Maswal M.,University Of Kashmir |
Dar A.A.,University Of Kashmir
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014
Citral, one of the most important natural flavouring compound having intense lemon aroma and flavour, is widely used as an additive in foods, beverages and cosmetics with high consumer acceptance. Citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions due to acid catalysed and oxidative reactions leading to loss of desirable flavour and formation of off-flavours. Therefore, incorporation of citral into foods and beverages is a major challenge for the food industry because their chemical deterioration needs to be inhibited to minimize loss of product quality. The task to find the appropriate delivery system is most challenging for food industry. In the present review, the encapsulation and delivery techniques of citral mostly based on colloidal systems have been reviewed in detail. Moreover, the remaining technical challenges of such delivery systems like insignificant stabilization of citral, use of non-biocompatible constituents, instability to the environmental stress and difficulty of their preparation are discussed for prospective development of such formulations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Shahri W.,University Of Kashmir
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2011
The study reviews on the concept of senescence and some important synonymous terms of it. The term ' Senescence' has deeper roots than Programmed Cell Death (PCD)'. Senescence can be regarded to occur at microscopic as well as microscopic levels. At microscopic levels, the process is continuous and can be viewed as Programmed cell death'. Thus both PCD and senescence can be viewed as synonyms at cellular level. Senescence is characterized by a number of catabolic processes as protein degradation, nucleic acid and nuclear degradation, lipid peroxidation, disruption of cell membranes etc., but at the same time, it prepares the plant to start the next generation by remobilizing essential nutrients to developing organs which makes it important for the success of subsequent generations. Although true apoptosis has not been found to occur in plants, but some features of it have been implicated to occur in plants. Recent studies have also revealed the differential expression of some genes in plant systems that were earlier found to express during animal cell death. It is therefore to be decided whether the term apoptosis' will be still restricted to animal systems only. Ageing refers to degenerative changes that occur in all organisms without any reference to death, while senescence refers to the developmental stage at which close to death' symptoms becomes apparent. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Informationl.
Ahmed I.,University Of Kashmir
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary tryptophan requirement of fingerling Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (6. 10 ± 1. 15 cm, 4. 44 ± 0. 50 g). Six isonitrogenous (40 g 100 g -1) and isoenergetic (17. 90 kJ g -1) amino acid test diets were formulated with gradation of 0. 1 g 100 g -1 containing graded levels of l-tryptophan (0. 04-0. 54 g 100 g -1, dry diet). Fish were stocked in triplicate groups, in 75-L circular trough with flow-through system and fed experimental diets at 4% BW/day twice daily. Maximum live weight gain (258%), best feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1. 54) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (1. 62) were obtained in fish fed diet containing 0. 34 g 100 g -1 tryptophan. However, quadratic regression analysis of weight gain, FCR, PER and body protein deposition (BPD) data indicated requirements for dietary tryptophan at 0. 37, 0. 33, 0. 32 and 0. 33 g 100 g -1 of dry diet, respectively. Significantly (P < 0. 05) higher body protein, minimum moisture and intermediate fat contents were recorded at 0. 34 g 100 g -1 dietary tryptophan diet. Ash content was not significantly different (P > 0. 05) among treatments except for diets 0. 04 and 0. 14 g 100 g -1. Excellent somatic and haematological indices values were obtained at the requirement level. Based on above results, it is recommended that the diet for H. fossilis should contain tryptophan at 0. 32 g 100 g -1, dry diet, corresponding to 0. 80 g 100 g -1 dietary protein for optimum growth and efficient feed utilization. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Gupta S.K.,University Of Kashmir
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013
The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate region comprising typical vegetation which disappears completely on the eastern slopes, dominated by a variety of economical species which play an important role in the rural life. The inhabitants are dependent on plant resources for food, fuel, timber, shelter, fodder/forage, household articles and traditional medicines in treating diseases like malaria, cancer, gastro-intestinal ailments, etc. This paper deals with the observations on traditional therapeutic application by the inhabitants of Paddar Valley. The ethno-botanical information on medicinal plants would not only be useful in conservation of traditional cultures and biodiversity but also community health care and drug development. Exploration survey in Paddar Valley has revealed that people collect and sell these medicinal species through local intermediaries / contractors to earn their livelihood. But the scientific cultivation and appropriate post-harvest management would improve employment opportunity and income of local farmers in the region.
