections for the estimation of the covariance matrix of regression parameter estimates. This matrix is incorporated within correlation selection criteria proposed in the generalized estimating equations literature to choose one of multiple working ICC structures under consideration. We demonstrate the potential power and utility of this approach when used in cluster randomized trial settings via a simulation study and application example, and we discuss practical considerations for its use in practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Fatemi R.,University of Kentucky
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

The quark transversity distributions are accessible via measurements of the azimuthal distribution of charged pions inside jets produced in collisions of transversely polarized protons. The STAR Detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is capable of full jet reconstruction and charged pion identification in the mid-rapidity region. This proceeding presents the first results of the Collins moment of leading charged pions in jets reconstructed from 2.2 pb -1 of √s=200 GeV transversely polarized (58) proton data. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Gokariksel B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Secor A.,University of Kentucky
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2010

What makes a commodity 'Islamic'? By focusing on the question of 'Islamic-ness' as it traverses both material and symbolic production, this paper aims to contribute to recent research in geography on the lives of commodities. Our study demonstrates the instability of Islamic-ness in the veiling-fashion industry in Turkey and draws out the implications of this finding for our understanding of the socio-spatial work of the commodity. The veiling-fashion (or tesettür) sector has become a conspicuous part of the Turkish apparel industry in the past 30 years. Firms producing veiling-fashion engage in the design, production, marketing and sale of distinctive commodities stylised to signify Islamic-ness. We begin by situating veiling-fashion within the broader contours of the Turkish apparel industry, economic restructuring and the rise of an Islamic habitus in Turkey. Based on our 2008 survey of 174 veiling-fashion firms in Turkey and our case studies of three such firms, we seek to understand how and to what extent the commodity is inscribed as an Islamic commodity in the course of its life, from financing to marketing. We use survey data to explore the role of Islamic banking practices, Islamic trading practices and Islamic workplace ethics in the itinerary of veiling-fashion. Drawing on our case studies of three veiling-fashion firms (Tekbir, Boutique Dayi{dotless} and Armine), we show how these companies represent their ambivalent relationships to Islamic-ness, both as a set of values and as a particular milieu in Turkey. Through this analysis, we find that the Islamic-ness of the commodity cannot in fact be located or fixed; it is instead best understood as a mode of insertion into socio-spatial networks. Veiling-fashion as a commodity thus enters into and becomes constitutive of the wider material and symbolic networks that enact Islamic-ness in Turkey today. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers) 2010.

Shenoy K.,University of Kentucky
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2014

Performing appropriate mating behaviors is crucial to male reproductive success, especially in species where mating is predominantly via female mate choice. Mating behaviors are hormonally regulated and may be sexually selected traits: courtship displays are selected via mate choice, while forced copulations and aggressive behaviors are selected for via intrasexual competition. Endocrine disrupting compounds interfere with proper hormonal functioning in exposed animals. Exposures during developmentally crucial life stages can have irreversible effects lasting through adulthood. I tested the effects of prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of a commonly used herbicide, atrazine (1 and 13.5. μg/L) on mating behaviors in male guppies. Guppies were used as a model organism to test the effects of atrazine exposure on wildlife reproductive health. Adult female guppies were mated and exposed to the treatments throughout the gestation period, and offspring born to them were raised without further treatment. At adulthood, the males were tested for the effects of prenatal exposure on their mating behaviors such as courtship displays, gonopodium swings, forced copulatory attempts, and competitive and aggressive behaviors towards rivals who were not exposed to atrazine. I also tested female preference for treated males compared to control males. Atrazine-exposed males were less likely to perform the mating behaviors, and performed them less frequently, than control males. Atrazine exposure also made males less aggressive towards rivals. Females preferred untreated males over atrazine-treated males. In all cases, a non-monotonic pattern was seen, highlighting the significance of low-dose exposures. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

If typical host plants are absent, some herbivorous insects dump eggs on unsuitable substrates, even though this can cause complete larval mortality and reduced maternal life span. In the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), the tendency to dump eggs varies genetically both within and between populations. A previous study hypothesized that egg-dumping behavior facilitates host-range expansions, and suggested that such expansions have served to maintain dumper genotypes in beetle populations. We tested this hypothesis in two experiments. For both African and Asian beetle populations, full-sib females from >60 families were split among three treatments: no seeds, a less-preferred novel host, and a preferred host. Within each population, we found no correlation among families between the tendency to dump eggs and the tendency to accept the novel host. We also compared egg dumping between selection lines that had adapted to a novel host and a line that had remained on the ancestral host. Females from lines that had evolved greater acceptance of the novel host did not dump more eggs if hosts were absent. Thus, neither experiment supported the host-range expansion hypothesis. Egg distributions on the preferred host in the first experiment provided weak support for a more proximate explanation: family-level variation in the tendency to dump eggs is inversely related to the tendency to avoid superparasitism of seeds. Such a relationship is also evident in comparisons between populations. Given the considerable short-term costs of egg dumping, we suggest that the host-range expansion hypothesis requires unrealistically high frequencies of host deprivation and subsequent host shifts in C. maculatus. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.

Yang F.,University of Kentucky
Chemical Engineering Communications | Year: 2010

A slip boundary condition is derived for the flow of a viscous fluid over a solid surface, using the theory of thermal activation process. The slip velocity is proportional to the hyperbolic sine of the shear stress on the solid surface, and the slip boundary condition reduces to Navier's slip boundary condition for the flow of Newtonian fluids under small shear stresses. There exists a critical shear stress determining the onset of the slip flow. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Widiger T.A.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Personality Disorders | Year: 2011

Ideally, a dimensional model of normal and abnormal personality functioning within the forthcoming DSM-5 would represent a common ground among the existing alternative models and would be consistent with the substantial body of empirical research that has accumulated on such models. The DSM-5 Work Group had the opportunity to make an historic step toward the integration of the normal personality traits researched within psychology with the personality disorders of psychiatry. They chose instead to construct a cumbersome six-dimensional model of personality disorder that excludes normal personality traits, is inconsistent with the preponderance of the research, and is distinguished explicitly from the predominant dimensional model of general personality structure. © 2011 The Guilford Press.

Berger J.R.,University of Kentucky
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

The symptoms associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) reflect the location of pathologic brain lesions. These symptoms include visual deficits, cognitive impairment, and motor weakness; in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), presenting signs can also include gait disturbance, dysarthria, dysphasia, and ocular palsy. Recently, PML has been observed in patients treated with biologic agents; natalizumab recipients currently represent the second largest group of patients with PML (behind patients with AIDS). Although brain biopsy is the most accurate and reliable method for diagnosing PML, it is rarely used today. Diagnosis is usually based on detection of JC virus in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction, the clinical presentation, and demonstration of PML brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. With immune reconstitution, the prognosis of PML has improved markedly.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Geomorphology | Year: 2011

This study addresses the relative importance of universal and local factors in river avulsions, from the perspective of the configurational complexity of the fluvial system as it relates to the potential for avulsions. Because local factors cannot be addressed without a specific context, several rivers of the southeast Texas coastal plain (Brazos, Navasota, Trinity, Neches, and Sabine Rivers) are studied based on field observations and surveys, digital elevation models, and geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Avulsions are influenced by a combination of universal factors relevant to any alluvial river, and local factors at least partly contingent on the environmental setting and history of the study rivers. The universal controls are factors that create conditions under which avulsions can occur: channel aggradation, banktop discharge, and cross-valley slope advantages. A rate of channel aggradation greater than that of floodplain accretion is an important setup factor, but superelevation (channel bed elevation greater than or equal to floodplain elevation behind the natural levee) is not required. Slope advantages are necessary, but not sufficient, for avulsions to occur. Local factors include abandoned channels on the floodplain, and basins or depressions associated with higher-discharge Pleistocene conditions. The local controls also include deflection factors that divert flow from the main channel during high discharges, and levee weaknesses. Relationships among the universal and local factors were represented as directed graphs, and the configurational complexity determined using connectance entropy. Results show that the relative importance of universal and local factors varies with the scale or scope of analysis. In the broadest context, universal factors contribute more than 75% of the connectance entropy, signifying the importance of identifying the key setup factors. Within a given aggradation or valley-filling context, however, local factors account for more than 80% of the connectance entropy, indicating that knowledge of the trigger factors and local floodplain morphology is the key to understanding and predicting avulsions. This study suggests a three-stage process for predicting avulsions. First, the universal factors can be used to identify reaches with the potential to avulse. Second, superelevation (a sufficient but not necessary condition) can be used to identify specific locations where avulsions are imminent, and (as a necessary but not sufficient condition) the absence of cross-valley slope advantages can be used to identify locations where avulsions cannot occur. The final stage-predicting avulsions at other locations within systems or reaches where the setup factors are present-requires specific consideration of local factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2014

Chronosequences are a fundamental tool for studying and representing change in Earth surface systems. Increasingly, chronosequences are understood to be much more complex than a simple monotonic progression from a starting point to a stable end-state. The concept of path stability is introduced here as a measure of chronosequence robustness; i.e., the degree to which developmental trajectories are sensitive to disturbances or change. Path stability is assessed on the basis of the largest Lyapunov exponent (λ1) of an interaction matrix consisting of positive, negative, or zero entries based on whether existence of a given system state or stage promotes or facilitates (positive), prevents or inhibits (negative), or has no significant effect on transitions to another state. Analysis of several generic chronosequence structures represented as signed, directed, unweighted graphs indicates five general cases: Path-stable reversible progressions (λ1 < 0); neutrally path-stable irreversible progressions (λ1 = 0); path unstable with very low divergence (0 < λ1 < 1); path unstable with low divergence (λ1 = 1); and complex multiple pathways (λ1 > 1). Path stability is probably relatively rare in chronosequences due to the directionality inherent in most of them. A complex soil chronosequence on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina was analyzed as described above, yielding λ1 = 0.843, indicating very low divergence. This outcome is consistent with pedological interpretations, and derives largely from the presence of self-limiting early stages, and a few highly developed states that inhibit retrogression back to many of the earlier stages. This kind of structure is likely to be common in pedological and hydrological sequences, but this suggestion requires further testing. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The development and clinical application of a novel near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) have been reviewed in this paper. DCS measures speckle fluctuations of near-infrared diffuse light in tissue, which are sensitive to the motions of red blood cells. DCS offers several new features which make it appealing for blood flow measurement such as noninvasiveness, high temporal resolution (up to 100 Hz), portability, and relatively large penetration depth (up to ~1.5 centimeters). DCS technology can be utilized for bedside monitoring of tissue blood flow as exemplified by applications involving tumors, brains, and skeletal muscles. In these investigations, DCS measurements show promise for quantification of tissue hemodynamic status, for diagnosis of vascular-related diseases (e.g., cancers, stroke, peripheral arterial disease), and for continuous monitoring and evaluation of therapeutic effects (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, photodynamic therapy, arterial revascularization). © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Wilcock D.M.,University of Kentucky
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Glial cells, particularly microglial cells, react to the presence of the amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles producing an inflammatory response. While once considered immunologically privileged due to the blood-brain barrier, it is now understood that the glial cells of the brain are capable of complex inflammatory responses. This paper will discuss the published literature regarding the diverse roles of neuroinflammation in the modulation of AD pathologies. These data will then be related to the well-characterized macrophage phenotypes. The conclusion is that the glial cells of the brain are capable of a host of macrophage responses, termed M1, M2a, M2b, and M2c. The relationship between these states and AD pathologies remains relatively understudied, yet published data using various inflammatory stimuli provides some insight. It appears that an M1-type response lowers amyloid load but exacerbates neurofibrillary tangle pathology. In contrast, M2a is accompanied by elevated amyloid load and appears to ameliorate, somewhat, neurofibrillary pathology. Overall, it is clear that more focused, cause-effect studies need to be performed to better establish how each inflammatory state can modulate the pathologies of AD. © 2012 Donna M. Wilcock.

Yang F.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

The local volume expansion due to the insertion of lithium into electric anode in a lithium-ion battery determines the structural durability and reliability of the battery. The coupling between diffusion and stress was incorporated in analyzing the insertion-induced expansion of an elastic thin film on a rigid substrate. The results showed that the stress-assisted diffusion is an important mechanism controlling the diffusion of lithium cations in silicon films. Under the action of a constant diffusion flux, semi-analytical relations were obtained for the temporal evolution of the insertion-induced expansion of a Si film and the hydrostatic stress in the Si film. The surface displacement of the Si film is proportional to the film thickness and the square of the electric current density for small diffusion time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vyas K.S.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

The clinical importance of vitamin A as an essential nutrient has become increasingly clear. Adequate vitamin A is required for normal organogenesis, immune competence, tissue differentiation, and the visual cycle. Deficiency, which is widespread throughout the developing world, is responsible for a million or more instances of unnecessary death and blindness each year. β-Carotene is an important, but insufficient, source of vitamin A among poor populations, which accounts for the widespread nature of vitamin A deficiency. It has only recently become apparent that the bioconversion of traditional dietary sources of β-carotene to vitamin A is much less efficient than previously supposed. The other major carotenoids, particularly lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, have been found to have important biological properties, including antioxidant and photoprotective activity, and high intake has been linked in observational studies with reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases. But, to date, no clinical trials have proven the clinical value of ingested carotenoids individually or in combination, in either physiologic or pharmacologic doses, with the excepton of the provitamin A activity of carotene. Indeed, several trials have suggested an increased risk of lung cancer among high-risk individuals (smokers and asbestos workers) who were given high doses of β-carotene alone or in combination with other antioxidants. Much more evidence is needed before commonly encountered claims of the value of ingesting high doses of non-provitamin A carotenoids are validated. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

This paper is an assessment of the effect of gap size on stand structure and species composition 48 years following treatment in a mixed broadleaf upland forest. Established in 1960, the study tests three circular openings, 15.2 m (0.02 ha), 45.7 m (0.16 ha), and 76.2 m (0.46 ha). Forty-eight years following treatment (2008) basal area, top height, and quadratic mean diameter were significantly lower in 15.2 m openings. Maple (Acer spp.) species had the highest mean importance value across treatments (0.40). Trends suggest that species composition of dominant and codominant trees among opening sizes may have been influenced by shade tolerance adaptations of the species groups present. Whereas 15.2 m openings were dominated by shade tolerant maple species, 45.7 and 76.2 m openings produced a mixture of commercial species including shade intolerant species such as yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), trees of intermediate shade tolerance like oak (Quercus spp.), and shade tolerant maple. Data further suggest the density of overstory oak was highest in the intermediate opening size (45.7 m), while yellow-poplar increased in the larger opening sizes. Evaluation of species shifts between 1981 and 2008 showed that relative basal area of maple increased across all treatments. Relative basal areas from 45.7 to 76.2 m openings suggest declines in yellow-poplar and other non-commercial species were balanced by increases in oak and maple. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Keller P.,University of Kentucky | El-Sheikh M.,Auburn University
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2011

Background: We examined longitudinal relations between children's sleep and their emotional security in the mother-child, father-child, and parental marital relationships, with the goal of explicating the direction of association over time. Gender-related effects were also examined. Method: Sleep duration was examined through actigraphy, and sleep quality was assessed via both actigraphy and self-reports. Children were in 3rd (T1) and 5th (T2) grades. The sample was composed of 78 boys and 98 girls at T1, and 62 boys and 80 girls at T2. Results: Security in the child-mother, child-father, and marital relationships at T1 were predictive of sleep problems two years later even after controlling for children's sleep at T1. Conclusions: Collectively, results were more supportive of security predicting sleep parameters than the other direction of effects. Results highlight the important associations between family functioning and children's sleep, and extend the literature through the longitudinal design. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Maner J.K.,Florida State University | Miller S.L.,University of Kentucky
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2014

During the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, women's bodies prepare themselves for possible pregnancy and this preparation includes a dramatic increase in progesterone. This increase in progesterone may underlie a variety of functionally relevant psychological changes designed to help women overcome challenges historically encountered during pregnancy (e.g., warding off social threats and recruiting allies). This paper reports data supporting the hypothesis that increases in progesterone during the luteal phase underlie heightened levels of social monitoring-that is, heightened sensitivity to social cues indicating the presence of social opportunity or threat. Increases in progesterone during the luteal phase were associated with increased accuracy in decoding facial expressions (Study 1) and increased attention to social stimuli (Study 2). Findings suggest that increases in progesterone during the luteal phase may be linked functionally with low-level perceptual attunements that help women effectively navigate their social world. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Whayne T.F.,University of Kentucky
International Journal of Angiology | Year: 2012

