Kara, Togo
Kara, Togo

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Kwamivi S.N.,University of Lomé | Gnon B.,Science Of Leau Et Environnement Lasee University Of Kara | Genevieve F.,CNRS Research Group on Water, Soil and Environment | Kokou D.,University Of Kara | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2012

The absence of good system for collection, storage and disposal of solid waste in the city of Kara who is built on the catchment area of the river Kara contributes to the degradation of water quality of this river. Pollution of surface waters is generally identified by the accumulation of metal components in sediments. The objective of this study is to use the distribution of organic matter in the matrix, waste, water and sediments as an indicator to assess the contribution of solid waste in the degradation of the quality of this river. Besides the conventional parameters to characterize organic matter, fractionation based on hydrophobic is used to better correlate the organic matter in water and waste. Sediments collected in the urban area have the highest organic matter content and greater facility to release the accumulated organic matter. Finally, monitoring the quality of organic matter in different matrix according to its hydrophobic nature and according to its apparent molecular weight (LDCs) confirms the waste impact on the quality of the river. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2012.


Belhi R.,Tunis el Manar University | Adanlete Adjanoh A.,Tunis el Manar University | Adanlete Adjanoh A.,University Of Kara | Abdelmoula K.,Tunis el Manar University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2013

We present a study of the substrate influence on the buffer layer morphology, on the static magnetic properties and especially on the magnetization reversal dynamics in 1 nm thick cobalt layer of Au/Co/Au system. In all films the cobalt layer exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The magnetization reversal process has been investigated by polar magnetooptic Kerr effect (PMOKE). It was found that magnetization reverses by domain wall propagation. A simplified form of the Fatuzzo-Labrune model was used to interpret the magnetization reversal. Correlation between magnetic and morphologic results is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Saka B.,University of Lomé | Kombate K.,University of Lomé | Mouhari-Toure A.,University Of Kara | Akakpo S.,University of Lomé | And 3 more authors.
Medecine et Sante Tropicales | Year: 2015

Objective: The aim of this study was to document the causes of death in the dermatology department in Lomé and the role of HIV infection in those deaths. Patients and method: This retrospective study examined the records of all patients admitted to this department from 1992 through 2012. Results: During the study period, 52 (13.5%) of the 386 patients hospitalized in the Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital dermatology department died in the hospital. Their mean age was 37.7 ± 12.8 years (range: 18 to 68 years) and half (26 patients/52) were female. Kaposi’s sarcoma (54.1%) was the most lethal skin disease, followed by cutaneous drug reactions (12.5%) and herpes zoster virus infection (11.1%). Of the 52 patients who died, HIV serology was positive in 28 of the 33 (84.8%) patients tested. The most lethal diseases, including Kaposi’s sarcoma, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (toxic epidermic necrolysis), and chicken pox/shingles skin diseases were those in which HIV seroprevalence was highest. Conclusion: This study shows that HIV infection plays an important role in mortality in the dermatology department at Lomé, probably through the immunosuppression it induces. © 2015, John Libbey Eurotext. All rights Reserved.


The dibi-madibi is a mode of tenure that allowed quick indirect ownership of farm space by the population in the south-west of Togo at the beginning of the development of coffee and cocoa plantations. This mode of tenure profited farmers who were mostly from the north of the country. They acquired the ownership right to half of the plot of land that was actually developed. That transmissible right cannot be compared, at the legal level, to the traditional contracts known in Togo. That right should not be confused with either the classical rent or sharecropplng. Today, this original agrarian land ownership practice creates a number of problems between the former landowners and the exploiters. The former resent the acquisition in full ownership of half of the developed land by the latter and are tempted to challenge that acquisition, which causes conflict between them.


Djadou K.E.,University of Lomé | Azoumah D.R.,University Of Kara | Saka B.,University of Lomé | Douti K.,University of Lomé | And 3 more authors.
Medecine et Sante Tropicales | Year: 2012

Objective. To evaluate the monitoring of HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy in rural areas of Togo and the effectiveness of the treatment. Methods. This retrospective descriptive study, conducted at the Luis Scrosospi Center in Kouvé from 15 November, 2008, through 14 November, 2009, examined the records of children who had been receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months. Results. We studied the records of 55 children. The sex ratio was 0.9, and the primary opportunistic infections were respiratory infections and malaria. At treatment initiation, their average age was 6 years and 3 months, the average CD4 T cell count 358/mm3, and the mean weight 12.9 kg. The hemoglobin level was less than 8 g/dL in 31%. All children received a nutritional kit monthly. The antiretroviral therapy for 52 children was a combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. The adherence rate during the first 12 months was 80% (44/55 children). The mean weight gain was 860 g (below -3SD) at 3 months, 1,550 g (between -3SD and -2SD) at 6 months, and 1 270 g (between -2SD and -1SD) at 12 months of treatment. The severe acute malnutrition rate fell from 60% at treatment initiation to 56% at 3 months, 47% at 6 months, and 25% at 12 months. Also after 12 months, the CD4 T cell count had risen in 60% of the children. The main side effects were peripheral neuropathy (29%) and headaches (18%). Eight children died (14%) during the follow-up. Conclusion. Monitoring of HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy is possible in Togo's rural areas and should be encouraged for it will help to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.


