Kericho, Kenya

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Wesolowski A.,Harvard University | Wesolowski A.,Boston Dynamics | Wesolowski A.,Flowminder Foundation | Metcalf C.J.E.,Princeton University | And 12 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Changing patterns of human aggregation are thought to drive annual and multiannual outbreaks of infectious diseases, but the paucity of data about travel behavior and population flux over time has made this idea difficult to test quantitatively. Current measures of human mobility, especially in low-income settings, are often static, relying on approximate travel times, road networks, or cross-sectional surveys. Mobile phone data provide a unique source of information about human travel, but the power of these data to describe epidemiologically relevant changes in population density remains unclear. Here we quantify seasonal travel patterns using mobile phone data from nearly 15 million anonymous subscribers in Kenya. Using a rich data source of rubella incidence, we show that patterns of population travel (fluxes) inferred from mobile phone data are predictive of disease transmission and improve significantly on standard school term time and weather covariates. Further, combining seasonal and spatial data on travel from mobile phone data allows us to characterize seasonal fluctuations in risk across Kenya and produce dynamic importation risk maps for rubella. Mobile phone data therefore offer a valuable previously unidentified source of data for measuring key drivers of seasonal epidemics. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Minnesota, Maseno University, University of Kabianga, Indiana University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: PeerJ | Year: 2017

Malaria elimination campaigns are planned or active in many countries. The effects of malaria elimination on immune responses such as antigen-specific IFN- IFN- While one individual (0.4%) tested positive for Naturally acquired IFN-


PubMed | Boston Dynamics, University of Southampton, University of Kabianga, Pennsylvania State University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Changing patterns of human aggregation are thought to drive annual and multiannual outbreaks of infectious diseases, but the paucity of data about travel behavior and population flux over time has made this idea difficult to test quantitatively. Current measures of human mobility, especially in low-income settings, are often static, relying on approximate travel times, road networks, or cross-sectional surveys. Mobile phone data provide a unique source of information about human travel, but the power of these data to describe epidemiologically relevant changes in population density remains unclear. Here we quantify seasonal travel patterns using mobile phone data from nearly 15 million anonymous subscribers in Kenya. Using a rich data source of rubella incidence, we show that patterns of population travel (fluxes) inferred from mobile phone data are predictive of disease transmission and improve significantly on standard school term time and weather covariates. Further, combining seasonal and spatial data on travel from mobile phone data allows us to characterize seasonal fluctuations in risk across Kenya and produce dynamic importation risk maps for rubella. Mobile phone data therefore offer a valuable previously unidentified source of data for measuring key drivers of seasonal epidemics.


Otiende M.A.,University of Kabianga | Nyabundi J.O.,Maseno University | Ngamau K.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Applied Horticulture | Year: 2016

Inadequate grafting take of some of the rose cultivars may cause economic losses. The study was conducted to determine the effects of cutting position (top, middle and bottom) of Rosa hybrida rootstocks ('Natal Briar' and 'Rosa Progress') and auxins (0 %, 0.4 % IBA and 0.2 % NAA) on rooting and grafting take of rose cultivar 'Inca'. Changes in endogenous carbohydrate content during rooting were measured on days 0, 3 and 7 after sticking. The experiment was factorial in a completely randomized design. Interaction between cutting position and rootstock was significant (P ≤ 0.05) for most of the parameters measured. The shoot height, root number, percent rooting and grafting take increased towards the basal position in 'Rosa Progress'. In 'Natal Briar', the shoot and root growth parameters increased towards the top though non significant except grafting take that significantly increased towards the basal position. The auxin treated cuttings recorded significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher grafting take and rooting percentage than the control. 0.4 % IBA exhibited higher shoot height, leaf number and root number than 0.2 % NAA. The rootstock 'Natal Briar' recorded significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher rooting percentage and grafting take than 'Rosa Progress'. Middle and top position cuttings of 'Rosa Progress' and 'Natal Briar' recorded higher carbohydrate content, respectively than bottom position cuttings. Bottom position recorded higher sucrose content on day 3 than days 0 and 7 after planting in 'Rosa Progress'. 'Natal Briar' exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher carbohydrate content than 'Rosa Progress'. The increase in growth with top position cuttings of 'Natal Briar' could be attributed to high carbohydrate content. The high growth responses in bottom position cuttings of 'Rosa Progress' could be attributed to high sucrose content on day 3 after planting. The stem cuttings of rootstocks for top grafting rose cultivar 'Inca' should be taken from bottom position cuttings of both rootstocks, and auxins should be applied to increase rooting and grafting take.