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a major medical/surgical problem associated with high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Anticoagulation plays a significant role in the management of the PAD patient. However, evidence-based medicine supports only select anticoagulants, mainly antiplatelet agents. The available anticoagulant classes, their individual medications, and the mechanisms of action are described. Dextran 40, platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, direct thrombin (factor IIa, FIIa) inhibitors, and factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors do not, at this juncture, appear to have a significant role to play in the PAD patient. Aspirin has been used in PAD patients for a few decades, as has warfarin, but the role of warfarin is very limited. An attempt has been made to place each medication and its function in context all the way to the present with oral direct thrombin (FIIa) and FXa inhibitors described. These inhibitors may ultimately play an, as yet, undefined role in PAD. Specific use of anticoagulants in PAD patients is described and aspirin still stands out as a fundamental therapy. The thienopyridines, especially clopidogrel, have their established place and there is some evidence for benefit from the use of clopidogrel in dual therapy with aspirin. Dipyridamole, especially with aspirin as dual therapy, and cilostazol also have their evidence-based niches. The main role played by warfarin is for the patient with a vein graft in the arterial circulation. Heparin retains significant procedural importance. For now, Class I, Level of Evidence A center around aspirin for the PAD patient with clopidogrel, an alternative agent. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Fox J.F.,University of Kentucky | Campbell J.E.,University of California at Merced
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The Southern Appalachian forest region of the U.S. - a region responsible for 23% of U.S. coal production - has 24 billion metric tons of high quality coal remaining of which mountaintop coal mining (MCM) will be the primary extraction method. Here we consider greenhouse gas emissions associated with MCM terrestrial disturbance in the life-cycle of coal energy production. We estimate disturbed forest carbon,. Including Terrestrial Soil and Nonsoil Carbon Using Publ. U.S. Environ. Protect. Agy. Data of the Forest Fl. Removed and U.S. Dept. of Agric.-Forest Serv. Inventory Data. We Estim. the Amount of Previously Buried Geogenic Organ. Carbon Broughtto the Soil Surf. during MCM Using Publ. Measurements of Total Organ. Carbon and Carbon Isotope Data for Reclaimed Soils, Soil Organ. Matter and Coal Fragments. Contrary to Conventional Wisdom, the Lifecycle Emissions of Coal Prod. for MCM Methods Were Found to be Quite Significant When Considering the Potential Terrestrial Src.. Including Terrestrial Disturbance in Coal Lifecycle Assess. Indicates That Indirect Emissions Are at Least 7 and 70% of Pwr. Plant Emissions for Conventional and CO.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Geology | Year: 2013

Earth surface systems (ESS) are characterized by various degrees of historical contingency, which complicates efforts to relate observed features and phenomena to environmental controls. This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding and assessing historical contingency in ESS that is based on algebraic graph theory. ESS are conceptualized as consisting of n ≥ 1 components (e.g., climate, topography, and lithology) observed or inferred at q ≥ 1 time periods. Each component at each time period represents a node of a network or graph, and interactions among components constitute the links or edges. Four indexes are applied: the S-metric, which indicates the extent to which observations of part of the network (e.g., topographic changes between two time periods) are likely to represent the dynamics of the network as a whole; spectral radius, which measures coherence and potential amplification of changes or disturbances; Laplacian spectral radius, an index of the relationship between network stability and time steps and an indication of path dependence; and algebraic connectivity, which measures the inferential synchronizability. For each of these, an index on a 0-1 scale is developed, which represents high and minimum levels of historical contingency for a given n, q. These are applied to several archetypal graph structures that represent various forms of historical contingency in the geosciences and to two specific case studies involving Quaternary evolution of fluvial systems in Texas and Kentucky. © 2013 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Catena | Year: 2013

The spatial pattern of soils and soil properties in soil landscapes is considered here as a function of (1) systematic variation along catenas or associated with spatial patterns of soil-forming factors; and (2) local pseudo-random variations associated with local disturbances or small, unobserved variations in soil-forming factors. The problem is approached at two study sites in the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain using algebraic graph theory and the spectral radius of the soil adjacency matrix as a measure of complexity. The matrix is constructed based on the observed spatial contiguity of soil taxa, and soil factor sequences (SFS) are defined for each site based on systematic soil variation associated with variations in parent material, topography, sandy surface thicknesses, and secondary podzolization. The spectral radii of the networks described by the adjacency graphs are compared to those associated with the maximum for a graph of the same size, and the maximum associated with control entirely by variations in soil forming factors. At the Clayroot study site, which is entirely cropland, complexity of the adjacency matrix is less than Λ, the maximum that could be accounted for by the four identified SFS, due to redundant information in the SFS. The Littlefield site, by contrast, has a spectral radius greater than Λ. Here, where about half the site is forested, the contingent variation is likely associated with effects of individual trees on soil morphology. The utility of the adjacency analysis is in identifying whether soil heterogeneity is likely associated with SFS or with contingent factors not captured in SFS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

The success of RNA viruses as pathogens of plants, animals, and humans depends on their ability to reprogram the host cell metabolism to support the viral infection cycle and to suppress host defense mechanisms. Plus-strand (+)RNA viruses have limited coding potential necessitating that they co-opt an unknown number of host factors to facilitate their replication in host cells. Global genomics and proteomics approaches performed with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a model host have led to the identification of 250 host factors affecting TBSV RNA replication and recombination or bound to the viral replicase, replication proteins, or the viral RNA. The roles of a dozen host factors involved in various steps of the replication process have been validated in yeast as well as a plant host. Altogether, the large number of host factors identified and the great variety of cellular functions performed by these factors indicate the existence of a truly complex interaction between TBSV and the host cell. This review summarizes the advantages of using a simple plant virus and yeast as a model host to advance our understanding of virus-host interactions at the molecular and cellular levels. The knowledge of host factors gained can potentially be used to inhibit virus replication via gene silencing, expression of dominant negative mutants, or design of specific chemical inhibitors leading to novel specific or broad-range resistance and antiviral tools against (+)RNA plant viruses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Rinker B.,University of Kentucky
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: Acellular dermal matrices are commonly used in breast reconstruction but add cost to the procedure and have been associated with complications. Dermal autograft may represent a useful alternative to matrices. Methods: Sixteen patients (26 breasts) underwent breast reconstruction using tissue expanders and dermal autograft. Their ages ranged from 41 to 66 years (median, 51 years). Autografts were harvested by wide excision of preexisting abdominal scars. Demographic data, clinical history, and harvest and preparation time were recorded. The initial fill volume, number of expansions, and complications were recorded and compared with published data for acellular dermal matrix-assisted reconstruction. Patients rated their satisfaction with scar appearance on a seven-point scale. Results: Follow-up ranged from 6 to 16 months (mean, 10 months). Three patients were smokers. Mean body mass index was 30.5 (range, 19.1 to 48.8). Three patients received chemotherapy between reconstructive stages, and none required irradiation. The mean time of autograft harvest was 38 minutes, the mean initial fill was 190 cc, and the average number of expansions was 3.5. There were no implant losses. There were three minor complications (19 percent). Initial expander fill, number of expansions, and complication rate were equivalent to historical values for matrix-assisted breast reconstruction. Fourteen of 16 patients (88 percent) were "very satisfied" with their scars. Conclusions: The use of dermal autograft in tissue expander breast reconstruction offers the advantages of acellular dermal matrix, without the associated expense. The technique adds minimally to the operative time and morbidity and is associated with a low complication rate. Clinical Question/Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, IV. © 2012 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Kruczenski M.,Purdue University | Ziama S.,University of Kentucky
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

In this paper we extend and simplify previous results regarding the computation of Euclidean Wilson loops in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, or, equivalently, the problem of finding minimal area surfaces in hyperbolic space (Euclidean AdS3). If the Wilson loop is given by a boundary curve X(s) we define, using the integrable properties of the system, a family of curves X(λ, s) depending on a complex parameter λ known as the spectral parameter. This family has remarkable properties. As a function of λ, X(λ, s) has cuts and therefore is appropriately defined on a hyperelliptic Riemann surface, namely it determines the spectral curve of the problem. Moreover, X(λ, s) has an essential singularity at the origin λ = 0. The coefficients of the expansion of X(λ, s) around λ = 0, when appropriately integrated along the curve give the area of the corresponding minimal area surface. Furthermore we show that the same construction allows the computation of certain surfaces with one or more boundaries corresponding to Wilson loop correlators. We extend the area formula for that case and give some concrete examples. As the main example we consider a surface ending on two concentric circles and show how the boundary circles can be deformed by introducing extra cuts in the spectral curve. © 2014 The Author(s).

Allan Butterfield D.,University of Kentucky | Dalle-Donne I.,University of Milan
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

Proteins are major targets of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and numerous post-translational, reversible or irreversible modifications have been characterized, which may lead to a change in the structure and/or function of the oxidized protein. Redox proteomics is an increasingly emerging branch of proteomics aimed at identifying and quantifying redox-based changes within the proteome both in redox signaling and under oxidative stress conditions. Correlation between protein oxidation and human disease is widely accepted, although elucidating cause and effect remains a challenge. Increasing biomedical data have provided compelling evidences for the involvement of perturbations in redox homeostasis in a large number of pathophysiological conditions and aging. Research toward a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of a disease together with identification of specific targets of oxidative damage is urgently required. This is the power and potential of redox proteomics. In the last few years, combined proteomics, mass spectrometry (MS), and affinity chemistry-based methodologies have contributed in a significant way to provide a better understanding of protein oxidative modifications occurring in various biological specimens under different physiological and pathological conditions. Hence, this Forum on Redox Proteomics is timely. Original and review articles are presented on various subjects ranging from redox proteomics studies of oxidatively modified brain proteins in Alzheimer disease and animal models of Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, to potential new biomarker discovery paradigm for human disease, to chronic kidney disease, to protein nitration in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders, electrophile-responsive proteomes of special relevance to diseases involving mitochondrial alterations, to cardiovascular physiology and pathology. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Upadhyay S.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Das D.,University of Kentucky
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We analyze the quantum ABJM theory on N=1 superspace in different gauges. We study the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation for this model. By developing field/antifield dependent BRST transformation we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation. © 2014 The Authors.

Bishop B.W.,University of Kentucky
Library and Information Science Research | Year: 2012

Content analysis of questions asked at multiple reference service points are used to inform library application (app) development. Reduced library budgets create service gaps, and library apps present one potential solution to help users with simple wayfinding and library attribute questions. Content analysis of three years of questions asked at fifteen face-to-face service points on the campus of the University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, as well as questions received via telephone, e-mail, and chat demonstrate that library location-based questions comprise 77.6% of the total questions asked. This approach shows the potential that the study of library location-based questions has for informing library apps. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Noar S.M.,University of Kentucky
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2011

Computer technology-based interventions (CBIs) represent a promising area for HIV prevention behavioral intervention research. Such programs are a compelling prevention option given their potential for broad reach, customized content, and low cost delivery. The purpose of the current article is to provide a review of the state of the literature on CBIs. First, we define CBIs in HIV prevention and highlight the many advantages of such interventions. Next, we provide an overview of what is currently known regarding the efficacy of CBIs in HIV prevention, focusing on two recent meta-analyses of this literature. Finally, we propose an agenda for future directions for research in the area of CBIs, using the RE-AIM model as an organizing guide. We conclude that with the continued growth of computer technologies, opportunities to apply such technologies in HIV prevention will continue to blossom. Further research is greatly needed to advance an understanding of not only how and under what circumstances CBIs can be efficacious, but also how the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of such programs in clinical and community settings can be achieved. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Chen G.,University of Kentucky
OncoImmunology | Year: 2015

We recently found that the chronic sterile inflammation contributes to arsenic lung tumorigenesis which is inhibited by autophagy. STAT3 regulates the interaction between inflammation and autophagy. STAT3 may also play a critical role in mediating the crosstalk between lung epithelial cells and their microenvironment, including immune cells, during arsenic lung carcinogenesis. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Samuel D.B.,Yale University | Widiger T.A.,University of Kentucky
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment | Year: 2011

A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Azuma T.,Setsunan University | Morita T.,University of Kentucky | Takeuchi S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

It is expected that the Gregory-Laflamme (GL) instability in the black string in gravity is related to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability in fluid mechanics. Especially, the orders of the phase transitions associated with these instabilities depend on the number of the transverse space dimensions, and they are of first and second order below and above the critical dimension. Through the gauge-gravity correspondence, the GL instability is conjectured to be thermodynamically related to the Hagedorn instability in large-N gauge theories, and it leads to a prediction that the order of the confinement-deconfinement transition associated with the Hagedorn instability may depend on the transverse dimension. We test this conjecture in the D-dimensional bosonic D0-brane model using numerical simulation and the 1/D expansion, and confirm the expected D dependence. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Westgate P.M.,University of Kentucky | Braun T.M.,University of Michigan
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2012

Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are commonly used for the analysis of correlated data. However, use of quadratic inference functions (QIFs) is becoming popular because it increases efficiency relative to GEE when the working covariance structure is misspecified. Although shown to be advantageous in the literature, the impacts of covariates and imbalanced cluster sizes on the estimation performance of the QIF method in finite samples have not been studied. This cluster size variation causes QIF's estimating equations and GEE to be in separate classes when an exchangeable correlation structure is implemented, causing QIF and GEE to be incomparable in terms of efficiency. When utilizing this structure and the number of clusters is not large, we discuss how covariates and cluster size imbalance can cause QIF, rather than GEE, to produce estimates with the larger variability. This occurrence is mainly due to the empirical nature of weighting QIF employs, rather than differences in estimating equations classes. We demonstrate QIF's lost estimation precision through simulation studies covering a variety of general cluster randomized trial scenarios and compare QIF and GEE in the analysis of data from a cluster randomized trial. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gluesing-Luerssen H.,University of Kentucky
Advances in Mathematics of Communications | Year: 2014

The values of the homogeneous weight are determined for finite Frobenius rings that are a direct product of local Frobenius rings. This is used to investigate the partition induced by this weight and its dual partition under character-theoretic dualization. A characterization is given of those rings for which the induced partition is reflexive or even self-dual. ©2014 AIMS.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Geomorphology | Year: 2014

The fundamental geomorphic responses to environmental change are qualitative changes in system states. This study is concerned with the complexity of state transition models (STM), and synchronization. The latter includes literal and inferential synchronization, the extent to which observations or relationships at one time period can be applied to others. Complexity concerns the extent to which STM structure may tend to amplify effects of change. Three metrics-spectral radius, Laplacian spectral radius, and algebraic connectivity-were applied to several generic geomorphic STMs, and to three real-world examples: the San Antonio River delta, soil transitions in a coastal plain agricultural landscape, and high-latitude thermokarst systems. While the Laplacian spectral radius was of limited use, spectral radius and algebraic complexity provide significant, independent information. The former is more sensitive to the intensity of cycles within the transition graph structure, and to the overall complexity of the STM. Spectral radius is an effective general index of graph complexity, and especially the likelihood of amplification and intensification of changes in environmental boundary conditions, or of the propagation of local disturbances within the system. The spectral radius analyses here illustrate that more information does not necessarily decrease uncertainty, as increased information often results in the expansion of state transition networks from simpler linear sequential and cyclic to more complex structures. Algebraic connectivity applied to landscape-scale STMs provides a measure of the likelihood of complex response, with synchronization inversely related to complex response. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Rosen R.F.,Emory University | Walker L.C.,Emory University | LeVine H.,University of Kentucky
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2011

Aged nonhuman primates accumulate large amounts of human-sequence amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, yet they do not manifest the full phenotype of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To assess the biophysical properties of Aβ that might govern its pathogenic potential in humans and nonhuman primates, we incubated the benzothiazole imaging agent Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) with cortical tissue homogenates from normal aged humans, humans with AD, and from aged squirrel monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and chimpanzees with cerebral Aβ-amyloidosis. Relative to humans with AD, high-affinity PIB binding is markedly reduced in cortical extracts from aged nonhuman primates containing levels of insoluble Aβ similar to those in AD. The high-affinity binding of PIB may be selective for a pathologic, human-specific conformation of multimeric Aβ, and thus could be a useful experimental tool for clarifying the unique predisposition of humans to Alzheimer's disease. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Guglin M.,University of Kentucky
Heart Failure Reviews | Year: 2014

Cardiac transplantation is the best treatment available for patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy. Shortage of donor hearts is the main factor limiting the use of this treatment. Many donor hearts are rejected for transplantation because of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and/or wall motion abnormalities. While some donors have true cardiomyopathy, a significant proportion has reversible LV dysfunction due to neurogenic stunned myocardium. This condition is triggered by excess of catecholamines, which is typical for brain-dead donors. If given time to recover, LV function may improve, and the heart will be suitable for transplantation. Moreover, limiting of exogenous catecholamines may facilitate the recovery. In this review, we summarize the data on LV dysfunction/wall motion abnormalities in heart donors and propose the strategy to increase the utilization of donor hearts. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Kim K.,KAIST | Tsay O.G.,KAIST | Atwood D.A.,University of Kentucky | Churchill D.G.,KAIST
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

The destruction and detection methods for the chemical warfare agents are examined. Acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) inhibition is the most well-known mode of action of nerve agents. When nerve impulses reach a nerve ending, acetylcholine is released from the terminals of presynaptic nerves into the synaptic or neuromuscular junction and binds to the ACh receptor site on the postsynaptic membrane, thereby causing stimulation of the nerve fibers or muscles. Enzymatic hydrolysis involves nucleophilic addition and acid-based reactions at the catalytic site of the enzyme that involves a catalytic triad. Neutralization with aqueous NaOH at ambient temperature allows for the destruction of significant quantities of sarin (GB). VX and R-VX are completely hydrolyzed within 1-2 months at room temperature to nontoxic compounds in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of water. Peroxides are attractive reactants for decontamination because they are nontoxic and noncorrosive.

