Ganai S.A.,University Of Kashmir
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2016
Epigenetic modifications are closely involved in the patho-physiology of prostate cancer. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), the transcriptional corepressors have strong crosstalk with prostate cancer progression as they influence various genes related to tumour suppression. HDACs play a marked role in myriad of human cancers and as such are emerging as striking molecular targets for anticancer drugs and therapy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), the small-molecules interfering HDACs are emerging as promising chemotherapeutic agents. These inhibitors have shown multiple effects including cell growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in prostate cancer. The limited efficacy of HDACi as single agents in anticancer therapy has been strongly improved via novel therapeutic strategies like doublet therapy (combined therapy). More than 20HDACi have already entered into the journey of clinical trials and four have been approved by FDA against diverse cancers. This review deals with plant derived HDACi sulphoraphane (SFN; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane) and its potential role in prostate cancer therapy along with the underlying molecular mechanism being involved. The article further highlights the therapeutic strategy that can be utilized for sensitizing conventional therapy resistant cases and for acquiring the maximum therapeutic benefit from this promising inhibitor in the upcoming future. © 2016.
Ganai S.A.,University Of Kashmir
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2017
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in men in the United States. Mounting evidences suggest that in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer epigenetic modifications play a considerable role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have strong crosstalk with prostate cancer progression as they regulate various genes meant for tumour suppression. HDACs are emerging as striking molecular targets for anticancer drugs and therapy as their aberrant expression has been implicated in several cancers. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), the small molecules interfering HDACs are the propitious chemotherapeutic agents as they tune the altered acetylation homeostasis for attenuating disease signalling. More than 20 HDACi have entered into the clinical trials and 4 have crossed the journey by gaining FDA approval for treating distinct haematological malignancies including multiple myeloma. Despite the therapeutic benefits, the synthetic HDACi cause detrimental side effects like atrial fibrillation, raising concerns regarding their applicability. Taking these facts into consideration the current article focused on plant-derived HDAC inhibitor Apigenin and its marvelous role in prostate cancer therapy. Moreover, the article sheds light on Apigenin induced apoptosis in various prostate cancer models. The defined inhibitor provokes apoptotic signaling in these models by multiple mechanisms like restraining HDACs, declining the levels of antiapoptotic proteins. Importantly, Apigenin hampers NF-κB signalling and down-modulates its regulated gene products for bringing therapeutic effect. Furthermore, Apigenin shows synergistic effect in combinatorial therapy and induces apoptosis even in prostate cancer models resistant to conventional therapeutic regimens. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS
Maswal M.,University Of Kashmir |
Dar A.A.,University Of Kashmir
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014
Citral, one of the most important natural flavouring compound having intense lemon aroma and flavour, is widely used as an additive in foods, beverages and cosmetics with high consumer acceptance. Citral is chemically unstable and degrades over time in aqueous solutions due to acid catalysed and oxidative reactions leading to loss of desirable flavour and formation of off-flavours. Therefore, incorporation of citral into foods and beverages is a major challenge for the food industry because their chemical deterioration needs to be inhibited to minimize loss of product quality. The task to find the appropriate delivery system is most challenging for food industry. In the present review, the encapsulation and delivery techniques of citral mostly based on colloidal systems have been reviewed in detail. Moreover, the remaining technical challenges of such delivery systems like insignificant stabilization of citral, use of non-biocompatible constituents, instability to the environmental stress and difficulty of their preparation are discussed for prospective development of such formulations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Ahmed I.,University Of Kashmir
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary tryptophan requirement of fingerling Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (6. 10 ± 1. 15 cm, 4. 44 ± 0. 50 g). Six isonitrogenous (40 g 100 g -1) and isoenergetic (17. 90 kJ g -1) amino acid test diets were formulated with gradation of 0. 1 g 100 g -1 containing graded levels of l-tryptophan (0. 04-0. 54 g 100 g -1, dry diet). Fish were stocked in triplicate groups, in 75-L circular trough with flow-through system and fed experimental diets at 4% BW/day twice daily. Maximum live weight gain (258%), best feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1. 54) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (1. 62) were obtained in fish fed diet containing 0. 34 g 100 g -1 tryptophan. However, quadratic regression analysis of weight gain, FCR, PER and body protein deposition (BPD) data indicated requirements for dietary tryptophan at 0. 37, 0. 33, 0. 32 and 0. 33 g 100 g -1 of dry diet, respectively. Significantly (P < 0. 05) higher body protein, minimum moisture and intermediate fat contents were recorded at 0. 34 g 100 g -1 dietary tryptophan diet. Ash content was not significantly different (P > 0. 05) among treatments except for diets 0. 04 and 0. 14 g 100 g -1. Excellent somatic and haematological indices values were obtained at the requirement level. Based on above results, it is recommended that the diet for H. fossilis should contain tryptophan at 0. 32 g 100 g -1, dry diet, corresponding to 0. 80 g 100 g -1 dietary protein for optimum growth and efficient feed utilization. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Gupta S.K.,University Of Kashmir
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013
The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate region comprising typical vegetation which disappears completely on the eastern slopes, dominated by a variety of economical species which play an important role in the rural life. The inhabitants are dependent on plant resources for food, fuel, timber, shelter, fodder/forage, household articles and traditional medicines in treating diseases like malaria, cancer, gastro-intestinal ailments, etc. This paper deals with the observations on traditional therapeutic application by the inhabitants of Paddar Valley. The ethno-botanical information on medicinal plants would not only be useful in conservation of traditional cultures and biodiversity but also community health care and drug development. Exploration survey in Paddar Valley has revealed that people collect and sell these medicinal species through local intermediaries / contractors to earn their livelihood. But the scientific cultivation and appropriate post-harvest management would improve employment opportunity and income of local farmers in the region.
