Karachi, Pakistan

University of Karachi

Karachi, Pakistan

The University of Karachi is a public research university located in the neighborhood of Gulshan-e-Iqbal of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan and ranked among the top ten universities of the country in terms of the international standard, according to the Higher Education Commission in 2013. In 2009, the university successfully entered its name in the THE-QS World University Rankings for the top 500 universities in the world. World renowned and notable scholars have been associated and affiliated with the university as faculty, researchers, or alumni since its establishment. The university offers wide range of undergraduate and graduate degree programs and more than 19 world-class research institutes are under the university in all over Karachi.With an approximated of more than 80,000 students currently attending the university, the KU is the university with the largest nation-wide enrollment as well as the most popular university in Pakistan and abroad by the number of applicants. The university is also a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom.The Karachi University holds a unique position in the country's educational system and is distinguished reputation for conducting multi-disciplinary research in science and technology, medical research, and social science. As a respected research and reaching institution, the university is committed to intellectual leadership, and to excellence in both developing knowledge and conveying that knowledge to its students. The University of Karachi meets the commitments to preserve knowledge through its instructional and research programs for higher level education. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The issues concerning the institutionalized dehumanization in medicine, the deteriorating professionalism, the commodification of medicine and the rapidly changing values and canvas of surgical discipline prompted author and surgeon, Asad J. Raja, to write “Being a Surgeon” (published by Trafford Publishing). The book centers on professionalism, ethics and morality in the practice of discipline of surgery. “Being a Surgeon” is a heartfelt exploration of surgical discipline. It is intended to help surgeons and other stakeholders around the world make a difference in the care of surgical patients. It would serve trainees and training programs and help improve the culture and practices of surgery. The book invites surgical trainees and preceptors to fight the onslaught of institutionalized dehumanization in medicine. It calls to delve into the full, holistic complexity of the surgical discipline by exploring and cultivating every facet of the surgeon’s role. It centers on the author’s experiences as a surgeon battling to salvage patient life, dignity and wellbeing in difficult and challenging environments. These experiences are held up as examples for surgeons, young and old, to learn from, providing key principles. Raja believes that individuals today have become savvy and egoistical. There is a widespread apathy, change in values and societal degradation. Furthermore, these have also eroded the long cherished values and practices in surgery. “Being a Surgeon” is his effort to create awareness and helps raise the professional standards of practice. “Human dignity is the fundamental premise of our profession. A human being has an innate right to be valued and respected and to receive ethical treatment,” Raja says. “Human dignity is beyond the boundaries of color, class, or creed, and it signifies the intrinsic worth of human life. We must respect and uphold the dignity and worth of human life at all times.” About the Author Asad J. Raja is a general surgeon practicing for 37 years. He graduated from Dow Medical College at the University of Karachi, Pakistan. He completed his surgical training from the U.K. and became a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He later pursued a master’s degree in bioethics from the University of Toronto. Dr. Raja has subsequently lived and practiced surgery as an academic faculty in developing countries. He is currently the Quaid-e-Azam professor and chairman of the Department of Surgery at the Aga Khan University and Hospital. His special clinical interests are surgical oncology and trauma. He is very passionate about postgraduate surgical training, surgical skills development, and bioethics education. He is married with two children. He is an outdoor person and likes camping, hiking and unwinding in the wilderness. Trafford Publishing, an Author Solutions, LLC, author services imprint, was the first publisher in the world to offer an “on-demand publishing service,” and has led the independent publishing revolution since its establishment in 1995. Trafford was also one of the earliest publishers to utilize the Internet for selling books. More than 10,000 authors from over 120 countries have utilized Trafford’s experience for self publishing their books. For more information about Trafford Publishing, or to publish your book today, call 1-888-232-4444 or visit trafford.com.

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), acting via the hippocampus, is thought to be critical for the neuroadaptation that alleviates the adverse effects of stress on emotion and behavior. It was hypothesized that a decrease in raphe-hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission caused by exaggerated feedback inhibition of 5-HT synthesis and release significantly contributes to stress-induced behavioral deficits. Acute exposure to 2 h of restraint stress increased 5-HT metabolism in the cortex and raphe region but had no such effect in the hippocampus. Exposure to 2 h of restraint stress elicited anxiety-like behavior, which was monitored in the lightdark transition test the next day. Animals sacrificed 24 h after termination of the stress period exhibited a decrease in the concentration of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and raphe. 8-Hydroxy-2-din-propylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) injected at doses of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg decreased 5-HT metabolism in the raphe, cortex and hippocampus of restrained and unrestrained animals, and the decreases in the raphe and hippocampus, but not those in the cortex, were greater in restrained than unrestrained animals. Exaggerated feedback control over raphe-hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission may be involved in the inability of the organism to cope with increased stress and elicits behavioral depression. Copyright © 2011 by Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences.