Espinosa P.S.,North Oaks Neurology | Berger J.R.,University of Kentucky
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2011

Oral fingolimod (Gilenya) is a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator that prevents the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes. Fingolimod reduces relapses and delays disability progression in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report a patient with MS who developed asystole and sustained bradycardia 21 hours after the first dose of fingolimod. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

Hessel E.A.,University of Kentucky
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology | Year: 2015

The development of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), thereby permitting open-heart surgery, is one of the most important advances in medicine in the 20th century. Many currently practicing cardiac anesthesiologists, cardiac surgeons, and perfusionists are unaware of how recently it came into use (60 years) and how much the practice of CPB has changed during its short existence. In this paper, the development of CPB and the many changes and progress that has taken place over this brief period of time, making it a remarkably safe endeavor, are reviewed. The many as yet unresolved questions are also identified, which sets the stage for the other papers in this issue of this journal. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Costich J.F.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

The Affordable Care Act requires health plans' networks to include "essential community providers" (ECPs). Local health departments (LHDs) can be ECPs, typically for tuberculosis and sexually transmitted disease- related services or family planning. An ECP status may be controversial if it jeopardizes core population health services or competes with community partners. Some LHDs already bill for ECP services, but independent billing functions could exceed projected revenue. Thus, LHDs may wish to investigate contractual arrangements as alternatives to billing multiple issuers.

Both siRNA and miRNA can serve as powerful gene-silencing reagents but their specific delivery to cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miRNA seed-targeting sequence to block the growth of prostate cancer in mouse models. Utilizing the thermodynamically ultra-stable three-way junction of the pRNA of phi29 DNA packaging motor, RNA nanoparticles were constructed by bottom-up self-assembly containing the anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) RNA aptamer as a targeting ligand and anti-miR17 or anti-miR21 as therapeutic modules. The 16 nm RNase-resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection in mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 hours postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses with high efficiency.Molecular Therapy (2016); doi:10.1038/mt.2016.85. © 2016 American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

Villano J.L.,University of Kentucky
British journal of cancer | Year: 2013

Ependymomas are rare primary gliomas that commonly affect both children and adults, but unique as survival is worse in children. Data on brain and central nervous system primary malignant and non-malignant ependymal tumours from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States analytic data set and primary malignant ependymal tumours from the SEER 13 registries research data file were used to evaluate incidence and survival, respectively. The 2004-2009 average annual age-adjusted incidence rate of ependymal tumours was 0.41/100,000. Spinal cord/cauda equina was the primary site at diagnosis for 50-60% of ependymal tumours in adult age groups in contrast to about 20% in children and adolescents. Ependymoma was the most frequent histology in all age groups; however, anaplastic ependymoma comprised about 30% in cases 0-19 years of age compared with about 3-5% in adult age groups. Overall, relative survival was favourable with rates at ∼85% and 75% at 3 and 10 years post diagnosis, respectively. However, children and adolescents, the oldest adult age group, cases diagnosed with anaplastic ependymoma and/or tumour location in a brain site had lowest survival rates. Paediatric cases had worse outcomes compared with adults for numerous reasons including having a higher percentage of anaplastic ependymomas and greater percentage of cases of intracranial disease.

Lee E.J.,Central Baptist Hospital | Frazier S.K.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management | Year: 2011

Context: Acupressure is a noninvasive strategy used to manage various symptoms. Objectives: The purpose of this article was to review randomized controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of acupressure for the management of symptoms. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, and PubMed using the key words acupressure, clinical trial, human, and/or randomized. Randomized clinical trials published between January 1, 2000 and January 31, 2010, which used acupressure as the sole intervention for one group, were included when they were written in English and when there were four or more studies of the efficacy of acupressure for that particular symptom. Results: Forty-three studies were included in this review. Investigators in 16 of 23 studies concluded acupressure was effective, primarily for the management of nausea and vomiting in patients during pregnancy and during chemotherapy. Investigators in nine of 10 studies concluded that acupressure was effective for pain in patients with dysmenorrhea, during labor and after trauma. Investigators of four studies concluded that acupressure was effective in the management of dyspnea and investigators in six studies concluded that acupressure was effective in improving fatigue and reducing insomnia in a variety of populations. However, evaluation of the randomized controlled trial reports indicated a significant likelihood of bias. Conclusion: Acupressure may be a useful strategy for the management of multiple symptoms in a variety of patient populations, but rigorous trials are needed. Inclusion of acupressure as an intervention may improve patient outcomes. © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee Published by Elsevier Inc. All Rights reserved.

Hahn E.J.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

Context Smokefree legislation is a powerful public health intervention. Despite progress in smokefree legislation, over half of U.S. adults remain unprotected by comprehensive smokefree legislation. Evidence acquisition This paper reviews the scientific literature on health and economic outcome studies of smokefree legislation from the past decade, 2000 to early 2010, using MEDLINE and key search terms: smoking, smoking cessation, smoking/legislation and jurisprudence, smoking cessation/legislation and jurisprudence, and health policy. Evidence synthesis There is a wealth of research showing the health benefits to entire populations when communities implement comprehensive smokefree laws and/or regulations. These laws improve the health of hospitality workers and the general population by improving indoor air quality, reducing acute myocardial infarctions and asthma exacerbations, and improving infant and birth outcomes. Some studies report reduced smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption and improved cessation outcomes after smokefree legislation. In addition to the health benefits, economic studies confirm that smokefree laws do not adversely affect business revenues or operating costs. Conclusions While there is an abundance of smokefree policy outcomes research showing both the health and economic impacts of smokefree legislation, these outcomes may have more to do with implementation effectiveness than adoption, especially among subpopulations. An emerging body of literature documents not only that disparities in health protections remain among subpopulations, but that health outcomes of smokefree legislation may vary by gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and age. Further research is needed on implementation effectiveness of smokefree legislation and differential effects on subpopulations. © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Schmidt A.M.,University of Kentucky
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2014

In summary, the significant rise in types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus is poised to impart grave consequences on health and lifespan of the world's population if left unchecked. Recent publications in ATVB highlight progress toward the identification of the fundamental mechanisms, and their interplay, that contribute to derangements in endothelial function, oxidative and inflammatory stresses in diabetes mellitus to mediate complications. Studies reported from primary cells contribute to elucidation of the key signaling mechanisms underlying complications and are buttressed by hypothesis-driven research in animal models. Using genetic modulation strategies, modulators of miRs, pharmacological agents and siRNA knockdown strategies, observations and associations progress to causality in diabetes mellitus. In large animal models of diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis, efforts to improve imaging and diagnostic capabilities with respect to atherosclerotic plaques hold promise for extrapolation to human subjects, given the similarity between the 2 species in vessel size and anatomic characteristics. The messages from these studies are brought home to the human subject in multiple papers that both suggest means to reduce diabetes mellitus risk and to mitigate the complications. Surely, we are getting closer to identifying fundamental causative pathways in complications-the challenge is to develop therapeutic strategies for rigorous testing in human subjects. ATVB will continue to track the promise of basic, translational, and clinical research in diabetes mellitus and its complications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

Crofford L.J.,University of Kentucky
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2010

The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain has increased dramatically over the past decade. Whether these drugs provide considerable benefits in terms of pain reduction and improved function to balance the risks associated with their use, however, is unclear. Of particular importance to clinicians treating chronic musculoskeletal pain is opioid-induced hyperalgesia, the activation of pronociceptive pathways by exogenous opioids that results in central sensitization to pain. This phenomenon results in an increase in pain sensitivity and can potentially exacerbate pre-existing pain. Opioids also have powerful positive effects on the reward and reinforcing circuits of the brain that might lead to continued drug use, even if there is no abuse or misuse. The societal risk of increased opioid prescription is associated with increased nonmedical use, serious adverse events and death. Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain should avoid the long-term use of opioids unless the benefits are determined to outweigh risks, in which case, the use of chronic opioids should be regularly re-evaluated. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Mark K.P.,University of Kentucky
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality | Year: 2014

Recent research has found associations between sexual desire, desire discrepancy, and satisfaction outcomes in individuals and couples on a broad level. The present study aimed to extend these findings to the event level through examining daily experiences of sexual desire, sexual desire discrepancy, and quality of the sexual experience in a sample of 87 mixed-sex couples (174 individuals) over a 30-day period through daily electronic report. Participants were in their relationships for an average of 9.3 years. Data were analyzed using over-time Actor Partner Interdependence Models (APIM). For women and men, higher actor daily sexual desire predicted higher actor quality of the sexual experience. In addition, higher partner daily sexual desire predicted higher actor quality of the sexual experience. Event-level desire discrepancy between the couple was also a significant predictor of actor quality of the sexual experience for women, though not for men. These results confirm that day-to-day sexual desire and desire discrepancy are important indicators of quality of the sexual relationship and emphasize the importance of considering event-level characteristics when examining sexual behaviour and couple dynamics. Implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Head K.J.,University of Kentucky | Noar S.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Health Psychology Review | Year: 2014

This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Yanny B.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | Gardner S.,University of Kentucky
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We study the number density distribution of a sample of K and M dwarf stars, matched north and south of the Galactic plane within a distance of 2 kpc from the Sun, using observations from the Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine distances using the photometric parallax method, and in this context systematic effects exist which could potentially impact the determination of the number density profile with height from the Galactic plane - and ultimately affect a number density north-south asymmetry. They include: (1) the calibration of the various photometric parallax relations, (2) the ability to separate dwarfs from giants in our sample, (3) the role of stellar population differences such as age and metallicity, (4) the ability to determine the offset of the Sun from the Galactic plane, and (5) the correction for reddening from dust in the Galactic plane, though our stars are at high Galactic latitudes. We find the various analyzed systematic effects to have a negligible impact on our observed asymmetry, and using a new and larger sample of stars we confirm and refine the earlier discovery of Widrow et al. of a significant Galactic north-south asymmetry in the stellar number density distribution. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Houben E.N.G.,VU University Amsterdam | Korotkov K.V.,University of Kentucky | Bitter W.,VU University Amsterdam
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2014

Mycobacteria use type VII secretion (T7S) systems to secrete proteins across their complex cell envelope. Pathogenic mycobacteria, such as the notorious pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have up to five of these secretion systems, named ESX-1 to ESX-5. At least three of these secretion systems are essential for mycobacterial virulence and/or viability. Elucidating T7S is therefore essential to understand the success of M. tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacteria as pathogens, and could be instrumental to identify novel targets for drug- and vaccine-development. Recently, significant progress has been achieved in the identification of T7S substrates and a general secretion motif. In addition, a start has been made with unraveling the mechanism of secretion and the structural analysis of the different subunits. This review summarizes these recent findings, which are incorporated in a working model of this complex machinery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hollenbach D.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Elitzur M.,University of Kentucky | McKee C.F.,University of California at Berkeley
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We present a model in which the 22 GHz H2O masers observed in star-forming regions occur behind shocks propagating in dense regions (preshock density n 0 ∼ 106-108 cm-3). We focus on high-velocity (vs ≳ 30 km s-1) dissociative J shocks in which the heat of H2 re-formation maintains a large column of ∼300-400 K gas; at these temperatures the chemistry drives a considerable fraction of the oxygen not in CO to form H2O. The H 2O column densities, the hydrogen densities, and the warm temperatures produced by these shocks are sufficiently high to enable powerful maser action. The observed brightness temperatures (generally ∼ 10 11-1014 K) are the result of coherent velocity regions that have dimensions in the shock plane that are 10-100 times the shock thickness of ∼1013 cm. The masers are therefore beamed toward the observer, who typically views the shock "edge-on," or perpendicular to the shock velocity; the brightest masers are then observed with the lowest line-of-sight velocities with respect to the ambient gas. We present numerical and analytic studies of the dependence of the maser inversion, the resultant brightness temperature, the maser spot size and shape, the isotropic luminosity, and the maser region magnetic field on the shock parameters and the coherence path length; the overall result is that in galactic H2O 22 GHz masers, these observed parameters can be produced in J shocks with n 0 ∼ 106-108 cm-3 and v s ∼ 30-200 km s-1. A number of key observables such as maser shape, brightness temperature, and global isotropic luminosity depend only on the particle flux into the shock, j = n 0 vs , rather than on n 0 and vs separately. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Yozwiak J.A.,University of Kentucky
Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology | Year: 2010

Postpartum depression (PPD) affects a significant proportion of adolescent mothers. Adolescence presents unique challenges that may make the young mother more vulnerable than her adult counterparts to PPD. PPD impacts a mother's ability to care for her infant and has been associated with adverse effects on child development. A review of the literature on adolescent PPD was undertaken. The prevalence and the effects of PPD are reviewed, common screening instruments for PPD are compared, and the results of treatment outcome studies are highlighted. There is a need for randomized controlled studies of interventions for adolescents with PPD. Findings from treatment outcome studies with adults with PPD and pregnant adolescents who are depressed suggest that psychosocial interventions may also be effective for adolescents with PPD. Issues in assessment and treatment of PPD among adolescents are considered.

