Weng C.-J.,University of Kang Ning
Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing | Year: 2010
As design rules for interconnection tend to result in the reduction of silicon chip size, devices have been miniaturized and fabrication processes have become more complex. Implementation of Cu and low dielectric constant (low-k) materials in the manufacturing process integration require a complete understanding of these process characteristics and the challenges that appear during the hard mask based dual damascene approach. To create highly reliable electrical interconnects, the interfaces between the Cu metal and low-k must be optimized during the lithography, etching, ashing and copper processes. For higher aspect ratios interconnect profiles, however this approach leads to increased sidewall roughness and undercut. To suppress problems in the fabrication processes, the balance of the processes integration should be quantitatively and instantaneously controlled to the optimum manufacturing technologies. These process characteristics and manufacturing mechanism optimization will also be discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kao S.-F.,University of Kang Ning
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics | Year: 2012
This article examines the controversy concerning the emission of electromagnetic waves at a meteorological radar site in Chigu, Taiwan, as an example of an emerging technological risk. At the heart of this controversy is a lack of scientific evidence and consensus regarding potential or future effects of the radiation on human health. The Chigu meteorological radar site started operating in 2000, and medical problems have inexplicably increased in one offshore community adjacent to this radar station since 2006. The community residents have long suspected that such disproportionate medical problems are a result of their daily exposure to electromagnetic waves from this meteorological radar site and now they are calling for this station to be dismantled. The Central Weather Bureau has responded to local residents' protests by claiming that no scientific evidence of such risk exists, according to the criteria set by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in Taiwan and several documents published by the World Health Organization. Environmental activists and local residents have never agreed with such responses and claims. Controversies between both camps continue to fester. Drawing from arguments presented in studies by Funtowicz and Ravetz and the literature on participatory risk governance, the present study employs a qualitative approach, with in-depth interviews and analysis of documentary data, to investigate this case. The research delineates conflicting portrayals and framings of scientific knowledge and risk by technocrats and by civil society. The 'post-normal science' call for democratizing expertise has a critical role in providing a perspective through which a contemporary complex scientific controversy may be better understood in social-political contexts in Taiwan and shed light on better risk governance. © Inter-Research 2012.
Wang J.-J.,National Cheng Kung University |
Mak O.-T.,National Cheng Kung University |
Mak O.-T.,University of Kang Ning
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators | Year: 2011
Cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), which is generated from the dehydration of PGD2, is a natural ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and a potential apoptotic mediator. The synthetic PPARγ ligands, troglitazone and ciglitazone, inhibit tumor progression in many cells by PPARγ activation, but the mechanism of 15d-PGJ2 is still unclear. In this study, GW9662, an antagonist of PPARγ, and quercetin, a natural antioxidant, were used to study the apoptotic mechanism of 15d-PGJ2 in A549 cells. Results showed that 15d-PGJ2 induced apoptosis, which was associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decrease of GSH levels. Furthermore, quercetin reduced the activity of caspases in 15d-PGJ2-induced apoptotic processes. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis in A549 cells mainly through the formation of ROS; it does not depend on PPARγ activation. Moreover, these findings support the use of quercetin and PPARγ agonists in non-small cell lung carcinoma. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Liljestrand J.,The University of Cambodia |
Sambath M.R.,University of Kang Ning
Reproductive Health Matters | Year: 2012
Maternal mortality has been falling significantly in Cambodia since 2005 though it had been stagnant for at least 15 years before that. This paper analyzes the evolution of some major societal and health system factors based on recent national and international reports. The maternal mortality ratio fell from 472 per 100,000 live births in 2000-2005 to 206 in 2006-2010. Background factors have included peace and stability, economic growth and poverty reduction, improved primary education, especially for girls, improved roads, improved access to information on health and health services via TV, radio and cellphones, and increased ability to communicate with and within the health system. Specific health system improvements include a rapid increase in facility-based births and skilled birth attendance, notably investment in midwifery training and numbers of midwives providing antenatal care and deliveries within an expanding primary health care network, a monetary incentive for facility-based midwives for every live birth conducted, and an expanding system of health equity funds, making health care free of cost for poor people. Several major challenges remain, including post-partum care, family planning, prevention and treatment of breast and cervical cancer, and addressing sexual violence against women, which need the same priority attention as maternity care. © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters.
Lee T.-L.,University of Kang Ning
Open Civil Engineering Journal | Year: 2010
In this paper, the application of the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy AHP) combined with a set of criteria analysis for the selection of appropriate sites for the development offshore wind energy in Taiwan is presented. The Fuzzy AHP was first conducted to rank the importance and identify the key factors of offshore wind energy successfully. From the numerical results, eight key factors that must be considered in the site selection of offshore wind energy system in Taiwan were obtained by using Fuzzy AHP model. They are: wind power, earthquakes, land use, shore type, typhoon, distance to shoreline, flight safety and water depth. Based on these factors, a set of criteria for the selection of sites for offshore wind farms was also established using five different sites in Taiwan. From the assessment results, it was found that Changhua coastal region is an appropriate site for offshore wind energy in Taiwan. © Tsung-Lin Lee.