Haleem D.J.,University of Karachi
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Introduction: Despite a number of medicinally important pharmacological effects, the therapeutic use of psychostimulants is limited because of abuse potential and psychosis following long term use. Development of pharmacological agents for improving and extending therapeutic use of psychostimulants in narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's disease, obesity and as cognitive enhancer is an important research imperative. In this regard, one potential target system is the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) neurotransmitter system. The focus of the present article is to evaluate a potential role of 5-HT-1A receptor in the alleviation of abuse potential and psychosis-induced by prescription psychostimulants amphetamines and apomorphine. Method: Synaptic contacts between dopamine systems and 5-HT-1A receptors are traced. Studies on serotonin-1A influences on the modulation of dopamine neurotransmission and psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization are accumulated. Results: Inhibition of amphetamine and apomorphine-induced behavioral sensitization by co administration of 5-HT-1A agonists cannot be explained in terms of direct activation of 5-HT-1A receptors, because activation of pre- as well as postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors tends to increase dopamine neurotransmission. Conclusion: Long term use of amphetamine and apomorphine produces adaptive changes in 5-HT-1A receptor mediated functions, which are prevented by the co-use of 5-HT-1A agonists. In view of extending medicinal use of psychostimulants, it is important to evaluate the effects of co-use of 5-HT-1A agonists on potential therapeutic profile of amphetamine and apomorphine in preclinical research. It is also important to evaluate the functional significance of 5-HT-1A receptors on psychostimulant-induced behaviors in other addiction models such as drug self-administration and reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Alam S.,University of Karachi
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate drug utilization and the economic impact of anticoagulants for the treatment of unstable angina (UA)/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in Karachi. Methods: A prospective study of prescriptions was conducted in private and public tertiary care hospitals (University of medical education and research) situated in Karachi. The purpose of prescriptions review was to examine the utilization and cost analysis of anticoagulants (enoxaparin, dalteparin and fondaparinux) in hospitalized patients of UA/ NSTEMI during treatment course of 2-8 days. Information of prescribed drugs was obtained from the medical records whereas patient demographics and socioeconomic status were reported through patients/relatives interviews. Data of 487 UA/NSTEMI patients admitted were analyzed during the study period of 2013-2014. Results: Data of 487 UA/NSTEMI hospitalizations demonstrated the increased number of prescriptions for enoxaparin, it was found to be widely used anticoagulant in the public and private organizations in Karachi. Enoxaparin attributed by 70% of drug utilization comparative to 24.8% fondaparinux and 5.1% dalteparin. Though, economic contribution was in favor of fondaparinux by reducing total drug cost of $ 21 with enoxaparin and $ 32 in contrast of dalteparin on the basis of once daily dose in the conservative management of unstable angina/non-ST elevated myocardial infarction. Conclusion: In patients with unstable angina (UA)/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), enoxaparin was found to be most widely prescribed low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) among other available alternatives. However, economic assessment considered fondaparinux as cost saving therapeutic agent for initial conservative management of 2-8 days, added financial benefits over current therapies in the treatment of UA/NSTEMI. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All rights reserved.

Khan A.,University of Karachi
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG | Year: 2012

To determine antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Pakistan and its correlation with host and pathogen associated factors. A total of 178 strains of H. pylori were isolated from gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients. Susceptibility patterns against first and second-line antibiotics were determined and trends of resistance were analyzed in relation to the sampling period, gastric conditions and cagA gene carriage. The effect of cagA gene on the acquisition of resistance was investigated by mutant selection assay. The observations showed that monoresistant strains were prevalent with rates of 89% for metronidazole, 36% for clarithromycin, 37% for amoxicillin, 18.5% for ofloxacin and 12% for tetracycline. Furthermore, clarithromycin resistance was on the rise from 2005 to 2008 (32% vs 38%, P = 0.004) and it is significantly observed in non ulcerative dyspeptic patients compared to gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer cases (53% vs 20%, 18% and 19%, P = 0.000). On the contrary, metronidazole and ofloxacin resistance were more common in gastritis and gastric ulcer cases. Distribution analysis and frequencies of resistant mutants in vitro correlated with the absence of cagA gene with metronidazole and ofloxacin resistance. The study confirms the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance associated with the degree of gastric inflammation and cagA gene carriage in H. pylori strains.