Bardo M.T.,University of Kentucky | Compton W.M.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2015

Background: The current review examined recent literature to determine our state of knowledge about the potential ability of physical activity serve as a protectant against drug abuse vulnerability. Methods: Both preclinical and clinical studies were examined using either associational or random assignment study designs. In addition to examining drug use as an outcome variable, the potential neural mediators linking physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability were examined. Conclusions: Several important conclusions may be drawn. First, the preclinical evidence is solid in showing that physical activity in various forms is able to serve as both a preventive and treatment intervention that reduces drug use, although voluntary alcohol drinking appears to be an exception to this conclusion. Second, the clinical evidence provides some evidence, albeit mixed, to suggest a beneficial effect of physical activity on tobacco dependent individuals. In contrast, there exists only circumstantial evidence that physical activity may reduce use of drugs other than nicotine, and there is essentially no solid information from random control studies to know if physical activity may prevent initiation of problem use. Finally, both preclinical and clinical evidence shows that various brain systems are altered by physical activity, with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) serving as one potential node that may mediate the putative link between physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability. It is concluded that novel neurobehavioral approaches taking advantage of novel techniques for assessing the physiological impact of physical activity are needed and can be used to inform the longitudinal random control studies that will answer definitively the question posed. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Basu P.,University of Kentucky
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

In the current work we study various models of holographic superconductors at low temperature. Generically the zero temperature limit of those models are solitonic solution with a zero sized horizon. Here we generalized simple version of those zero temperature solutions to small but non-zero temperature T. We confine ourselves to cases where near horizon geometry is AdS4. At a non-zero temperature a small horizon would form deep inside this AdS4 which does not disturb the UV physics. The resulting geometry may be matched with the zero temperature solution at an intermediate length scale. We understand this matching from separation of scales by setting up a perturbative expansion in gauge potential. We have a better analytic control in abelian case and quantities may be expressed in terms of hypergeometric function. From this we calculate low temperature behavior of various quatities like entropy, charge density and specific heat etc. We also calculate various energy gaps associated with p-wave holographic superconductor to understand the underlying pairing mechanism. The result deviates significantly from the corresponding weak coupling BCS counterpart. © SISSA 2011.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2011

The largest rivers draining to the Gulf of Mexico in Texas are at more advanced stages of valley filling than rivers with smaller drainage areas, with corresponding differences in alluvial morphology and architecture, and avulsion style. This seems to imply that the larger fluvial systems either produce more sediment relative to the accommodation space in the alluvial valleys, or that they have undergone longer periods of valley aggradation. However, it is not clear that either of these is the case. This paper presents a theoretical analysis showing that fluvial systems with larger drainage areas can produce more advanced stages of infilling than those with smaller drainage areas (but with identical histories and sediment production per unit area) due to the nature of the scaling relationships between drainage basin area and incised valley size, and between basin area and sediment yield. Data for rivers in the region shows a strong linear relationship between valley width and drainage area. The nonlinear relationship between drainage area and proportion of the incised valley filled is somewhat weaker, but still significant, and major deviations are readily explained in terms of local inherited morphology or tectonic features. Results show that major differences in the degree or stage of valley filling could occur due to differences in drainage basin size alone. This indicates caution in interpreting incised valley fills of drainage basins of different sizes in terms of sediment supply. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Das S.R.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2012

We discuss recent results in the study the evolution of strongly coupled field theories in the presence of time dependent couplings using the holographic correspondence. The aim is to understand (i) thermalization and (ii) universal behavior when the coupling crosses a critical point. Our emphasis is on situations where a subset of bulk fields can be treated in a probe approximation. We consider two different setups. In the first, defect conformal field theories are described by probe branes in AdS space-times, and an initial vacuum state evolves due to a time dependent coupling in the probe sector. While a black hole formation is invisible in this approximation, we show that thermalization can nevertheless happen - this is signalled by formation of apparent horizons on the brane worldvolume. In the second setup, we consider a probe bulk scalar field in the background of a AdS black brane. In equilibrium, this system undergoes a critical phase transition at some temperature when the source for the dual operator vanishes. For a time dependent source which goes across this critical point, we show that a zero mode of the bulk field dominates the dynamics and leads to scaling behavior of the order parameter as a function of the rate of change.

Holsapple C.W.,University of Kentucky | Wu J.,California State University, East Bay
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2011

Knowledge management (KM) concepts, principles, and technologies provide a foundation for understanding and building systems for acquiring, assimilating, selecting, generating, and emitting knowledge-a crucial resource of the firm. In the knowledge management community, it is commonly contended that knowledge, and capabilities for processing it, comprise a major resource that can differentiate one firm from another in the sense of yielding better performance or a competitive edge. However, aside from anecdotes, there has been little to substantiate this contention. Can any empirical link be discovered between a firm's KM success and that firm's financial performance? To develop an answer to this question, we use an independent research company's reports of firms judged to be highly successful in their KM initiatives, plus related data reported by COMPUSTAT. As an initial investigation of the linkage between KM performance and firm performance, as measured by financial ratios, this study uses the Matched Sample Comparison Group methodology to evaluate research hypotheses. The analysis reveals a heretofore elusive antecedent of firm performance-evidence that superior KM performance is indeed a predictor of superior bottom-line performance. This study contributes to the information systems (IS) literature by demonstrating that KM, a basic foundation for IS, is an important factor to consider from the standpoint of achieving strong financial performance. As such, it suggests that KM furnishes an important context for understanding designs, applications, and possibilities for IS with respect to achieving such performance. In the context of devising and executing KM initiatives, both technological and human treatments of knowledge need to be cultivated and integrated in ways that lead to superior KM performance. This study also contributes to the management literature by going beyond anecdotes and case studies in buttressing the proposition that a firm's KM competencies are an important ingredient in that firm's performance. It solidifies the raison d'etre for investigating KM phenomena and methods (computer-based and human), both within and across modern organizations. It gives practicing managers evidence that bottom-line benefits are indeed associated with superior KM strategy and execution. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Berger J.R.,University of Kentucky
The American journal of managed care | Year: 2011

Disease-modifying treatments (DMTs), which are the foundation of multiple sclerosis (MS) care, reduce clinical exacerbations (relapses) and slow disease progression; however, improving quality of life (QOL) is an unmet need for many individuals with MS. DMTs, including interferon-beta, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, and fingolimod, reduce the rate and severity of relapses, the accumulation of brain and spinal cord lesions as shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and disability progression. Many studies link diminished QOL with specific MS symptoms (fatigue, impaired mobility, spasticity, etc). Even in patients already receiving DMTs, symptoms and QOL may improve with additional agents that treat specific symptoms, thereby improving patient function and ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Patients have reported that mobility impairment is one of the worst aspects of MS. Almost half of patients treated with DMTs reported no improvement in mobility. However, blocking the voltage-dependent potassium channels on the surface of demyelinated nerve fibers may improve signal conduction. Dalfampridine, a potassium channel blocker, received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for all forms of MS specifically to improve walking, which was demonstrated by increased walking speed. By improving walking in some patients with MS, the effects of dalfampridine may complement those of DMTs and address the stated priorities of many patients.

Horbinski C.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: Alterations in BRAF have been discovered in most pediatric low-grade gliomas. Because the field has moved quickly during the past few years, there is not yet widespread awareness about what B-Raf normally does, how the BRAF gene is modified in gliomas, why mutant proteins promote gliomagenesis, and what an abnormal BRAF result means for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Depending on the data from ongoing clinical trials, however, BRAF mutation screening could quickly become mandatory for all pediatric gliomas and perhaps even a subset of adult gliomas. Herein, these topics and different methods of testing for BRAF fusions and V600E point mutations are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 by the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

Ruez D.,University of Kentucky
Antipode | Year: 2013

Abstract: This paper uses Jacques Rancière's conception of the partition of the sensible to interrogate the aesthetic regimes and spatial coordinates that animated public debate about Park 51-the Islamic community center near the World Trade Center site in Manhattan. Understanding conflicts over mosques as potential struggles over the conditions of membership in a community, I suggest that many of the arguments in favor of Park 51 reinforced a partition of the sensible in which Islamophobia could resonate. At stake in these debates-which turned on different understandings of the distance that separated the proposed center from the WTC site-is the relationship between American Muslims and the narratives of trauma constructed around the September 11th attacks. I conclude by exploring the projects proposed by Park 51 organizers as potential sites of everyday micropolitics that could subtly "jolt" existing orders in the interest of reconfiguring the "common sense" of a community. © 2012 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

Zentall T.R.,University of Kentucky
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2015

Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (. justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (. sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (. the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (. base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall.". © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Whayne T.F.,University of Kentucky
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2015

Epigenetics has major relevance to all disease processes; cardiovascular (CV) disease and its related conditions are no exception. Epigenetics is defined as the study of heritable alterations in gene expression, or cellular phenotype, and goes far beyond a pure genetic approach. A more precise definition is that epigenetics represents all the meiotically and mitotically inherited changes in gene expression that are not encoded on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence itself. Major epigenetic mechanisms are modifications of histone proteins in chromatin and DNA methylation (which does not alter the DNA sequence). There is increasing evidence for the involvement of epigenetics in human disease such as cancer, inflammatory disease and CV disease. Other chronic diseases are also susceptible to epigenetic modification such as metabolic diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. There is much evidence for the modification of epigenetics by nutrition and exercise. Through these modifications, there is infinite potential for benefit for the fetus, the newborn, and the individual as well as population effects. Association with CV disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease, is evident through epigenetic relationships and modification by major CV risk factors such as tobacco abuse. Aging itself may be altered by epigenetic modification. Knowledge of epigenetics and its relevance to the development, modification, and prevention of CV disease is in a very preliminary stage but has an infinite future. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Moe L.A.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Often referred to as the "building blocks of proteins", the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids are ubiquitous in biological systems as the functional units in proteins. Sometimes overlooked are their varying additional roles that include serving as metabolic intermediaries, playing structural roles in bioactive natural products, acting as cosubstrates in enzymatic transformations, and as key regulators of cellular physiology. Amino acids can also serve as biological sources of both carbon and nitrogen and are found in the rhizosphere as a result of lysis or cellular efflux from plants and microbes and proteolysis of existing peptides. While both plants and microbes apparently prefer to take up nitrogen in its inorganic form, their ability to take up and use amino acids may confer a selective advantage in certain environments where organic nitrogen is abundant. Further, certain amino acids (e.g., glutamate and proline) and their betaines (e.g., glycine betaine) serve as compatible solutes necessary for osmoregulation in plants and microbes and can undergo rapid cellular flux. This ability is of particular importance in an ecological niche such as the rhizosphere, which is prone to significant variations in solute concentrations. Amino acids are also shown to alter key phenotypes related to plant root growth and microbial colonization, symbiotic interactions, and pathogenesis in the rhizosphere. This review will focus on the sources, transport mechanisms, and potential roles of the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids in the rhizosphere. © 2013 Botanical Society of America.

Lierler Y.,University of Kentucky
Theory and Practice of Logic Programming | Year: 2011

Nieuwenhuis et al. (2006. Solving SAT and SAT modulo theories: From an abstract Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland procedure to DPLL(T). Journal of the ACM 53(6), 937977 showed how to describe enhancements of the Davis-Putnam-Logemann- Loveland algorithm using transition systems, instead of pseudocode. We design a similar framework for several algorithms that generate answer sets for logic programs: smodels, smodelscc, asp-sat with Learning (cmodels), and a newly designed and implemented algorithm sup. This approach to describe answer set solvers makes it easier to prove their correctness, to compare them, and to design new systems. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Mays G.P.,University of Kentucky
Preventing chronic disease | Year: 2010

Public health activities in the United States are delivered through multiple public and private organizations that vary widely in their resources, missions, and operations. Without strong coordination mechanisms, these delivery arrangements may perpetuate large gaps, inequities, and inefficiencies in public health activities. We examined evidence and uncertainties concerning the use of partnerships to improve the performance of the public health system, with a special focus on partnerships between public health agencies and health care organizations. We found that the types of partnerships likely to have the largest and most direct effects on population health are among the most difficult, and therefore least prevalent, forms of collaboration. High opportunity costs and weak and diffuse participation incentives hinder partnerships that focus on expanding effective prevention programs and policies. Targeted policy actions and leadership strategies are required to illuminate and enhance partnership incentives.

Fleenor B.S.,University of Kentucky
Aging and Disease | Year: 2013

Large elastic artery stiffness is an independent predictor of age-related cardiovascular events that is attributable to structural remodeling throughout the artery. The intima, media and adventitial layers of the artery uniquely remodel with advancing age and all contribute to arterial stiffening. The specific expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen and elastin, and post-translational modifications of these proteins by advanced glycation end-products are key mechanisms in arterial stiffening with age and will be reviewed in the context of region-specific expression. In addition, interventions for attenuating age-related arterial stiffness and novel imaging advances for translating basic findings to older clinical populations will be discussed.

Kane G.C.,Boston College | Labianca G.,University of Kentucky
Information Systems Research | Year: 2011

The information systems (IS) literature has focused considerable research on IS resistance, particularly in the health-care industry. Most of this attention has focused on the impact of IS resistance on systems' initial implementation, but little research has investigated whether and how post-adoption resistance affects performance. We focus on a particular type of post-adoption resistance, which we call IS avoidance, to identify situations in which individuals avoid working with adopted IS despite the need and opportunity to do so. We examine the effects of IS avoidance on patient care delivered by health-care groups across three levels of analysis: the individual level, the shared group level, and the configural group level. We find that IS avoidance is significantly and negatively related to patient care only at the configural group level, which suggests that patient care is not degraded by the number of doctors and/or nurses in a group avoiding a system, but rather by their locations in the group's workflow network configuration. We use qualitative data collected over 16 months at the research site to help explain these results. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. © 2011 INFORMS.

Zhang T.,University of Kentucky | Agarwal R.,University of Maryland University College | Lucas Jr. H.C.,University of Maryland University College
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2011

Recent research has acknowledged the key role of information technology in helping build stronger and more enduring customer relationships. Personalized product recommendations (PPRs) adapted to individual customers' preferences and tastes are one IT-enabled strategy that has been widely adopted by online retailers to enhance customers' shopping experience. Although many online retailers have implemented PPRs on their electronic storefronts to improve customer retention, empirical evidence for the effects of PPRs on retention is sparse, and the limited anecdotal evidence is contradictory. We draw upon the household production function model in the consumer economics literature to develop a theoretical framework that explains the mechanisms through which PPRs influence customer store loyalty in electronic markets. We suggest that retailer learning that occurs as a result of customer knowledge obtained to enable personalization influences the efficiency of the online product brokering activity. Data collected from a two-phase lab experiment with 253 student subjects where the quality of PPRs was manipulated are used to empirically test the predictions of the theoretical model. Empirical analyses of the data indicate that retailer learning reflected in higher quality PPRs is associated with lower product screening cost, but higher product evaluation cost. We further find that higher quality PPRs are associated with greater value derived by consumers from the online product brokering activity in terms of higher decision making quality, which is positively associated with repurchase intention. The paper presents the implications, limitations, and contributions of this study along with areas for future research.

Kane G.C.,Boston College | Borgatti S.P.,University of Kentucky
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2011

Virtually all of the extensive previous research investigating the effect of information systems proficiency on performance has been conducted at the individual level. Little research has investigated the relationship between IS proficiency and performance at the group level. In this paper, we argue that IS proficiency at the group level may be more than the simple sum or average of the IS proficiency of individual group members. Rather, effective group-level IS proficiency may also be a function of how a group's IS proficiency is distributed across its members. Relying on concepts associated with social network analysis (SNA), we introduce the concept of centrality-IS proficiency alignment. We argue that groups will perform better if their more proficient members are highly central in the group's communication and workflows network. Data from 468 employees in 32 workgroups show that centrality-IS proficiency alignment is significantly and positively related to performance across multiple systems examined individually and with the portfolio of systems examined as a whole. This approach effectively integrates the structural and resource perspectives of SNA, providing a roadmap so that others may follow a similar approach to address broader questions of group-level user-system interactions in the IS literature and more general questions of central resource alignment in the broader organizational literature.

Mirrakhimov A.E.,University of Kentucky
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Hypercalcemia of malignancy is a common finding typically found in patients with advanced stage cancers. We aimed to provide an updated review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of malignancy-related hypercalcemia. We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for original articles, case reports, and case series articles focused on hypercalcemia of malignancy published from 1950 to December 2014. Hypercalcemia of malignancy usually presents with markedly elevated calcium levels and therefore, usually severely symptomatic. Several major mechanisms are responsible for the development of hypercalcemia of malignancy including parathyroid hormone-related peptide-mediated humoral hypercalcemia, osteolytic metastases-related hypercalcemia, 1,25 Vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, and parathyroid hormone-mediated hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma andextra parathyroid cancers. Diagnosis should include the history and physical examination as well as measurement of the above mediators of hypercalcemia. Management includes hydration, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and in certain patients, prednisone and cinacalcet. Patients with advanced underlying kidney disease and refractory severe hypercalcemia should be considered for hemodialysis. Hematology or oncology and palliative care specialists should be involved early to guide the options of cancer targeted therapies and help the patients and their closed ones with the discussion of comfort-oriented care. © 2015 North American Journal of Medical Sciences.

Wang K.,University of Kentucky
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2010

The accurate mapping of reads that span splice junctions is a critical component of all analytic techniques that work with RNA-seq data. We introduce a second generation splice detection algorithm, MapSplice, whose focus is high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of splices as well as CPU and memory efficiency. MapSplice can be applied to both short (<75 bp) and long reads (≥ 75 bp). MapSplice is not dependent on splice site features or intron length, consequently it can detect novel canonical as well as non-canonical splices. MapSplice leverages the quality and diversity of read alignments of a given splice to increase accuracy. We demonstrate that MapSplice achieves higher sensitivity and specificity than TopHat and SpliceMap on a set of simulated RNA-seq data. Experimental studies also support the accuracy of the algorithm. Splice junctions derived from eight breast cancer RNA-seq datasets recapitulated the extensiveness of alternative splicing on a global level as well as the differences between molecular subtypes of breast cancer. These combined results indicate that MapSplice is a highly accurate algorithm for the alignment of RNA-seq reads to splice junctions. Software download URL: http://www.netlab.uky.edu/p/bioinfo/MapSplice.