Maina L.C.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Karanja S.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Kombich J.,University of Kabianga
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Introduction: The institutionalization of strong immunization services over recent years has ensured that today more than 70% of the worlds' targeted population is reached. In Kenya, approximately 77% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated with some districts reporting even lower levels of coverage. However, low immunization coverage remains a challenge in low income and high population settings such as Kaptembwo Location, Nakuru district. Methods: A cross sectional community based survey was undertaken between January and March 2011. Cluster sampling method was employed. Data was collected using pretested interviewer guided structured questionnaires through house to house visits. Data was analyzed in SPSS using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full immunization. Results: Complete immunization coverage was 76.6%. Coverage for specific antigens was; BCG (99.5%), OPV0 (97.6%), OPV 1(98.7%), OPV2 (96.6%), OPV3 (90.5%), Penta 1(98.9), Penta 2 (96.6%), Penta 3 (90.0%), Measles (77.4%). The drop-out rate between the first and third pentavalent vaccine coverage was 8.9%. Predictors of full immunization included number of children within the family, place of birth of the child, advice on date of next visit for growth monitoring and opinion on the health immunization services offered. Conclusion: Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months is still below target. Efforts to improve vaccination coverage must take into account the immunization determinants found in this study. There is need to focus on strengthening of awareness strategies. © Lilian Chepkemoi Maina et al.


Erima J.,Moi University | Masai W.,InformAction | Wosyanju M.G.,University of Kabianga
2016 IST-Africa Conference, IST-Africa 2016 | Year: 2016

The digital age has presented the academic society with new opportunities. Academic institutions are increasingly moving towards digital presentation of corporate Information, such as web sites that contain prospectuses, course guides and corporate policies. Most of the intellectual assets of academic institutions, including research content, are also increasingly being produced and held in digital form, thus demanding new approaches to their preservation to ensure long-Term value for teaching, research and development. This highlights the importance of an appropriate and effectively implemented digital preservation framework to ensure that these digital resources are properly maintained if their potential value is to be realized. This study endeavors to assess the current state of preservation of academic research content at Moi University (MU); the extent to which these materials have been digitized, with a view to proposing an appropriate strategy for their successful preservation. The specific objectives of the study are to: identify and classify the types of research content produced in MU; establish the different forms and categories in which these materials are stored; assess the existing digital preservation practices used to preserve these research assets; establish the challenges faced in the preservation of these materials; propose an appropriate preservation strategy to digitize and preserve these research content. This study has highlighted the need and importance of digitization and preservation of research content. It has also propose an applicable digital preservation strategy for MU. © 2016 IIMC.


PubMed | Kenya Medical Research Institute, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, University of Kabianga and University of Eldoret
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2015

Despite advances to targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy, defies around severe toxicity, recent emergence of resistant variants and absence of rational vaccine still persist. This necessitates search and/or progressive validation of accessible medicinal remedies including plant based. The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. A comparative study design was applied.BALB/c mice, treated with combination therapy resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) larger reduction of lesion than those treated with monotherapies. The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies. Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 g mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 g ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 g ml(-1) respectively. Optimal efficacy of A. indica and R. communis was 72 and 59.5 % respectively, combination therapy gave 88 %, while Pentostam and amphotericin B had 98 and 92 % respectively against amastigotes. Against promastigotes A. indica and R. Communis gave an IC50 of 10.1, 25.5 g mL(-1) respectively, while combination, 12.2 g mL(-1) against 4.1 and 5.0 g ml(-1) for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The optimal efficacy of the compounds against promastigotes was 78.0, 61.5 and 91.2 % (A. indica, R. communis and A. indica + R. communis respectively) against 96.5 and 98 % for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The concentrations at optimal efficacy were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the test compounds. An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.Combination therapy of A. indica and R. communis had best antileishmanial activity than the monotherapies. The active ingredients of both R. communis and A. indica need to be fractionated, and studied further for activity against Leishmania parasites.