Hussain M.U.,University Of Kashmir
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in animals and in plants. In recent years, miRNAs have been shown to be important biological molecules for regulating various cellular functions. miRNAs function post-transcriptionally usually by basepairing to the mRNA 3′-untranslated regions of the mRNAs and repress protein synthesis by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Various miRNA genes have been mapped in the genome of a number of organisms and the list continues to grow. Details regarding the genomic organisation, transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional maturation of miRNAs are still emerging. In this review, information regarding the genomic organisation, biogenesis and regulation of expression of miRNAs is discussed. © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Maqbool R.,University Of Kashmir |
Hussain M.U.,University Of Kashmir
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in various human diseases, ranging from cancer to cardiovascular hypertrophy. The expression profiles of the miRNAs clearly differentiate the normal from the pathological state and thus their potential as novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of several human diseases is immense. Emerging data on the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of various human diseases have paved the way to test their ability to act as novel therapeutic tools. In the present review, we will explore the current knowledge about the role of miRNAs in various human diseases. In addition, we will focus on the emerging evidences demonstrating the potential of miRNAs as novel biomarkers and the strategies to use them as therapeutic tools. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Mir F.A.,University Of Kashmir
Philosophical Magazine | Year: 2014
PrFe0.7Ni0.3O3 thin films (thickness ∼ 200 nm) were prepared by pulsed laser ablation technique on LaAlO3 substrate. These films were irradiated with 200 MeV Ag15+ ions at various fluencies, ranging from 1 × 1011 to 1 × 1012 ions/cm2. These irradiated thin films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, dc conductivity, dc magnetization and atomic force microscopy. These films exhibit orthorhombic structure and retain it even after irradiations. The crystallite size (110-137 nm), micro strain (1.48 × 10-2-1.75 × 10-2 line-2 m-4) and dislocation density (79.7 × 1014-53.2 × 1014 line/m2) vary with ion fluencies. An enhancement in resistivity at certain fluence and then a decrease in its value (0.22175-0.21813 Ω cm) are seen. A drastic change in observed magnetism after ion irradiation is seen. With ion irradiation, an increase in surface roughness, due to the formation of hillocks and other factors, is observed. Destruction of magnetic domains after irradiation can also be visualized with magnetic force microscopy and is in close agreement with magnetization data. The impact on various physical properties in these thin films after irradiation indicates a distortion in the lattice structure and consequently on single-particle band width caused by stress-induced defects. © 2013 CSIR - New Delhi, India.
Mir I.A.,University Of Kashmir |
Tiku A.B.,Jawaharlal Nehru University
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2015
Cancer is one of the major causes of deaths in developed countries and is emerging as a major public health burden in developing countries too. Changes in cancer prevalence patterns have been noticed due to rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. One of the major concerns is an influence of dietary habits on cancer rates. Approaches to prevent cancer are many and chemoprevention or dietary cancer prevention is one of them. Therefore, nutritional practices are looked at as effective types of dietary cancer prevention strategies. Attention has been given to identifying plant-derived dietary agents, which could be developed as a promising chemotherapeutic with minimal toxic side effects. Naringenin, a phytochemical mainly present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, is a frequent component of the human diet and has gained increasing interest because of its positive health effects not only in cancer prevention but also in noncancer diseases. In the last few years, significant progress has been made in studying the biological effects of naringenin at cellular and molecular levels. This review examines the cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic effects of naringenin in an organ-specific format, evaluating its limitations, and its considerable potential for development as a cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic agent. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Ahmad P.,University Of Kashmir
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2010
The effects of salt stress on plant growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and some antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 18.104.22.168), catalase (CAT, EC 22.214.171.124), peroxidase (POD, EC 126.96.36.199), glutathione reductase (GR; EC EC 188.8.131.52) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 184.108.40.206) activity] were studied in the leaves of mustard. Plants were exposed to two different concentrations of NaCl stress (100 and 150 mM) for 45 days and were sprayed with GA3 (75 ml pot-1, conc. 75 mg l-1) once a week. Salt stress resulted in decrease in the growth and biomass yield of mustard but the exogenous application of GA3 enhanced these parameters significantly. Application of GA3 counteracted the adverse effects of NaCl salinity on relative water content, electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll (Chl) content. GA3 was sufficient to attenuate partially the stimulatory effect of NaCl supply on proline and glycinebetaine biosynthesis. GA3 reduced lipid peroxidation in the leaves, which was increased during salt stress. The activity of all the antioxidant enzymes was increased significantly during salt stress in mustard. The exogenous application of GA3 decreased the enzyme activity. The results of the present study indicate that usage of GA3 reduces the harmful effects of salinity and increases resistance to salinity in mustard plant. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.