Alexandru A.,George Washington University | Horvath I.,University of Kentucky
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

The occurrence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) is equivalent to sufficient abundance of Dirac near-zeromodes. However, dynamical mechanism leading to breakdown of chiral symmetry should be naturally reflected in chiral properties of the modes. Here we offer such connection, presenting evidence that SChSB in QCD proceeds via the appearance of modes exhibiting dynamical tendency for local chiral polarization. These modes form a band of finite width Λch (chiral polarization scale) around the surface of otherwise anti-polarized Dirac sea, and condense.Λch characterizes the dynamics of the breaking phenomenon and can be converted to a quark mass scale, thus offering conceptual means to determine which quarks of nature are governed by broken chiral dynamics. It is proposed that, within the context of SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental Dirac quarks, mode condensation is equivalent to chiral polarization. This makesΛch an "order parameter" of SChSB, albeit without local dynamical field representation away from chiral limit. Several uses of these features, both at zero and finite temperature, are discussed. Our initial estimates areΛch≈150 MeV (Nf=0),Λch≈80 MeV (Nf=2+1, physical point), and that the strange quark is too heavy to be crucially influenced by broken chiral symmetry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Noehren B.,University of Kentucky | Hamill J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Davis I.,Harvard University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the leading cause of knee pain in runners. Proximal and distal running mechanics have been linked to the development of PFP. However, the lack of prospective studies limits establishing a causal relationship of these mechanics to PFP. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare running mechanics in a group of female runners who went on to develop PFP compared with healthy controls. It was hypothesized that runners who go on to develop PFP would exhibit greater hip adduction, hip internal rotation, and greater rear foot eversion. METHODS: Four hundred healthy female runners underwent an instrumented gait analysis and were then tracked for any injuries that they may have developed over a 2-yr period. Fifteen cases of PFP developed, which were confirmed by a medical professional. Their initial running mechanics were compared to an equal number of runners who remained uninjured. RESULTS: We found that female runners who developed PFP exhibited significantly greater hip adduction (P = 0.007). No statistically significant differences were found for the hip internal rotation angle (P = 0.47) or rear foot eversion (P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of greater hip adduction in female runners who develop PFP is in agreement with previous cross-sectional studies. These results suggest that runners who develop PFP use a different proximal neuromuscular control strategy than those who remain healthy. Injury prevention and treatment strategies should consider addressing these altered hip mechanics. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Das S.R.,University of Kentucky | Galante D.A.,University of Western Ontario | Galante D.A.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Myers R.C.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We study the time evolution of a conformal field theory deformed by a relevant operator under a smooth but fast quantum quench which brings it to the conformal point. We argue that when the quench time scale δt is small compared to the scale set by the relevant coupling, the expectation value of the quenched operator scales universally as δλ/δt2Δ-d, where δλ is the quench amplitude. This growth is further enhanced by a logarithmic factor in even dimensions. We present explicit results for free scalar and fermionic field theories, supported by an analytic understanding of the leading contribution for fast quenches. Our results suggest that this scaling result, first found in holography, is in fact quite general. Our considerations also show that this limit of fast smooth quenches is quite different from an instantaneous quench from one time-independent Hamiltonian to another, where the state at the time of the quench serves as an initial condition for subsequent evolution with the final Hamiltonian. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Segerstrom S.C.,University of Kentucky
Annals of Behavioral Medicine | Year: 2010

Ecological immunology provides a broad theoretical perspective on phenotypic plasticity in immunity, that is, changes related to the value of immunity across different situations, including stressful situations. Costs of a maximally efficient immune response may at times outweigh benefits, and some aspects of immunity may be adaptively suppressed. This review provides a basic overview of the tenets of ecological immunology and the energetic costs of immunity and relates them to the literature on stress and immunity. Sickness behavior preserves energy for use by the immune system, acute stress mobilizes "first-line" immune defenders while suppressing more costly responses, and chronic stress may suppress costly responses in order to conserve energy to counteract the resource loss associated with stress. Unexpected relationships between stress "buffers" and immune functions demonstrate phenotypic plasticity related to resource pursuit or preservation. In conclusion, ecological models may aid in understanding the relationship between stress and immunity. © 2010 The Society of Behavioral Medicine.

Ambrose C.T.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

Angiogenesis directs development of the brain's microcirculation during antenatal and postnatal development, but its role later in life is less well recognized. I contend that during senescence a reduced cerebral capillary density accounts in part for the vascular cognitive impairment observed in many older persons and possibly for some forms of Alzheimer's disease. I propose that neuroangiogenesis is essential throughout adult life for maintaining the microcirculation of the cerebral cortex and elsewhere in the brain and that it commonly declines with old age. To support this hypothesis I have examined the neurological literature for relevant studies on cerebral capillary density and neuroangiogenesis throughout the three stages of life and in persons with senile dementias. Finally, I discuss therapeutic approaches employing angiogenic factors for treating vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Graham M.,University of Oxford | Zook M.,University of Kentucky
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2013

This paper analyzes the digital dimensions of places as represented by online, geocoded references to the economic, social, and political experiences of the city. These digital layers are invisible to the naked eye, but form a central component of the augmentations and mediations of place enabled by hundreds of millions of mobile computing devices and other digital technologies. The analysis highlights how these augmentations of place dif er across space and language and highlights both the dif erences and some of the causal factors behind them. This is performed through a global study of all online content indexed within Google Maps, and more specif c analyses of the linguistically and topically segregated layers of information over four selected places. The uneven linguistic geographies that this study reveals undoubtedly inf uence the many ways in which place is enacted and brought into being. The larger aim of this project is to use these initial mappings of the linguistic contours of the geoweb to push forward a broader debate about how augmented inclusions and exclusions, visibilities and invisibilities will shape the way that places become def ned, imagined, and experienced.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

Geomorphic systems consist of coupled subsystems with traits of small-world networks (SWN), characterized by tightly connected clusters of components, with fewer connections between the clusters. Geomorphic systems based on scale hierarchies often exhibit a connected caveman small-world network (CCSWN) structure. SWNs are efficient for linking a large number of components with a relatively small number of links; but effects of CCSWN structure on synchronization and scale linkage have not been examined. Synchronization is analyzed via graph theory and applied to: (1) relationships among three levels of form-process interaction in stream channels; (2) hierarchical relationships of weathering systems at scales from weathering profiles to landscapes; and (3) interactions in fluviokarst systems at the scale of flow processes and of landscape evolution. Relationships among system components are represented as simple unweighted graphs. The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix (spectral radius) reflects the critical coupling strength required to synchronize the system. The second-smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of the adjacency matrix (algebraic connectivity) is a measure of the synchronizability. In all examples both are much less than the maximum for networks of the same number of nodes. The sparseness of the networks is the major contributor to the low synchronization, but the specific pattern of connections ("wiring") is also significant. Where CCSWN structures arise naturally, they help explain how geomorphic effects are transmitted between disparate scales in the absence of obvious scale linkage. Where CCSWNs are an option for representation of geomorphic systems in models and data structures, they will not improve scale linkage, despite the efficiency of SWNs in other respects. Methods developed here can be applied to evaluating alternative spatial data structures or mapping strategies which either increase synchronization, supporting a lumping or aggregation approach, or decrease synchronization, indicating disaggregation or splitting into scale hierarchies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Berger J.R.,University of Kentucky
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2014

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disorder due to an ubiquitous polyomavirus, referred to as JC virus. Prior to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, it was a disorder seen predominantly in individuals with underlying lymphomas and leukemias, in particular, B-cell malignancies. In the pre-antiretroviral therapy era of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, it ultimately developed in approximately 5% of all infected individuals. In 2005, following the recognition that it may complicate the use of natalizumab, an α4β1 integrin inhibitor, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disorders, it achieved even greater notoriety. PML is characterized by a triad of histopathologic findings, demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei. JC virus leads to demyelination by establishing a lytic infection of the oligodendrocytes. The clinical features are diverse and depend on the region of the brain affected. The disease is often heralded by cognitive and behavioral changes, language disturbances, weakness, or visual deficits. The diagnosis can often be established by cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings coupled with positive polymerase chain reaction for JC virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. To date, no treatment has been convincingly effective. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Westgate P.M.,University of Kentucky
Biometrical Journal | Year: 2013

Group randomized trials (GRTs) randomize groups, or clusters, of people to intervention or control arms. To test for the effectiveness of the intervention when subject-level outcomes are binary, and while fitting a marginal model that adjusts for cluster-level covariates and utilizes a logistic link, we develop a pseudo-Wald statistic to improve inference. Alternative Wald statistics could employ bias-corrected empirical sandwich standard error estimates, which have received limited attention in the GRT literature despite their broad utility and applicability in our settings of interest. The test could also be carried out using popular approaches based upon cluster-level summary outcomes. A simulation study covering a variety of realistic GRT settings is used to compare the accuracy of these methods in terms of producing nominal test sizes. Tests based upon the pseudo-Wald statistic and a cluster-level summary approach utilizing the natural log of observed cluster-level odds worked best. Due to weighting, some popular cluster-level summary approaches were found to lead to invalid inference in many settings. Finally, although use of bias-corrected empirical sandwich standard error estimates did not consistently result in nominal sizes, they did work well, thus supporting the applicability of marginal models in GRT settings. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Rosenthal M.S.,University of Kentucky
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2010

A preventive ethics approach recognizes that ethical obligations of the in vitro fertilization practitioner should prevail, regardless of whether embryo transfer is regulated. © 2010.

Godlaski T.M.,University of Kentucky
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2013

The use of tobacco by Native Americans in North America seems to have ancient origins and significant spiritual meaning. This article reviews archeological and anthropological data about the use of tobacco and its sacred significance. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Zentall T.R.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Comparative Psychology | Year: 2012

Observational learning is presumed to have occurred when an organism copies an improbable action or action outcome that it has observed and the matching behavior cannot be explained by an alternative mechanism. Psychologists have been particularly interested in the form of observational learning known as imitation and in how to distinguish imitation from other processes. To successfully make this distinction, one must disentangle the degree to which behavioral similarity results from (a) predisposed behavior, (b) increased motivation resulting from the presence of another animal, (c) attention drawn to a place or object, (d) learning about the way the environment works, as distinguished from what we think of as (e) imitation (the copying of the demonstrated behavior). Several of the processes that may be involved in observational learning are reviewed, including social facilitation, stimulus enhancement, several kinds of emulation, and various forms of imitation. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Held D.W.,Auburn University | Potter D.A.,University of Kentucky
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2012

Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk managementdriven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Yang F.,University of Kentucky | Li J.C.M.,University of Rochester
Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports | Year: 2013

Indentation test using a cylindrical indenter with a flat end is now known as impression test. The advantage is its capability to reach a steady state for creep test at constant load and it is possible to compare with the conventional tensile or compression tests. The test is simple and all the temperature and strain rate dependences can be obtained locally from one sample avoiding the sample to sample variations. It became very popular in the last decade. The literature is reviewed here. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Egli D.B.,University of Kentucky
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2011

Economic yield of a crop is always a function of a growth rate expressed over time, but historically plant processes associated with rates probably received more attention than those associated with time. Time influences crop productivity in two ways; the time devoted to the growth of the crop can affect yield, and the time available for plant growth in any environment determines the potential resource capture by the crop. These relationships were investigated using data describing the length of the vegetative and reproductive growth phases of major grain crops. The total growth duration (TGD) of six crop species (n = 83) varied from 62 to 185 d. Vegetative growth averaged 67% of TGD while the reproductive phase accounted for 33%. Total biomass was related to the TGD, and seed yield was related to the length of the reproductive phase. There was a curvilinear relationship between TGD and reproductive phase duration with the maximum reproductive phase occurring at a TGD of ~110 d. Consequently, selecting a longer TGD cultivar does not necessarily increase seed yield, making it difficult to convert the extra resources available in long growing seasons into seed yield. The length of the vegetative phase can be manipulated to enhance yield or production efficiency by, for example, shortening it to place reproductive growth in a more favorable environment or to reduce the irrigation requirement. Involving time as well as rate in efforts to improve yield provides more opportunities to increase food supplies in the future. © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
River Research and Applications | Year: 2013

Oxbow lakes, sloughs and other floodplain depressions associated with former channel positions are critical elements of floodplain hydrology, geomorphology and ecology. They comprise key elements of wetland and aquatic habitats and have important influence on the storage and routing of floodwaters. The hydrological connectivity between active river channels and floodplain depressions varies considerably in a qualitative sense, even within a single fluvial system. Several oxbows, sloughs and paleochannels were examined on the lower Sabine River, Texas/Louisiana, during a period of high but sub-bankfull flow as well as at lower flows. Six different types of surface water connectivity with the main, active channel were identified: (i) flow through-a portion of the river flow regularly passes through the feature and returns to the main channel; (ii) flood channel-there is no hydraulic connection at normal flows, but at high flows the channels convey discharge, at least part of which returns to the main channel; (iii) fill and spill-the features fill to a threshold level at high flows and then overflow (mainly via ephemeral channels) into flood basins; (iv) fill and drain-the features fill at high river discharges but do not (except in large floods) overflow because as river discharge declines, water drains back to the river; (v) tributary occupied-tributaries draining to the abandoned channel continue to occupy it, flowing through it to the active channel; and (vi) disconnected-no flow is exchanged except during large floods. The age or stage of infilling and the relative elevation of abandoned channels are important first-order controls of hydrological connectivity, but the lateral distance from the active channel is poorly related. Other critical controls are whether the cutoff section receives tributary input and whether a tie channel forms. The alluvial valley geomorphic context-specifically the presence of a meander belt ridge and flood basins-is also critical. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Eides M.I.,University of Kentucky | Eides M.I.,RAS Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift in light electronic and muonic atoms are calculated. We notice that correction to hyperfine splitting turns into zero for deuterium. Weak correction to the Lamb shift in hydrogen is additionally suppressed in comparison with other cases by a small factor (1-4sin2θ W). © 2012 American Physical Society.

Brock L.M.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Thermal Stresses | Year: 2015

A rigid die with two spherical contact surfaces translates, at constant speed, into a thermoelastic half-space. The spherical surfaces are frictionless and have identical radii, and translation is parallel to the line connecting their centers. Sliding speed is subcritical but may be rapid, and a 3D (dynamic) steady state is assumed. An asymptotic approximation gives integral transform inversions in analytic form. The process of imposing the auxiliary conditions for sliding contact is then presented in some detail. Formulas, calculations and plots illustrate the sensitivity of contact zone geometry and temperature change to sliding speed and proximity of the two spheres. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Smith B.,North Carolina State University | Phillips B.A.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Commercial motor vehicle drivers are at an increased risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Medical Review Board has recommended that commercial motor vehicle drivers undergo testing for OSA if they have a positive Berlin Questionnaire or a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2. We developed an online screening tool based on the Berlin Questionnaire for anonymous use by commercial drivers to assess their risk of OSA prior to their required FMCSA physicals. Methods: We based the survey on the Berlin Sleep Questionnaire. The survey was hosted on the Truckers for a Cause Chapter of Alert Well and Keeping Energetic of the American Sleep Apnea Association (TFAC-AWAKE) organization website, and was promoted through the TFAC's XM radio, word of mouth, and trucking industry press contacts. Results: A total of 595 individuals completed the survey. Of these, 55.9% were positive on the Berlin, 78.3% had either hypertension or obesity, 69.6% were obese, 47.6% had a BMI > 33 kg/m 2, and 20.5% reported falling asleep at stoplights. Conclusions: Some commercial drivers willingly assess their OSA risk anonymously online, and a majority of those who do so are obese, have positive Berlin screening questionnaires, and would be required to undergo polysomnography if recommendations made to the FMCSA became regulation. In contrast to reported behavior during actual Commercial Driver Medical Examinations physicals, some commercial drivers will report OSA symptoms if it is "safe" to do so. Sleep health professionals need expedient, non-punitive methods to keep commercial motor vehicle drivers healthy and driving and to raise drivers' awareness of the dangers of drowsy driving and unhealthy lifestyles.