Haider S.,University of Karachi
Neurochemical research | Year: 2012

Memory impairment is a major problem afflicting mankind. The association between memory functions and neurotransmitter functions is of great interest for understanding brain function. Serotonergic pathways play an important role in the modulation of memory functions but the importance of its receptor types and subtypes on memory functions is still unclear. Activation and blockade of various serotonin (5-HT) receptors has been reported to alter cognitive processes and 5-HT receptor antagonism could be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive diseases. The role of 5-HT on memory functions is complicated. Among the 5-HT receptors subtypes, 5-HT(1A) receptors are of special interest because these receptors are present in the brain areas involved in learning and memory functions such as hippocampus and cortex. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the effect of activation and blockade of somatodendritic and/or postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor on learning and memory functions in rats using modified version of water maze. In this study, 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin) at 0.3 mg/kg significantly enhanced learning acquisition (LA), short-term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) of rats pre-injected with saline suggesting that the activation of pre-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors by its agonist enhanced the memory functions of rats. Conversely, rats injected with 8-OH-DPAT at 1.0 mg/kg exhibited impaired LA and STM and had no effect on LTM. It was also shown in this study that blockade of 5-HT(1A) receptors by spiperone enhanced LA, had no effect on STM but impaired the LTM, which showed that the blockade of 5-HT(1A) receptors by its antagonist exerts different effect on different types of memory. This study suggests that 5-HT(1A) receptor could be used as a significant pharmacological target for the treatment of CNS diseases. Unraveling the role of serotonin in cognition and memory disorders could provide better therapy and it may lead to new insights in our understandings of learning and memory.

Stress is the major predisposing and precipitating factor in the onset of depression which is the most significant mental health risk for women. Behavioral studies in animal models show that female sex though less affected by an acute stressor; exposure to repeated stressors induces coping deficits to impair adaptation in them. A decrease in the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in the hippocampus and an increased function of the 5-HT-1A receptor in the raphe nucleus coexist in depression. Pharmacological and neurochemical data are relevant that facilitation of serotonin neurotransmission via hippocampus due to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors may lead to adaptation to stress. The present article reviews research on sex related differences of raphe-hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission to find a possible answer that may account for the sex differences of adaptation to stress reported in preclinical research and greater incidence of depression in women than men. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

Haleem D.J.,University of Karachi
Behavioural Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) show extreme dieting weight loss, hyperactivity, depression/anxiety, self-control, and behavioral impulsivity. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is involved in almost all the behavioral changes observed in AN patients. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute toward the pathogenesis of AN. It is a frequent disorder among adolescent girls and young women and starts as an attempt to lose weight to look beautiful and attractive. Failure to see the turning point when fasting becomes unreasonable leads to malnutrition and AN. Tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin and an essential amino acid, is only available in the diet. It is therefore likely that excessive diet restriction and malnutrition decrease brain serotonin stores because the precursor is less available to the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT biosynthesis, which normally exists unsaturated with its substrate. Evidence shows that diet restriction-induced exaggerated feedback control over 5-HT synthesis and the smaller availability of tryptophan decreases serotonin neurotransmission at postsynaptic sites, leading to hyperactivity, depression, and behavioral impulsivity. A compensatory upregulation of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors and hypophagic serotonin receptors may be involved in anxiety and suppression of appetite. It is suggested that tryptophan supplementation may improve pharmacotherapy in AN. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

The work presented here describes the fabrication of a novel drug delivery system, which consists of gold nanorods and doxorubicin, with the attachment of thioctic acid and folic acid, for the targeted release of drug to cancer cells. Doxorubicin, the potent anticancer drug, is widely used to treat various cancers. Gold nanorods were functionalized chemically to generate active groups for the attachment of drug molecules and subsequently attached to folic acid. The resulting nanostructure was characterized by UV-visible-NIR spectrophotometry, TEM techniques, zeta potential measurement and subsequently used to target folate receptorexpressing cancers cells for the delivery of doxorubicin. We generated a release profile for the release of doxorubicin from the nanostructures in KB cells using single-molecule fluorescence intensity images and fluorescence lifetime images. The results indicated that the nanorods were able to enter the target cells because of the attachment of folic acid and used as a carriers for the targeted delivery of doxorubicin. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia are associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions including Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Current treatments of these disorders are mostly symptomatic and inadequate, and are often associated with a number of unwanted side-effects. The striatum, the terminal region of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway, is the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, and dopamine neurotransmission through the nigrostriatal pathway plays a crucial role in the modulation of basal ganglia output and mediated behaviors. Evidence suggests a role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin)-1A receptors in the modulation of dopamine neurotransmission and in improving pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. This review concerns the role of 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission, with the aim of providing guidelines for future research to improve pharmacotherapy. The current state of knowledge suggests that drugs simultaneously targeting dopamine D2 and 5-HT1A receptors may improve pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Activation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus has an important role in the alleviation of extrapyramidal symptoms and levodopa-induced dyskinesia induced by antipsychotic treatment. Drugs acting exclusively through dopamine D2 and 5-HT1A receptors are highly needed to validate the potential role of 5-HT1A receptors in improving therapeutics for Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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