Nzioki J.M.,University of Kabianga | Onyango R.O.,Maseno University | Ombaka J.H.,Maseno University
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Introduction: Community Health Strategy (CHS) is a new Primary Health Care (PHC) model in Kenya, designed to provide PHC services in Kenya. In 2011, CHS was initiated in Mwingi district as one of the components of APHIA plus kamili program. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the CHS in providing MCH services in Mwingi district and to establish the factors influencing efficiency of the CHS in providing MCH services in the district. Methods: this was a qualitative study. Fifteen Key informants were sampled from key stakeholders. Sampling was done using purposive and maximum variation sampling methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Data was managed and analyzed using NVIVO. Framework analysis and quasi statistics were used in data analysis. Results: expert opinion data indicated that the CHS was efficient in providing MCH services. Factors influencing efficiency of the CHS in provision of MCH services were: challenges facing Community Health Workers (CHWs), Social cultural and economic factors influencing MCH in the district, and motivation among CHWs. Conclusion: though CHS was found to be efficient in providing MCH services, this was an expert opinion perspective, a quantitative Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) to confirm these findings is recommended. To improve efficiency of the CHS in the district, challenges facing CHWs and Social cultural and economic factors that influence efficiency of the CHS in the district need to be addressed. © Japheth Mativo Nzioki et al.


Community Health Strategy (CHS) is a new Primary Health Care (PHC) model in Kenya, designed to provide PHC services in Kenya. In 2011, CHS was initiated in Mwingi district as one of the components of APHIA plus kamili program. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the CHS in providing MCH services in Mwingi district and to establish the factors influencing efficiency of the CHS in providing MCH services in the district.This was a qualitative study. Fifteen Key informants were sampled from key stakeholders. Sampling was done using purposive and maximum variation sampling methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Data was managed and analyzed using NVIVO. Framework analysis and quasi statistics were used in data analysis.Expert opinion data indicated that the CHS was efficient in providing MCH services. Factors influencing efficiency of the CHS in provision of MCH services were: challenges facing Community Health Workers (CHWs), Social cultural and economic factors influencing MCH in the district, and motivation among CHWs.Though CHS was found to be efficient in providing MCH services, this was an expert opinion perspective, a quantitative Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) to confirm these findings is recommended. To improve efficiency of the CHS in the district, challenges facing CHWs and Social cultural and economic factors that influence efficiency of the CHS in the district need to be addressed.


Opala P.A.,University of Kabianga | Okalebo J.R.,Moi University | Othieno C.,Moi University
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2013

The effects of farmyard manure (FYM), Tithonia diversifolia (tithonia) and urea when applied alone or in combination with Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR), Busumbu phosphate rock (BPR) or triple superphosphate (TSP) on soil acidity, P availability, maize yields and financial benefits were evaluated at Bukura and Kakamega in western Kenya. A reduction in exchangeable acidity and Al was observed in most tithonia- and FYM-treated soils, but not with inorganic P sources when applied in combination with urea. The effectiveness in increasing available soil P followed the order; TSP > MPR > BPR among inorganic P sources, and FYM > tithonia among organic materials at both sites. At Bukura, a site higher in both available P and Al saturation compared with Kakamega, maize did not respond to inorganic P sources applied in combination with urea. Maize, however, responded when inorganic P sources were applied in combination with FYM or tithonia at this site. At Kakamega, maize responded to TSP but not to MPR or BPR when applied with urea. Application of TSP in combination with tithonia gave the highest maize yields at both sites. Of the tested technologies, only FYM when applied alone at Bukura was economically attractive. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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