Phillips J.D.,University of Kentucky
River Research and Applications | Year: 2013

The flow-channel fitness model is a conceptual and practical model for predicting the qualitative response of alluvial channels to modifications of flow regimes. 'Fitness' refers to the size of channels compared with the flows they convey, with the terminology derived from traditional geomorphic concepts of overfit and underfit streams. The qualitative predictions refer to whether channels experience aggradation, degradation or relative stability, and whether aggradation or degradation is dominated by width or depth. The model is based on transitions among seven possible fitness states, triggered by key thresholds of sediment supply versus transport capacity and shear stress versus shear strength, and requires that potential changes in sediment supply and water surface or energy-grade slope also be accounted for. The fitness approach can be used where only relative values and changes are known, as is illustrated in three example applications from Texas. The flow-channel fitness model synthesizes key elements from several existing approaches to predicting geomorphic responses to changes in flow and is intended to augment rather than replace quantitative approaches, providing a predictive tool where the data requirements and assumptions for quantitative models cannot be fully met. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Objective Identify the current physical and mental health status and health behaviors of male breast cancer survivors. Methods Using data from the national, population-based, 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, 66 cases of male breast cancer were identified (mean age = 66.2 years, mean time since diagnosis = 12.0 years). Male breast cancer cases were matched with 198 male BRFSS respondents with no history of cancer (control group) on age, education, and minority status. The male breast cancer and control groups were compared on physical and mental health status and health behaviors, using t-test and logistic regression analyses. Results The male breast cancer group reported poorer physical and mental health than controls. Male breast cancer survivors were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio = 2.41) and reported more physical comorbidities (Effect Size = 0.45) and activity limitations (Odds Ratio = 3.17), poorer life satisfaction (Effect Size = 0.41) and general health (Effect Size = 0.40), and more days in the past month when mental health (Effect Size = 0.49), and physical health (Effect Size = 0.29) were not good. In contrast, the male breast cancer and control groups were similar with regard to current health behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, and health care. Conclusions The diagnosis and treatment of male breast cancer may be associated with clinically important and long-term deficits in physical and mental health status, deficits which may exceed those evidenced by long-term female breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Welch K.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Harwood J.D.,University of Kentucky
Biological Control | Year: 2014

Agroecosystems contain complex networks of interacting organisms and these interaction webs are structured by the relative timing of key biological and ecological events. Recent intensification of land management and global changes in climate threaten to desynchronize the temporal structure of interaction webs and disrupt the provisioning of ecosystem services, such as biological control by natural enemies. It is therefore critical to recognize the central role of temporal dynamics in driving predator-prey interactions in agroecosystems. Specifically, ecological dynamics in crop fields routinely behave as periodic oscillations, or cycles. Familiar examples include phenological cycles, diel activity rhythms, and crop-management cycles. The relative timing and the degree of overlap among ecological cycles determine the nature and magnitude of the ecological interactions among organisms, and ultimately determine whether ecosystem services, such as biological control, can be provided. Additionally, the ecological dynamics in many cropping systems are characterized by a pattern of frequent disturbances due to management actions such as harvest, sowing and pesticide applications. These disturbance cycles cause agroecosystems to be dominated by dispersal and repopulation dynamics. However, they also serve as selective filters that regulate which animals can persist in agroecosystems over larger temporal scales. Here, we review key concepts and examples from the literature on temporal dynamics in ecological systems, and provide a framework to guide biological control strategies for sustainable pest management in a changing world. © 2014.

Anthony J.E.,University of Kentucky
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2011

In the field of polymer bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics, fullerenes and fullerene derivatives clearly play the dominant role as acceptor materials. Recently, a number of research efforts have focused on the development of new small-molecule acceptors for this device configuration. Although few materials prepared to-date have demonstrated power conversion efficiencies close to those achieved with fullerenes, numerous design rules and some interesting new materials classes have been explored. This short review will highlight the progress toward higher efficiency in nonfullerene small-molecule acceptors for organic solar cells. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Akcay E.,University of Pennsylvania | Cleve J.V.,University of Kentucky
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Inclusive fitness has been the cornerstone of social evolution theory for more than a half-century and has matured as a mathematical theory in the past 20 years. Yet surprisingly for a theory so central to an entire field, some of its connections to evolutionary theory more broadly remain contentious or underappreciated. In this paper, we aim to emphasize the connection between inclusive fitness and modern evolutionary theory through the following fact: inclusive fitness is simply classical Darwinian fitness, aver aged over social, environmental and demographic states that members of a gene lineage experience. Therefore, inclusive fitness is neither a generaliz ation of classical fitness, nor does it belong exclusively to the individual. Rather, the lineage perspective emphasizes that evolutionary success is determined by the effect of selection on all biological and environmental contexts that a lineage may experience. We argue that this understanding of inclusive fitness based on gene lineages provides the most illuminating and accurate picture and avoids pitfalls in interpretation and empirical applications of inclusive fitness theory. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Berger J.R.,University of Kentucky
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders | Year: 2013

A 36 year old woman with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and a childhood history of varicella (chickenpox) received 5 days of fingolimod (Gilenya®) before the drug was stopped upon discovery that she was varicella zoster virus (VZV) seronegative. Despite medical advice to the contrary, she was vaccinated with attenuated zoster virus vaccine (Zostavax®) the day after discontinuing fingolimod. Although the vaccination was uncomplicated by rash or systemic illness, her 3 year old daughter developed varicella 14 days following the vaccination. The patient developed recurrent thoracic herpes zoster 8 and 10.5 months following the vaccination while receiving fingolimod. Both episodes resolved during acyclovir therapy. This case report suggests that the immunomodulation that attends the administration of fingolimod may increase the risk of viral shedding following vaccination with attenuated VZV and reduce the efficacy of vaccination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Porter W.H.,University of Kentucky
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Ethylene glycol poisoning is a medical emergency that presents challenges both for clinicians and clinical laboratories. Untreated, it may cause morbidly or death, but effective therapy is available, if administered timely. However, the diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning is not always straightforward. Thus, measurement of serum ethylene glycol, and ideally glycolic acid, its major toxic metabolite in serum, is definitive. Yet measurement of these structurally rather simple compounds is but simple. This review encompasses an assessment of analytical methods for the analytes relevant for the diagnosis and prognosis of ethylene glycol poisoning and of the role of the ethylene glycol metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acids, in its toxicity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lutz C.T.,University of Kentucky
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation | Year: 2014

Purpose of Review: To describe the structural basis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Bw4 and Bw6 epitopes that are recognized by antibodies and the KIR3DL1 natural killer cell receptor. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular modeling and X-ray crystallography have refined our understanding of Bw4 and Bw6. These epitopes had been defined by comparison of HLA allele sequences and by site-directed mutagenesis. Anti-Bw4 and anti-Bw6 antibodies and KIR3DL1 receptors recognize HLA α-1 α-helix residues 77-83 in combination with other HLA regions. The variability of HLA sequences within the 77-83 region and at other sites indicates that the Bw4 epitope is complex. Adding complexity, HLA-bound peptides influence Bw4 and Bw6 epitopes. These structures are recognized by diverse antibodies and KIR3DL1 allotypes. This diversity allowed a Bw4 patient to produce anti-Bw4 antibody without breaking self-tolerance. SUMMARY: Bw4 and Bw6 epitopes are best regarded as families of related structures that are recognized by a diverse array of antibodies and KIR3DL1 allotypes. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

Li G.-M.,University of Kentucky | Li G.-M.,Tsinghua University
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) maintains genome stability primarily by correcting replication-associated mismatches. Defects in MMR lead to several human cancers characterized by frequent alterations in simple repetitive DNA sequences, a phenomenon called microsatellite instability (MSI). In most MSI-positive cancers, genetic or epigenetic changes that alter the function or expression of an essential MMR protein have been identified. However, in a subset of MSI-positive cancers, epigenetic or genetic changes have not been found in known MMR genes, such that the molecular basis of the MMR defect in these cells remains unknown. A possible answer to this puzzle emerged recently when it was discovered that H3K36me3, a well-studied posttranslational histone modification or histone mark, plays a role in regulating humanMMRin vivo. In this review, potential roles for this histone mark to modulate genome stability and cancer susceptibility in human cells are discussed. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

Butterfield T.A.,University of Kentucky
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2010

The muscle tendon unit is a stable system, designed to operate eccentrically with efficiency and resiliency. Fiber strains, although minimized by tendon compliance during exercise, are essential components to decoding the mechanical and chemical signals during exercise. Subsequent cellular adaptations minimize the subsequent "dose" of stress and strain and serve to limit the exacerbation of damage into injury. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Oz H.S.,University of Kentucky
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. © 2014 Oz.

Williams J.C.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2015

The public health community is challenged with understanding the many complexities presented by systems thinking and its applications in systems modeling. The model presented encompasses multiple variables needed (eg, model building) for the construction of a conceptual system model of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The model tracks the ACA from inception, through passage, March 2010, to its current state. Justification for the need to reform the current health care system rests, in part, on the heels of social justice. Proponents of the ACA have long argued that health reform was needed by the millions of uninsured person who suffered from health disparities, took little advantage of health prevention advice, and faced issues of access to providers as well as insurers. In addition the ACA seeks to address our uncontrollable spending on health care delivery. This article highlights the ACA from a systems perspective. The conceptual model presented encompasses both health reform variables (eg, health care provisions, key legislative components, system environment) and system variables (eg, inputs, outputs, feedback, and throughput) needed to understand current health care reform efforts from a systems perspective. The model presented shows how the interrelationships and interconnections of elements of a system come together to achieve its purpose or goal. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Brock L.M.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures | Year: 2014

A rigid, cup-shaped die translates at constant subcritical speed on a thermoelastic half-space that exhibits thermal relaxation and convection. The die surface is held at a temperature different from ambient temperature, and sliding friction exists in a contact zone that is not simply connected. A three-dimensional dynamic steady state model is assumed and, based on an approximation for inversion of integral transforms, a solution in analytic form is obtained. Auxiliary conditions for sliding contact are satisfied; in particular, contact zone traction is stationary with respect to compression force. Among other results, it is found that a dynamic steady state is precluded if die-ambient temperature difference is too large. Similar results are known, but only for die temperatures that exceed the ambient value. © 2014 Mathematical Sciences Publishers.

Gorman L.S.,University of Kentucky
Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology | Year: 2013

The adrenal gland, while small in size, provides a major punch to human metabolism. The interplay between the adrenal cortex hormones aldosterone and cortisol provides needed regulation to human metabolism. Aldosterone regulates the body sodium content affecting blood pressure thru fluid-volume regulation by the kidney. Cortisol, also from the adrenal cortex, contributes to regulation of glucose and protein metabolism. Diseases like addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome that affect the normal levels of these hormones can lead to serious pathologies that need to be detected thru clinical laboratory testing. The inner core of the adrenal gland, called the medulla, houses the catecholamine epinephrine, a fast acting neuropeptide hormone that can influence body action and energy levels quickly. The pheochromocytomas pathology of the adrenal medulla adversely affects the medulla hormones and needs to be recognized by clinical laboratory testing. The overview of the adrenal gland and its potential pathologies needs to be looked at anew in relation to post-traumatic stress disorder to find any linkage that may aid in the treatment and cure of our affected military soldiers. This interrelationship between cortisol and epinephrine in PTSD should be closely evaluated to determine if the suspected linkages are significant.

Damm D.D.,University of Kentucky
General Dentistry | Year: 2013

In 2011, the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs released an update by their expert panel on managing the care of patients receiving antiresorptive therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. In this report, the panel found no study results that confirmed the effectiveness of drug holidays to prevent antiresorptive agent-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws without increasing the risks of low bone mass. The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for a pattern of patient care for individuals who desire or require an invasive surgical procedure of the jaws, but who also have a skeleton that is at risk for osteoporotic fracture. The authors reviewed pertinent literature related to basic bone histology, the pharmacokinetics of the aminobisphosphonates (nBP), diagnostic criteria for osteopenia/osteoporosis, and clinical applications of the antiresorptive agents. The skeletal system demonstrates a mixture of resting surfaces (osteocytes, 85%), resorbing surfaces (osteoclasts, 2%), and forming surfaces (osteoblasts, 10%-12%). Deposition of nBP is not uniform, and is highly concentrated in areas of bone remodeling. A full understanding of bone remodeling and the pharmacokinetics of nBP allow for the modification of the antiresorptive therapy and the timing of the oral surgical procedure in a manner that minimizes the prevalence of osteonecrosis while at the same time continuing to protect the patient's skeleton from osteoporotic fracture. The lack of support for drug holidays by the ADA's expert panel is strongly consistent with the science behind bone remodeling and nBP pharmacokinetics. In spite of this, creative interdisciplinary patient care has the potential to dramatically reduce the prevalence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis (BRON), while at the same time continuing to protect the skeleton of the osteoporotic patient. Creative interdisciplinary patient care may prove to be an effective intervention to reduce the prevalence of BRON of the jaws.

Li B.A.,University of Kentucky
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The mixing between the f 2(1270), the f2′(1525), and the 2 ++ glueball is determined and tested. The mass and the hadronic decay widths of two bodies of the G 2 are predicted. The search for the G 2 state in the radiative decay of the J/ψ is discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Digirolamo D.J.,Johns Hopkins University | Kiel D.P.,Harvard University | Esser K.A.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2013

The musculoskeletal system evolved in mammals to perform diverse functions that include locomotion, facilitating breathing, protecting internal organs, and coordinating global energy expenditure. Bone and skeletal muscles involved with locomotion are both derived from somitic mesoderm and accumulate peak tissue mass synchronously, according to genetic information and environmental stimuli. Aging results in the progressive and parallel loss of bone (osteopenia) and skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) with profound consequences for quality of life. Age-associated sarcopenia results in reduced endurance, poor balance, and reduced mobility that predispose elderly individuals to falls, which more frequently result in fracture because of concomitant osteoporosis. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the parallel development and involution of these tissues is critical to developing new and more effective means to combat osteoporosis and sarcopenia in our increasingly aged population. This perspective highlights recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms coupling bone and skeletal muscle mass, and identify critical areas where further work is needed. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Hessel II E.A.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia | Year: 2014

More than 210,000 in-hospital cardiac arrests occur annually in the United States. Use of moderate therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in comatose survivors after return of spontaneous circulation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) caused by ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia is recommended strongly by many professional organizations and societies. The use of TH after cardiac arrest associated with nonshockable rhythms and after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IH-CA) is recommended to be considered by these same organizations and is being applied widely. The use in these latter circumstances is based on an extrapolation of the data supporting its use after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest associated with shockable rhythms. The purpose of this article is to review the limitations of existing data supporting these extended application of TH after cardiac arrest and to suggest approaches to this dilemma. The data supporting its use for OOH-CA appear to this author, and to some others, to be rather weak, and the data supporting the use of TH for IH-CA appear to be even weaker and to include no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or supportive observational studies. The many reasons why TH might be expected to be less effective following IH-CA are reviewed. The degree of neurologic injury may be more severe in many of these cases and, thus, may not be responsive to TH as currently practiced following OOH-CA. The potential adverse consequences of the routine use of TH for IH-CA are listed and include complications associated with TH, interference with diagnostic and interventional therapy, and use of scarce personnel and financial resources. Most importantly, it inhibits the ability of researchers to conduct needed RCTs. The author believes that the proper method of providing TH in these cases needs to be better defined. Based on this analysis the author concludes that TH should not be used indiscriminantly following most cases of IH-CA, and instead clinicians should concentrate their efforts in conducting high-quality large RCTs or large-scale, well-designed prospective observation studies to determine its benefits and identify appropriate candidates. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Yang F.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

The insertion of lithium into electric anode in a lithium-ion battery results in local volume expansion and creates compressive stress in materials. To relax the compressive stress, structural damage including microcracking and local buckling can occur. Using the theory of diffusion-induced stress and the energy principle, analytical relations between the critical concentration of solute atoms and average damage size are established for the insertion-induced cracking and buckling in an elastic film. Numerical results show that surface cracking will prevail over local buckling in accord with experimental observation. For local buckling of a given size, there exists a minimum critical concentration which is determined by the film thickness and the ratio of the Dupré constant to Young's modulus of the film. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

There are no currently Food and Drug Administration-approved or proven off-label treatments for the frontotemporal dementias (FTD). Clinicians, caregivers, and patients struggle regularly to find therapeutic regimens that can alleviate the problematic behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with these devastating conditions. Success is "hit or miss" and the lessons learned are largely anecdotal to date. Drug discovery in this area has been largely hampered by the heterogeneous clinical presentations and pathological phenotypes of disease that represent significant obstacles to progress in this area. Biologically, plausible treatment strategies include the use of antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonists, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, stimulants, antihypertensives, and agents that may ameliorate the symptoms of parkinsonism, pseudobulbar affect, and motor neuron disease that can often coexist with FTD. These medications all carry potential risks as well as possible benefits for the person suffering from FTD, and a clear understanding of these factors is critical in selecting an appropriate therapeutic regimen to maximize cognition and daily functions, reduce behavioral symptoms, and alleviate caregiver burden in an individual patient. The role of the caregiver in tracking and reporting of symptoms and the effects of individual therapeutic interventions is pivotal in this process. This manuscript highlights the importance of establishing an effective therapeutic partnership between the physician and caregiver in the medical management of the person suffering from FTD. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Livingston S.C.,University of Kentucky
Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society | Year: 2012

To determine if motor evoked potentials (MEPs), postconcussion signs and symptoms, and neurocognitive functions follow a similar recovery pattern after concussion. Nine collegiate athletes with acute concussion (>24 hours after injury) participated in this retrospective time series design. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the motor cortex, and MEPs were recorded from the contralateral upper extremity. Self-reported symptoms were evaluated using the Head Injury Scale, and the Concussion Resolution Index was used to assess neurocognitive function. All measures were repeated on days 3, 5, and 10 after injury. Composite scores on the Head Injury Scale were significantly higher on day 1 after injury (F3,51 = 15.3; P = 0.0001). Processing speed on the Concussion Resolution Index was slower on days 1, 3, and 5 compared with that on day 10 (F3,24 = 6.75; P = 0.0002). Median MEP latencies were significantly longer on day 10 compared with day 1 after concussion (t8 = -2.69; P = 0.03). Ulnar MEP amplitudes were significantly smaller on day 3 after concussion compared with day 5 (t8 = -3.48; P = 0.008). Acutely concussed collegiate athletes demonstrate changes in MEPs, which persist for up to 10 days after injury and do not follow the same recovery pattern as symptoms and neuropsychological test performance. The apparent differential rates of recovery most likely indicate different pathophysiological processes occurring in the immediate postconcussion period.

