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Karachi, Pakistan

The University of Karachi is a public research university located in the neighborhood of Gulshan-e-Iqbal of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan and ranked among the top ten universities of the country in terms of the international standard, according to the Higher Education Commission in 2013. In 2009, the university successfully entered its name in the THE-QS World University Rankings for the top 500 universities in the world. World renowned and notable scholars have been associated and affiliated with the university as faculty, researchers, or alumni since its establishment. The university offers wide range of undergraduate and graduate degree programs and more than 19 world-class research institutes are under the university in all over Karachi.With an approximated of more than 80,000 students currently attending the university, the KU is the university with the largest nation-wide enrollment as well as the most popular university in Pakistan and abroad by the number of applicants. The university is also a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom.The Karachi University holds a unique position in the country's educational system and is distinguished reputation for conducting multi-disciplinary research in science and technology, medical research, and social science. As a respected research and reaching institution, the university is committed to intellectual leadership, and to excellence in both developing knowledge and conveying that knowledge to its students. The University of Karachi meets the commitments to preserve knowledge through its instructional and research programs for higher level education. Wikipedia.

Khan A.,University of Karachi
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG | Year: 2012

To determine antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Pakistan and its correlation with host and pathogen associated factors. A total of 178 strains of H. pylori were isolated from gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients. Susceptibility patterns against first and second-line antibiotics were determined and trends of resistance were analyzed in relation to the sampling period, gastric conditions and cagA gene carriage. The effect of cagA gene on the acquisition of resistance was investigated by mutant selection assay. The observations showed that monoresistant strains were prevalent with rates of 89% for metronidazole, 36% for clarithromycin, 37% for amoxicillin, 18.5% for ofloxacin and 12% for tetracycline. Furthermore, clarithromycin resistance was on the rise from 2005 to 2008 (32% vs 38%, P = 0.004) and it is significantly observed in non ulcerative dyspeptic patients compared to gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer cases (53% vs 20%, 18% and 19%, P = 0.000). On the contrary, metronidazole and ofloxacin resistance were more common in gastritis and gastric ulcer cases. Distribution analysis and frequencies of resistant mutants in vitro correlated with the absence of cagA gene with metronidazole and ofloxacin resistance. The study confirms the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance associated with the degree of gastric inflammation and cagA gene carriage in H. pylori strains.

Stress is the major predisposing and precipitating factor in the onset of depression which is the most significant mental health risk for women. Behavioral studies in animal models show that female sex though less affected by an acute stressor; exposure to repeated stressors induces coping deficits to impair adaptation in them. A decrease in the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in the hippocampus and an increased function of the 5-HT-1A receptor in the raphe nucleus coexist in depression. Pharmacological and neurochemical data are relevant that facilitation of serotonin neurotransmission via hippocampus due to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors may lead to adaptation to stress. The present article reviews research on sex related differences of raphe-hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission to find a possible answer that may account for the sex differences of adaptation to stress reported in preclinical research and greater incidence of depression in women than men. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

Haleem D.J.,University of Karachi
Behavioural Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) show extreme dieting weight loss, hyperactivity, depression/anxiety, self-control, and behavioral impulsivity. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is involved in almost all the behavioral changes observed in AN patients. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute toward the pathogenesis of AN. It is a frequent disorder among adolescent girls and young women and starts as an attempt to lose weight to look beautiful and attractive. Failure to see the turning point when fasting becomes unreasonable leads to malnutrition and AN. Tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin and an essential amino acid, is only available in the diet. It is therefore likely that excessive diet restriction and malnutrition decrease brain serotonin stores because the precursor is less available to the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT biosynthesis, which normally exists unsaturated with its substrate. Evidence shows that diet restriction-induced exaggerated feedback control over 5-HT synthesis and the smaller availability of tryptophan decreases serotonin neurotransmission at postsynaptic sites, leading to hyperactivity, depression, and behavioral impulsivity. A compensatory upregulation of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors and hypophagic serotonin receptors may be involved in anxiety and suppression of appetite. It is suggested that tryptophan supplementation may improve pharmacotherapy in AN. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

The work presented here describes the fabrication of a novel drug delivery system, which consists of gold nanorods and doxorubicin, with the attachment of thioctic acid and folic acid, for the targeted release of drug to cancer cells. Doxorubicin, the potent anticancer drug, is widely used to treat various cancers. Gold nanorods were functionalized chemically to generate active groups for the attachment of drug molecules and subsequently attached to folic acid. The resulting nanostructure was characterized by UV-visible-NIR spectrophotometry, TEM techniques, zeta potential measurement and subsequently used to target folate receptorexpressing cancers cells for the delivery of doxorubicin. We generated a release profile for the release of doxorubicin from the nanostructures in KB cells using single-molecule fluorescence intensity images and fluorescence lifetime images. The results indicated that the nanorods were able to enter the target cells because of the attachment of folic acid and used as a carriers for the targeted delivery of doxorubicin. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

Nadeem A.,University of Karachi | Howarth M.P.,University of Surrey
IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials | Year: 2013

In the last decade, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have emerged as a major next generation wireless networking technology. However, MANETs are vulnerable to various attacks at all layers, including in particular the network layer, because the design of most MANET routing protocols assumes that there is no malicious intruder node in the network. In this paper, we present a survey of the main types of attack at the network layer, and we then review intrusion detection and protection mechanisms that have been proposed in the literature. We classify these mechanisms as either point detection algorithms that deal with a single type of attack, or as intrusion detection systems (IDSs) that can deal with a range of attacks. A comparison of the proposed protection mechanisms is also included in this paper. Finally, we identify areas where further research could focus. © 1998-2012 IEEE.

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