Hussain M.U.,University Of Kashmir
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in animals and in plants. In recent years, miRNAs have been shown to be important biological molecules for regulating various cellular functions. miRNAs function post-transcriptionally usually by basepairing to the mRNA 3′-untranslated regions of the mRNAs and repress protein synthesis by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Various miRNA genes have been mapped in the genome of a number of organisms and the list continues to grow. Details regarding the genomic organisation, transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional maturation of miRNAs are still emerging. In this review, information regarding the genomic organisation, biogenesis and regulation of expression of miRNAs is discussed. © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Nazki F.H.,University Of Kashmir |
Sameer A.S.,Sher I Kashmir Institute of Medical science Associated Medical College |
Ganaie B.A.,University Of Kashmir
Gene | Year: 2014
Folate being an important vitamin of B Complex group in our diet plays an important role not only in the synthesis of DNA but also in the maintenance of methylation reactions in the cells. Folate metabolism is influenced by several processes especially its dietary intake and the polymorphisms of the associated genes involved. Aberrant folate metabolism, therefore, affects both methylation as well as the DNA synthesis processes, both of which have been implicated in the development of various diseases. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the processes involved in folate metabolism and consequences of deviant folate metabolism, particular emphasis is given to the polymorphic genes which have been implicated in the development of various diseases in humans, like vascular diseases, Down's syndrome, neural tube defects, psychiatric disorders and cancers. © 2013.
Maqbool R.,University Of Kashmir |
Hussain M.U.,University Of Kashmir
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in various human diseases, ranging from cancer to cardiovascular hypertrophy. The expression profiles of the miRNAs clearly differentiate the normal from the pathological state and thus their potential as novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of several human diseases is immense. Emerging data on the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of various human diseases have paved the way to test their ability to act as novel therapeutic tools. In the present review, we will explore the current knowledge about the role of miRNAs in various human diseases. In addition, we will focus on the emerging evidences demonstrating the potential of miRNAs as novel biomarkers and the strategies to use them as therapeutic tools. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Mir F.A.,University Of Kashmir
Philosophical Magazine | Year: 2014
PrFe0.7Ni0.3O3 thin films (thickness ∼ 200 nm) were prepared by pulsed laser ablation technique on LaAlO3 substrate. These films were irradiated with 200 MeV Ag15+ ions at various fluencies, ranging from 1 × 1011 to 1 × 1012 ions/cm2. These irradiated thin films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, dc conductivity, dc magnetization and atomic force microscopy. These films exhibit orthorhombic structure and retain it even after irradiations. The crystallite size (110-137 nm), micro strain (1.48 × 10-2-1.75 × 10-2 line-2 m-4) and dislocation density (79.7 × 1014-53.2 × 1014 line/m2) vary with ion fluencies. An enhancement in resistivity at certain fluence and then a decrease in its value (0.22175-0.21813 Ω cm) are seen. A drastic change in observed magnetism after ion irradiation is seen. With ion irradiation, an increase in surface roughness, due to the formation of hillocks and other factors, is observed. Destruction of magnetic domains after irradiation can also be visualized with magnetic force microscopy and is in close agreement with magnetization data. The impact on various physical properties in these thin films after irradiation indicates a distortion in the lattice structure and consequently on single-particle band width caused by stress-induced defects. © 2013 CSIR - New Delhi, India.
Mir I.A.,University Of Kashmir |
Tiku A.B.,Jawaharlal Nehru University
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2015
Cancer is one of the major causes of deaths in developed countries and is emerging as a major public health burden in developing countries too. Changes in cancer prevalence patterns have been noticed due to rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. One of the major concerns is an influence of dietary habits on cancer rates. Approaches to prevent cancer are many and chemoprevention or dietary cancer prevention is one of them. Therefore, nutritional practices are looked at as effective types of dietary cancer prevention strategies. Attention has been given to identifying plant-derived dietary agents, which could be developed as a promising chemotherapeutic with minimal toxic side effects. Naringenin, a phytochemical mainly present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, is a frequent component of the human diet and has gained increasing interest because of its positive health effects not only in cancer prevention but also in noncancer diseases. In the last few years, significant progress has been made in studying the biological effects of naringenin at cellular and molecular levels. This review examines the cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic effects of naringenin in an organ-specific format, evaluating its limitations, and its considerable potential for development as a cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic agent. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Ahmad P.,University Of Kashmir
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2010
The effects of salt stress on plant growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and some antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 126.96.36.199), catalase (CAT, EC 188.8.131.52), peroxidase (POD, EC 184.108.40.206), glutathione reductase (GR; EC EC 220.127.116.11) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 18.104.22.168) activity] were studied in the leaves of mustard. Plants were exposed to two different concentrations of NaCl stress (100 and 150 mM) for 45 days and were sprayed with GA3 (75 ml pot-1, conc. 75 mg l-1) once a week. Salt stress resulted in decrease in the growth and biomass yield of mustard but the exogenous application of GA3 enhanced these parameters significantly. Application of GA3 counteracted the adverse effects of NaCl salinity on relative water content, electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll (Chl) content. GA3 was sufficient to attenuate partially the stimulatory effect of NaCl supply on proline and glycinebetaine biosynthesis. GA3 reduced lipid peroxidation in the leaves, which was increased during salt stress. The activity of all the antioxidant enzymes was increased significantly during salt stress in mustard. The exogenous application of GA3 decreased the enzyme activity. The results of the present study indicate that usage of GA3 reduces the harmful effects of salinity and increases resistance to salinity in mustard plant. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.