Koch E.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry | Year: 2016

In this paper I utilize anthropological insights to illuminate how health professionals and patients navigate and negotiate what for them is social about tuberculosis in order to improve treatment outcomes and support patients as human beings. I draw on ethnographic research about the implementation of the DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy, Short Course) approach in Georgia’s National Tuberculosis Program in the wake of the Soviet healthcare system. Georgia is a particularly unique context for exploring these issues given the country’s rich history of medical professionalism and the insistence that the practice of medicine is a moral commitment to society. I argue for critical attention to the ways in which treatment recipients and providers navigate what, for them, is “social” about therapeutic practices and their significance for avoiding biological and social reductionism. © 2016, Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Pty Ltd.

van Nagell J.R.,University of Kentucky
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2016

Data from screening trials indicate that a significant percent of asymptomatic women older than 50 years of age will develop ovarian abnormalities that are detectable by ultrasonography. Most of these abnormalities are benign, and many will resolve spontaneously. However, the risk of ovarian cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women, is of concern. The goal is to use a diagnostic and treatment algorithm that will reliably detect ovarian cancer at the earliest possible stage while limiting the number of women undergoing surgery for benign disease. The combination of morphology indexing and serum biomarker analysis can accurately predict the risk of malignancy in most ovarian tumors. Ovarian tumors with cystic or septate morphology are at minimal risk of malignancy and can be followed with serial ultrasonography evaluations, thereby avoiding the morbidity and cost of surgery. Complex or solid ovarian tumors with a high morphology index score, or those with increasing biomarker production, are at a high risk of malignancy, and patients with these tumors should be referred to a gynecologic oncologist for further evaluation and treatment. © 2016 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Palmieri-Smith R.M.,University of Michigan | Lepley L.K.,University of Michigan | Lepley L.K.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. Purpose: To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 73 patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity after ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Results: Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared with patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P<.05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry were higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared with those with low symmetry (P<.05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P<.05). Conclusion: Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. © 2014 The Author(s).

Pond Jr. R.S.,University of Kentucky
Emotion (Washington, D.C.) | Year: 2012

Anger is commonly associated with aggression. Inefficient anger-coping strategies increase negative affect and deplete the regulatory resources needed to control aggressive impulses. Factors linked with better emotion regulation may then weaken the relationship between anger and aggression. The current work explored one factor associated with emotion regulation-differentiating one's emotions into discrete categories-that may buffer angry people from aggression. Three diary studies (N = 628) tested the hypothesis that emotion differentiation would weaken the relationship between anger and aggression. In Study 1, participants high in emotion differentiation reported less daily aggressive tendencies when angry, compared to low differentiators. In Study 2, compared to low differentiators, high differentiators reported less frequent provocation in daily life and less daily aggression in response to being provoked and feeling intense anger. Study 3 showed that high daily emotional control mediated the interactive effect of emotion differentiation and anger on aggression. These results highlight the importance of considering how angry people differentiate their emotions in predicting their aggressive responses to anger. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

Deane A.S.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2012

Despite considerable post-cranial and cranial morphological overlap with . Proconsul, . Afropithecus turkanensis is distinguished from that taxon by a suite of anterior dental and gnathic characters shared in common with extant pitheciin monkeys (i.e. low crowned, robust and laterally splayed canines, procumbent incisors, prognathic premaxilla, powerful temporalis muscles, reduced or absent maxillary sinuses, and deep mandibular corpora). Pitheciins are unique among living anthropoids because their canines serve a habitual dietary function and are not strictly influenced by inter-male competition. Given the functional association between pitheciin canine morphological specializations and sclerocarp foraging, a feeding strategy where the hard pericarps of unripe fruit are mechanically deformed by the canines, it has been suggested that . Afropithecus may also have used its canines in a dietary context. This is confirmed by quantitative morphometric analyses of . Afropithecus canine curvature and basal dimensions demonstrating that . Afropithecus and extant pitheciins (. Chiropotes, . Cacajao) are distinguished from all other anthropoids by pronounced and evenly distributed mesial canine crown contours as well as greater resistance to canine bending in both the mesiodistal and labiolingual axes. In addition, . Afropithecus, Chiropotes and . Cacajao are also shown to have significantly longer and more curved premaxillae with greater incisor procumbency that effectively isolates the incisor and canine functional complexes. These morphological similarities are a result of convergence and not a shared derived ancestry. Despite their considerable morphological overlap, it is unlikely that . Afropithecus and extant pitheciin diets are identical given significant dissimilarities in their post-canine morphology, maximum angular gape and body size. Nevertheless, . Afropithecus canine dietary function is unique among hominoids and may have been a key component for the expansion of hominoids into Eurasia at the end of the early Miocene. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Campbell K.S.,University of Kentucky
Journal of General Physiology | Year: 2014

In an activated muscle, binding sites on the thin filament and myosin heads switch frequently between different states. Because the status of the binding sites influences the status of the heads, and vice versa, the binding sites and myosin heads are dynamically coupled. The functional consequences of this coupling were investigated using Myo-Sim, a new computer model of muscle. MyoSim extends existing models based on Huxley-type distribution techniques by incorporating Ca2+ activation and cooperative effects. It can also simulate arbitrary cross-bridge schemes set by the researcher. Initial calculations investigated the effects of altering the relative speeds of binding-site and cross-bridge kinetics, and of manipulating cooperative processes. Subsequent tests fitted simulated force records to experimental data recorded using permeabilized myocardial preparations. These calculations suggest that the rate of force development at maximum activation is limited by myosin cycling kinetics, whereas the rate at lower levels of activation is limited by how quickly binding sites become available. Additional tests investigated the behavior of transiently activated cells by driving simulations with experimentally recorded Ca2+ signals. The unloaded shortening profile of a twitching myocyte could be reproduced using a model with two myosin states, cooperative activation, and strain-dependent kinetics. Collectively, these results demonstrate that dynamic coupling of binding sites and myosin heads is important for contractile function. © 2014 Campbell.

Rinker B.,University of Kentucky
Annals of Plastic Surgery | Year: 2013

As nearly 1 of 5 adult Americans are smokers, plastic surgeons should be familiar with the effect of smoking on perioperative risk, the importance of smoking cessation, and the tools to help patients quit. Cigarette smoke contains over 250 known toxins, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and nitric oxide, which all are known to impair wound healing, through multiple mechanisms. The relationship of smoking and delayed postoperative wound healing has been established in numerous prospective and retrospective cohort studies (level 2 and 3 evidence), and has been demonstrated across a wide range of surgical disciplines and procedures, including many common plastic surgical procedures. The ameliorating effects of cessation are supported by level 1 evidence, which suggests that the optimal duration of preoperative cessation is 4 weeks or longer. Nicotine replacement therapy and smoking cessation medications are effective aids for quitting and should be familiar to plastic surgeons. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Whayne T.F.,University of Kentucky
Angiology | Year: 2014

Altitude physiology began with Paul Bert in 1878. Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) was defined by Carlos Monge in the 1940s in the Peruvian Andes as consisting of excess polycythemia. Hurtado et al performed studies in the Peruvian Andes in the 1950s to 1960s which defined acclimatization in healthy altitude natives, including polycythemia, moderate pulmonary hypertension, and low systemic blood pressure (BP). Electrocardiographic changes of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were noted. Acclimatization of newcomers to altitude involves hyperventilation stimulated by hypoxia and is usually benign. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) in travelers to altitude is characterized by hypoxia-induced anorexia, dyspnea, headache, insomnia, and nausea. The extremes of AMS are high-altitude cerebral edema and high-altitude pulmonary edema. The susceptible high-altitude resident can lose their tolerance to altitude and develop CMS, also referred to as Monge disease. The CMS includes extreme polycythemia, severe RVH, excess pulmonary hypertension, low systemic BP, arterial oxygen desaturation, and hypoventilation. © The Author(s) 2013.

Ambrose C.T.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2014

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related senile dementias (SDs) represent a growing medical and economic crisis in this country. Apart from cautioning persons about risk factors, no practical, effective therapy is currently available. Much of the recent research in AD has been based on the amyloid cascade theory. Another approach assumes a vascular basis for SDs. This paper presents evidence from a score of studies that cerebral capillary density (CCD) declines during old age in animals and people as well as in AD. Neuroangiogenic (NAG) factors initiate and maintain capillaries in the brain. Thus a waning level of these factors and the ensuing declining CCD would lead to local areas of reduced oxygen and glucose and result in impaired synaptic and neuronal function. The NAG hypothesis developed here proposes that the age-linked decline in CCD is a terminal condition in SDs, including many cases of AD. This age-linked decline is independent of any other of the various pathologies proposed as causing AD and listed in Table 1. Waning NAG factors would render the SDs a deficiency condition, somewhat like falling androgen levels in aging males. A logical corollary of this hypothesis is that chronic replacement therapy with recombinant forms of NAG factors may arrest the age-linked decline in CCD and prevent further loss of memory and mental deterioration. A transnasal route of therapy seems the most practical one for general use in the large aging populations. © 2015 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

The goal of the present investigation was to investigate sex, ethnic, and socioeconomic status (SES) influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and risk markers, including executive dysfunction and temperament traits. Participants were 109 children who were 3 to 6 years old (64% male; 36% ethnic minority) and their primary caregivers and teachers who completed a multistage, multi-informant screening, and diagnostic procedure. Parents completed a diagnostic interview and diagnostic and temperament questionnaires, teachers completed questionnaires, and children completed cognitive control tasks. Because of targeted overrecruitment of clinical cases, 56% of children in the sample were diagnosed with ADHD. Results suggested minimal sex differences, but prominent ethnic differences, in ADHD symptoms and temperament and executive function risk markers. Further, low family income was associated with increased ADHD symptoms and more temperament and executive function risk markers, and low family income explained many ethnic differences in ADHD symptoms and these risk markers. There were prominent interactions among child sex, ethnicity, and family income. Thus, study results suggest that children with multiple individual difference demographic risk factors (e.g., such as being male and ethnic minority) are at highly increased risk of ADHD symptoms and associated risk markers in the temperament and executive function domains. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

Bishop B.W.,University of Kentucky
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2011

This article explores location-based questions, local knowledge, and the implications stemming from these concepts for digital reference staff in consortial question- answering services. Location-based questions are inquiries that concern a georeferencable site. Digital reference personnel staffing the statewide chat reference consortium used in this study respond to location-based questions concerning over 100 participating information agencies. Some literature has suggested that nonlocal digital reference staff have difficulties providing accurate responses to location-based questions concerning locations other than their own. This study utilized content analysis to determine the quantity of location-based questions and the question-negotiation process in responding to location-based questions. Key findings indicate location-based questions comprised 50.2% of the total questions asked to the statewide service, 73.6% of location-based questions were responded to by nonlocal digital reference staff, and 37.5% of location-based questions ended in referral. This article's findings indicate that despite digital reference's capability to provide anyplace, anytime question-answering service, proximity to local knowledge remains relevant. © 2011 ASIS&T.

Davies H.M.,University of Kentucky
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2010

Technology for enabling plants to biomanufacture nonnative proteins in commercially significant quantities has been available for just over 20 years. During that time, the agricultural world has witnessed rapid commercialization and widespread adoption of transgenic crops enhanced for agronomic performance (herbicide-tolerance, insect-resistance), while plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) and plant-made industrial products (PMIPs) have been limited to experimental and small-scale commercial production. This difference in the rate of commercial implementation likely reflects the very different business-development challenges associated with 'product' technologies compared with 'enabling' ('platform') technologies. However, considerable progress has been made in advancing and refining plant-based production of proteins, both technologically and in regard to identifying optimal business prospects. This review summarizes these developments, contrasting today's technologies and prospective applications with those of the industry's formative years, and suggesting how the PM(I)P industry's evolution has generated a very positive outlook for the 'plant-made' paradigm. © 2010 The Author. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Prendergast M.A.,University of Kentucky | Mulholland P.J.,Medical University of South Carolina
Addiction Biology | Year: 2012

Stress contributes to the development of ethanol dependence and is also a consequence of dependence. However, the complexity of physiological interactions between activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and ethanol itself is not well delineated. Emerging evidence derived from examination of corticotropin-releasing factor systems and glucocorticoid receptor systems in ethanol dependence suggests a role for pharmacological manipulation of the HPA axis in attenuating ethanol intake, though it is not clear how activation of the HPA axis may promote ethanol dependence or contribute to the neuroadaptative changes that accompany the development of dependence and the severity of ethanol withdrawal. This review examines the role that glucocorticoids, in particular, have in promoting ethanol-associated plasticity of glutamatergic synapses by influencing expression of endogenous linear polyamines and polyamine-sensitive polypeptide subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors. We provide evidence that interactions among glucocorticoid systems, polyamines and NMDA receptors are highly relevant to both the development of ethanol dependence and to behavioral and neuropathological sequelae associated with ethanol withdrawal. Examination of these issues is likely to be of critical importance not only in further elucidating the neurobiology of HPA axis dysregulation in ethanol dependence, but also with regard to identification of novel therapeutic targets that may be exploited in the treatment of ethanol dependence. © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Kharel M.K.,Midway College | Rohr J.,University of Kentucky
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2012

The exact sequence of events in biosyntheses of natural products is essential not only to understand and learn from nature's strategies and tricks to assemble complex natural products, but also for yield optimization of desired natural products, and for pathway engineering and muta-synthetic preparation of analogues of bioactive natural products. Biosyntheses of natural products were classically studied applying in vivo experiments, usually by combining incorporation experiments with stable-isotope labeled precursors with cross-feeding experiments of putative intermediates. Later genetic studies were dominant, which consist of gene cluster determination and analysis of gene inactivation experiments. From such studies various biosynthetic pathways were proposed, to a large extent just through in silico analyses of the biosynthetic gene clusters after DNA sequencing. Investigations of the complex biosyntheses of the angucycline group anticancer drugs landomycin, jadomycin and gilvocarcin revealed that in vivo and in silico studies were insufficient to delineate the true biosynthetic sequence of events. Neither was it possible to unambiguously assign enzyme activities, especially where multiple functional enzymes were involved. However, many of the intriguing ambiguities could be solved after in vitro reconstitution of major segments of these pathways, and subsequent systematic variations of the used enzyme mixtures. This method has been recently termed 'combinatorial biosynthetic enzymology'. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahn S.,University of Miami | Fedewa A.L.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Pediatric Psychology | Year: 2011

The present study was a comprehensive, quantitative synthesis of the literature examining the effects of physical activity on children's mental health outcomes. The final analysis included 73 published and unpublished studies, totaling 246 effect sizes. Various study and participant characteristics were coded to assess moderator effects, including type of physical activity, mental health outcome, gender, cognitive ability, mental status, and implementer of the physical activity, etc. Results demonstrated varying effects depending on the methodology of the examined study [i.e., correlational vs. randomized controlled trial (RCT)/non-RCT] and characteristics of the participants, although overall effects of physical activity on children's mental health were small but significant, indicating that on average physical activity led to improved mental health outcomes for all children. © 2010 The Author.