Belhi R.,Tunis el Manar University | Fassatoui A.,Tunis el Manar University | Adanlete Adjanoh A.,Tunis el Manar University | Adanlete Adjanoh A.,University Of Kara | Abdelmoula K.,Tunis el Manar University
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2014

We present an experimental study of the magnetization reversal in Au/Co layers with perpendicular anisotropy versus variable magnetic field. Changes in domain structure were recorded simultaneously with the measurement of the hysteresis loop by a Kerr microscope in polar configuration. The magnetization reversal is performed by domain wall propagation in the two-way up to down and inversely. In addition, it was shown experimentally that the evolution of the domain structure is almost the same along both branches of the hysteresis loop. The magnetization reversal is always triggered at the same places of the sample independently of the applied magnetic field direction. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Akakpo A.-S.,University of Lomé | Mouhari-Toure A.,University of Kara | Saka B.,University of Lomé | Teclessou J.,University of Lomé | And 4 more authors.
Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie | Year: 2016

Objective. - The aim of our study was to document the systemic complications of skin bleaching among women in Togo. Methods. - This was a case-control study conducted between December 2009 and December 2013. Cases comprised of women using skin-bleaching products for at least 6 months and age-matched with non-users (± 3 years). Results. - We recruited a total of 150 women using skin-bleaching and matched them with 300 controls. Univariate analysis revealed a correlation between systolic hypertension (OR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.68-3.92), diastolic hypertension (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.17-3.05), hyperglycaemia (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-9, 65) and obesity (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.08-2.62) with the use of skin-bleaching products. Multivariate analysis revealed a correlation between skin bleaching and both systolic hypertension (OR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.59-3.75) and obesity (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.23-5.69). Conclusion. - The results of our study show the existence of a correlation between voluntary cosmetic depigmentation, hypertension and obesity in Togo. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Mingzhu L.,Water Resources University | Seyf-Laye A.-S.M.,Water Resources University | Seyf-Laye A.-S.M.,University of Lomé | Seyf-Laye A.-S.M.,University of Kara | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

The identification of sources and behavior of contaminants is important to control and manage groundwater quality of aquifer systems in urban areas. In this study, hydrogeochemistry of major constituents and stable isotope ratios of nitrate in groundwater were determined to identify contamination sources and transformation processes occurring in soils and deeper groundwater of Beijing with intense human activities. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate in pore water extracts from groundwater samples indicate at least three potential sources of nitrate in groundwaters at Beijing. Stable isotope analyses from this study site, which has atmospheric, chemical fertilizer and human waste nitrate sources, provide a tool to distinguish nitrate sources in a confined aquifer where concentrations alone do not. These data indicate that the most common sources of high nitrate concentrations in groundwater at Beijing are wastewater and denitrification process occurred specially in the Central area. NO3-N and cation and anion concentrations (Ca2+, Mg2+ Cl- and SO 4 2) showed strong correlations indicating that they originated from the same sources. This study demonstrates that a thorough evaluation of hydrodynamic and hydrochemical parameters with dual isotopes of NO3 - constitutes an effective approach for identifying sources and transformation processes of NO3 - in deeper groundwater systems. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Diaz Olvera L.,University of Lyon | Guezere A.,University of Kara | Plat D.,University of Lyon | Pochet P.,University of Lyon
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2015

Motorcycle taxis have become an essential part of the transport sector in an increasing number of Sub-Saharan African cities. An analysis of the way this activity operates in Lomé (Togo), based on field surveys, provides a better understanding of the reasons for the development of this transport mode. The majority of drivers earn enough from the activity to meet their day to day needs and to invest to increase human and economic capital. The arduous working conditions, the impacts on health and the risk of accidents and aggression explain however why the activity is perceived as temporary and undertaken for want of anything better. There is a need to identify measures to professionalize the occupation and improve its image, and also find the best way to implement them. The occasionally stated goal of doing away with motorcycle taxis in order to modernize urban transport systems would have negative effects on their livelihoods. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University Of Kara and University of Lomé
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medecine et sante tropicales | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to document the causes of death in the dermatology department in Lome and the role of HIV infection in those deaths.This retrospective study examined the records of all patients admitted to this department from 1992 through 2012.During the study period, 52 (13.5%) of the 386 patients hospitalized in the Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital dermatology department died in the hospital. Their mean age was 37.7 12.8 years (range: 18 to 68 years) and half (26 patients/52) were female. Kaposis sarcoma (54.1%) was the most lethal skin disease, followed by cutaneous drug reactions (12.5%) and herpes zoster virus infection (11.1%). Of the 52 patients who died, HIV serology was positive in 28 of the 33 (84.8%) patients tested. The most lethal diseases, including Kaposis sarcoma, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (toxic epidermic necrolysis), and chicken pox/shingles skin diseases were those in which HIV seroprevalence was highest.This study shows that HIV infection plays an important role in mortality in the dermatology department at Lome, probably through the immunosuppression it induces.

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