The Src family kinases (SFKs) c-Src and Yes mediate vascular leakage in response to various stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here, we define an opposing function of another SFK, Lyn, which in contrast to other SFKs, strengthens endothelial junctions and thereby restrains the increase in vascular permeability. Mice lacking Lyn displayed increased mortality in LPS-induced endotoxemia and increased vascular permeability in response to LPS or VEGF challenge compared with wild-type littermates. Lyn knockout mice repopulated with wild-type bone marrow-derived cells have higher vascular permeability than wild-type mice, suggesting a role of endothelial Lyn in the maintenance of the vascular barrier. Small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of Lyn disrupted endothelial barrier integrity, whereas expression of a constitutively active mutant of Lyn enhanced the barrier. However, down-regulation of Lyn did not affect LPS-induced endothelial permeability. We demonstrate that Lyn association with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine residues 576/577 and 925 were required for Lyn-dependent stabilization of endothelial adherens junctions. Thus, in contrast to c-Src and Yes, which increase vascular permeability in response to stimuli, Lyn stabilizes endothelial junctions through phosphorylation of FAK. Therefore, therapeutics activating Lyn kinase may strengthen the endothelial barrier junction and hence have anti-inflammatory potential.

Zentall T.R.,University of Kentucky
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2014

Human gambling often involves the choice of a low probability but high valued outcome over a high probability (certain) low valued outcome (not gambling) that is economically more optimal. We have developed an analog of gambling in which pigeons prefer a suboptimal alternative that infrequently provides a signal for a high probability (or high magnitude) of reinforcement over an optimal alternative that always provides a signal for a lower probability (or lower magnitude) of reinforcement. We have identified two mechanisms that may be responsible for this suboptimal behavior. First, the effect of nonreinforcement results in considerably less inhibition of choice than ideally it should. Second, the frequency of the occurrence of the signal for a high probability or high magnitude of reinforcement is less important than ideally it should. Also analogous to human gambling is the finding that pigeons that are normally food restricted choose suboptimally, whereas those that are minimally food restricted choose optimally. In addition, pigeons that are singly housed choose suboptimally, whereas those that are exposed to a more enriched environment choose less suboptimally. We believe that these findings have implications for the understanding and treatment of problem gambling behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wilson M.W.,University of Kentucky
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2014

As geospatial information seemingly moves from users' personal computers to 'the cloud', the use of the phrase 'geographic technologies' has increasingly indicated things beyond desktop GIS. With these shifts in the distribution of geospatial data and practices, and the rise of the geoweb as a site of inquiry, new concepts are needed to better understand the conditions of geographic technologies. In this paper I conceptualize one such element of interactivity: connection. Here, I argue that a logic of continuous connectivity underlies the development of digital spatial media and influences the contemporary production of spatial knowledge. For those lives lived that are presumed to be 'always connected', interactions are figured by these connections to digital media. Many of these digital devices (especially mobile ones) become functional only through a series of connections to data and communication networks. For instance, mobile phones are in continuous communication regardless of direct use, 'listening' to cellular towers and analyzing proximity to deliver the best possible connection. From these system-level codes that maintain device connectivity to software-level codes that push and pull data to and from 'the cloud', being always connected is part of a cultural milieu that has diverse implications not only for attention but also for the development of collective, spatial knowledge. Here, I situate the emergence of continuous connectivity in the marketing of handheld computers in the late 1990s, to historicize the importance of connection for understanding geospatial practices. © 2014 Pion and its Licensors.

Funderburk S.F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Wang Q.J.,University of Kentucky | Yue Z.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2010

An increasing body of research on autophagy provides overwhelming evidence for its connection to diverse biological functions and human diseases. Beclin 1, the first mammalian autophagy protein to be described, appears to act as a nexus point between autophagy, endosomal, and perhaps also cell death pathways. Beclin 1 performs these roles as part of a core complex that contains vacuolar sorting protein 34 (VPS34), a class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. The precise mechanism of Beclin 1-mediated regulation of these cellular functions is unclear, but substantial progress has recently been made in identifying new players and their functions in Beclin 1-VSP34 complexes. Here we review emerging studies that are beginning to unveil the physiological functions of Beclin 1-VPS34 in the central control of autophagic activity and other trafficking events through the formation of distinct Beclin 1-VPS34 protein complexes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

McClintock T.S.,University of Kentucky
Chemical Senses | Year: 2010

Odor discrimination requires differential expression of odor detectors. In fact, olfactory input to the brain is organized in units (glomeruli) innervated only by olfactory sensory neurons that express the same odorant receptor (OR). Therefore, discriminatory capacity is maximized if each sensory neuron expresses only one allele of a single OR gene, a postulate sometimes canonized as the "one neuron-one receptor rule." OR gene choice appears to result from a hierarchy of processes: differential availability of the alleles of each OR gene, zonal exclusion (or selection), OR gene switching during the initiation of OR gene transcription, and OR-dependent feedback to solidify the choice of one OR gene. The mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood, though a few elements are known or suspected. For example, the mechanism of activation of OR gene transcription appears to work in part through a few homeobox transcription factors (Emx2, and perhaps Lhx2) and the Ebf family of transcription factors. Further insights will probably come from several directions, but a promising hypothesis is that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to all levels of the hierarchical control of OR gene expression, especially the repressive events that seem to be necessary to achieve the singularity of OR gene choice. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

Key K.,University of California at San Diego | Ovall J.,University of Kentucky
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2011

We present a parallel goal-oriented adaptive finite element method that can be used to rapidly compute highly accurate solutions for 2.5-D controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) and 2-D magnetotelluric (MT) modelling problems. We employ unstructured triangular grids that permit efficient discretization of complex modelling domains such as those containing topography, dipping layers and multiple scale structures. Iterative mesh refinement is guided by a goal-oriented error estimator that considers the relative error in the strike aligned fields and their spatial gradients, resulting in a more efficient mesh refinement than possible with a previous approach based on the absolute errors. Reliable error estimation is accomplished by a dual weighted residual method that is carried out via hierarchical basis computations. Our algorithm is parallelized over frequencies, wavenumbers, transmitters and receivers, where adaptive refinement is performed in parallel on subsets of these parameters. Mesh sharing allows an adapted mesh generated for a particular frequency and wavenumber to be shared with nearby frequencies and wavenumbers, thereby efficiently reducing the parallel load of the adaptive refinement calculations. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm on a large cluster computer through scaling tests for a complex model that includes strong seafloor topography variations and multiple thin stacked hydrocarbon reservoirs. In tests using up to 800 processors and a realistic suite of CSEM data parameters, our algorithm obtained run-times as short as a few seconds to tens of seconds. © 2011 The Authors. Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

Tang G.,University of Kentucky
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs that play a key role in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes at post-transcriptional levels in plants and animals. MiRNA genes, which serve as genetic buffers and regulators, are primarily located in the intergenic regions of the plant genome. The similar structure of a miRNA promoter to that of a protein-coding gene signifies the likely origin of miRNA genes from the latter. Imperfect "inverted repeats" the hallmark of miRNA genes that defines the asymmetry of the "stem-loop" region of the miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs), reflect the evolution of miRNA genes from the inverted duplication of their target genes over a long period of time. The deep conservation of most miRNAs and the presence of some of the non-conserved, species-specific miRNAs among various plant species demonstrate a continuous, but frequently an uneven evolutionary process of miRNA genes. Thus, duplication, inversion, mutation, amplification, and other types of genetic drift from protein-coding genes might be the primary events in the genesis and evolution of the miRNA genes. Subsequent co-evolution of the miRNA genes and their target genes ensures the maintenance and the fine-tuning nature of a dynamic gene regulatory network governed by miRNAs in plants. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Beets M.W.,University of South Carolina | Huberty J.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Beighle A.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Afterschool programs (3pm6pm; ASPs) are positioned to play a vital role in the improvement of children's daily physical activity. Recent guidelines specify that children should accumulate 4600 steps per day while attending an ASP. The extent to which ASPs currently meet this goal and how many steps per day children naturally accumulate within the ASP setting is unknown. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the pedometer-determined physical activity of a large sample of children attending a diverse range of ASPs and evaluate the extent to which ASPs are meeting current physical activity guidelines. Methods: Children (N=934, 51% girls, average 8.2 years; range 414 years) enrolled across 25 ASPs wore Walk4Life MVPa pedometers (number of steps accumulated, time spent active [hours:minutes:seconds]) up to 4 days. Data were collected in fall/spring 20102011 and analyzed in summer 2011. Results: On average, children attended ASPs for 125 minutes per day, accumulated 2944 steps per day, and spent approximately 26.6 minutes per day in physical activity. Only 16.5% of the 1819 daily observations met the 4600 steps per day guideline. No differences in steps per day, minutes per day in physical activity, or demographics were observed among children measured a single day versus 2, 3, or 4 days. Based on current practice, children would need to spend approximately 3.4 hours per day at an ASP to reach 4600 steps per day. Conclusions: Activity levels in ASPs are well below recommendations. Substantial effort is needed to identify strategies ASPs can employ to ensure children are sufficiently active. © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Context: Side-to-side quadriceps strength deficits are linked to hazardous lower extremity mechanics and reduced function at a time when individuals are returned to activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. As a result, generalized criteria have emerged in the literature, wherein researchers are recommending that patients be cleared for participation once side-to-side differences in strength are ≤10% of the noninjured limb. Similar recommendations exist for patient-oriented outcomes (ie, self-reported function and hop tests), where deficits of ≤10% are considered ideal at return to activity. It is unclear how many studies actually achieve these clinically recommended results. Evidence Acquisition: Articles that reported quadriceps strength deficits as compared to the contralateral limb were collected from peer-reviewed sources available on Medline and Web of Science databases (1990 through August 2014). Search terms included the following: anterior cruciate ligament OR ACL AND muscle weakness, anterior cruciate ligament OR ACL AND strength; return-to-activity AND strength; anterior cruciate ligament OR ACL AND quadriceps. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Average side-to-side strength deficits at 6 months postreconstruction were 23% ± 8% (range, 3%-40%), while the average at 12 months postsurgery was found to be 14% ± 6% (range, 3%-28%). The average deficits in self-reported function at 6 months (mean, 14% ± 5%) and 12 months postsurgery (mean, 13% ± 6%) were also found to be >10%. Performance on hop tests was found to be less than optimal at 6 months postsurgery (mean, 11% ± 7%), but improved at 12 months postsurgery (mean, 1.3% ± 2%). Conclusion: This review provides an up-to-date account of the typical deficits in strength and patient-oriented outcomes that exist when formalized physical therapy concludes after ACL reconstruction. Based on the studies included, it seems pertinent that researchers and clinicians continue to investigate interventions capable of improving the recovery of quadriceps strength as well as patient-oriented outcomes as the majority of studies report levels that are well below clinical recommendations. © 2015 The Author(s).

The Rem, Rem2, Rad, and Gem/Kir (RGK) GTPases, comprise a subfamily of small Ras-related GTP-binding proteins, and have been shown to potently inhibit high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel current following overexpression. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying RGK-mediated Ca(2+) channel regulation remains controversial, recent studies suggest that RGK proteins inhibit Ca(2+) channel currents at the plasma membrane in part by interactions with accessory channel β subunits. In this paper, we extend our understanding of the molecular determinants required for RGK-mediated channel regulation by demonstrating a direct interaction between Rem and the proximal C-terminus of Ca(V)1.2 (PCT), including the CB/IQ domain known to contribute to Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-mediated channel regulation. The Rem2 and Rad GTPases display similar patterns of PCT binding, suggesting that the Ca(V)1.2 C-terminus represents a common binding partner for all RGK proteins. In vitro Rem:PCT binding is disrupted by Ca(2+)/CaM, and this effect is not due to Ca(2+)/CaM binding to the Rem C-terminus. In addition, co-overexpression of CaM partially relieves Rem-mediated L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibition and slows the kinetics of Ca(2+)-dependent channel inactivation. Taken together, these results suggest that the association of Rem with the PCT represents a crucial molecular determinant in RGK-mediated Ca(2+) channel regulation and that the physiological function of the RGK GTPases must be re-evaluated. Rather than serving as endogenous inhibitors of Ca(2+) channel activity, these studies indicate that RGK proteins may play a more nuanced role, regulating Ca(2+) currents via modulation of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated channel inactivation kinetics.

Zentall T.R.,University of Kentucky
Current Directions in Psychological Science | Year: 2010

Justification of effort by humans is a form of reducing cognitive dissonance by enhancing the value of rewards when they are more difficult to obtain. Presumably, assigning greater value to rewards provides justification for the greater effort needed to obtain them. We have found such effects in adult humans and children with a highly controlled laboratory task. More importantly, under various conditions we have found similar effects in pigeons, animals not typically thought to need to justify their behavior to themselves or others. To account for these results, I propose a simpler mechanism than justification of effort-a mechanism based on contrast between the end of the effort and the reinforcement (or signal for reinforcement) that follows. This model predicts that any relatively aversive event can serve to enhance the value of the reward that follows it simply through the contrast between those two events. In support of this general model, my colleagues and I have found this effect in pigeons when the prior event consists of (a) more rather than less effort (pecking), (b) a long rather than a short delay, and (c) the absence of food rather than food. We have also found that a pigeon's preference for food at one location can shift toward a different location if acquiring food at the new location requires that the pigeon work harder to obtain the food. Contrast may also play a role in other social psychological phenomena that have been interpreted in terms of cognitive dissonance. © The Author(s) 2010.

Karim Z.A.,University of Kentucky
Blood | Year: 2013

Platelet secretion plays a key role in thrombosis, thus the platelet secretory machinery offers a unique target to modulate hemostasis. We report the regulation of platelet secretion via phosphorylation of SNAP-23 at Ser95. Phosphorylation of this t-soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) occurs upon activation of known elements of the platelet signaling cascades (ie, phospholipase C, [Ca(2+)]i, protein kinase C) and requires IκB kinase (IKK)-β. Other elements of the nuclear factor κB/IκB cascade (ie, IKK-α,-β,-γ/NEMO and CARMA/MALT1/Bcl10 complex) are present in anucleate platelets and IκB is phosphorylated upon activation, suggesting that this pathway is active in platelets and implying a nongenomic role for IKK. Inhibition of IKK-β, either pharmacologically (with BMS-345541, BAY11-7082, or TPCA-1) or by genetic manipulation (platelet factor 4 Cre:IKK-β(flox/flox)), blocked SNAP-23 phosphorylation, platelet secretion, and SNARE complex formation; but, had no effect on platelet morphology or other metrics of platelet activation. Consistently, SNAP-23 phosphorylation enhanced membrane fusion of SNARE-containing proteoliposomes. In vivo studies with IKK inhibitors or platelet-specific IKK-β knockout mice showed that blocking IKK-β activity significantly prolonged tail bleeding times, suggesting that currently available IKK inhibitors may affect hemostasis.

Li G.-M.,University of Kentucky
DNA Repair | Year: 2014

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) maintains genome stability primarily by repairing DNA replication-associated mispairs. Because loss of MMR function increases the mutation frequency genome-wide, defects in this pathway predispose affected individuals to cancer. The genes encoding essential eukaryotic MMR activities have been identified, as the recombinant proteins repair 'naked' heteroduplex DNA in vitro. However, the reconstituted system is inactive on nucleosome-containing heteroduplex DNA, and it is not understood how MMR occurs in vivo. Recent studies suggest that chromatin organization, nucleosome assembly/disassembly factors and histone modifications regulate MMR in eukaryotic cells, but the complexity and importance of the interaction between MMR and chromatin remodeling has only recently begun to be appreciated. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the mechanism of eukaryotic MMR in the context of chromatin structure and dynamics, considers the implications of these recent findings and discusses unresolved questions and challenges in understand