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Kericho, Kenya

Nzioki J.M.,University of Kabianga | Onyango R.O.,Maseno University | Ombaka J.H.,Maseno University
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Introduction: Community Health Strategy (CHS) is a new Primary Health Care (PHC) model in Kenya, designed to provide PHC services in Kenya. In 2011, CHS was initiated in Mwingi district as one of the components of APHIA plus kamili program. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the CHS in providing MCH services in Mwingi district and to establish the factors influencing efficiency of the CHS in providing MCH services in the district. Methods: this was a qualitative study. Fifteen Key informants were sampled from key stakeholders. Sampling was done using purposive and maximum variation sampling methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Data was managed and analyzed using NVIVO. Framework analysis and quasi statistics were used in data analysis. Results: expert opinion data indicated that the CHS was efficient in providing MCH services. Factors influencing efficiency of the CHS in provision of MCH services were: challenges facing Community Health Workers (CHWs), Social cultural and economic factors influencing MCH in the district, and motivation among CHWs. Conclusion: though CHS was found to be efficient in providing MCH services, this was an expert opinion perspective, a quantitative Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) to confirm these findings is recommended. To improve efficiency of the CHS in the district, challenges facing CHWs and Social cultural and economic factors that influence efficiency of the CHS in the district need to be addressed. © Japheth Mativo Nzioki et al. Source


Opala P.A.,University of Kabianga | Okalebo J.R.,Moi University | Othieno C.,Moi University
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2013

The effects of farmyard manure (FYM), Tithonia diversifolia (tithonia) and urea when applied alone or in combination with Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR), Busumbu phosphate rock (BPR) or triple superphosphate (TSP) on soil acidity, P availability, maize yields and financial benefits were evaluated at Bukura and Kakamega in western Kenya. A reduction in exchangeable acidity and Al was observed in most tithonia- and FYM-treated soils, but not with inorganic P sources when applied in combination with urea. The effectiveness in increasing available soil P followed the order; TSP > MPR > BPR among inorganic P sources, and FYM > tithonia among organic materials at both sites. At Bukura, a site higher in both available P and Al saturation compared with Kakamega, maize did not respond to inorganic P sources applied in combination with urea. Maize, however, responded when inorganic P sources were applied in combination with FYM or tithonia at this site. At Kakamega, maize responded to TSP but not to MPR or BPR when applied with urea. Application of TSP in combination with tithonia gave the highest maize yields at both sites. Of the tested technologies, only FYM when applied alone at Bukura was economically attractive. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Otiende M.A.,University of Kabianga | Nyabundi J.O.,Maseno University | Ngamau K.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Applied Horticulture | Year: 2016

Inadequate grafting take of some of the rose cultivars may cause economic losses. The study was conducted to determine the effects of cutting position (top, middle and bottom) of Rosa hybrida rootstocks ('Natal Briar' and 'Rosa Progress') and auxins (0 %, 0.4 % IBA and 0.2 % NAA) on rooting and grafting take of rose cultivar 'Inca'. Changes in endogenous carbohydrate content during rooting were measured on days 0, 3 and 7 after sticking. The experiment was factorial in a completely randomized design. Interaction between cutting position and rootstock was significant (P ≤ 0.05) for most of the parameters measured. The shoot height, root number, percent rooting and grafting take increased towards the basal position in 'Rosa Progress'. In 'Natal Briar', the shoot and root growth parameters increased towards the top though non significant except grafting take that significantly increased towards the basal position. The auxin treated cuttings recorded significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher grafting take and rooting percentage than the control. 0.4 % IBA exhibited higher shoot height, leaf number and root number than 0.2 % NAA. The rootstock 'Natal Briar' recorded significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher rooting percentage and grafting take than 'Rosa Progress'. Middle and top position cuttings of 'Rosa Progress' and 'Natal Briar' recorded higher carbohydrate content, respectively than bottom position cuttings. Bottom position recorded higher sucrose content on day 3 than days 0 and 7 after planting in 'Rosa Progress'. 'Natal Briar' exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher carbohydrate content than 'Rosa Progress'. The increase in growth with top position cuttings of 'Natal Briar' could be attributed to high carbohydrate content. The high growth responses in bottom position cuttings of 'Rosa Progress' could be attributed to high sucrose content on day 3 after planting. The stem cuttings of rootstocks for top grafting rose cultivar 'Inca' should be taken from bottom position cuttings of both rootstocks, and auxins should be applied to increase rooting and grafting take. Source


Wesolowski A.,Harvard University | Wesolowski A.,Boston Dynamics | Metcalf C.J.E.,Princeton University | Metcalf C.J.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 10 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Changing patterns of human aggregation are thought to drive annual and multiannual outbreaks of infectious diseases, but the paucity of data about travel behavior and population flux over time has made this idea difficult to test quantitatively. Current measures of human mobility, especially in low-income settings, are often static, relying on approximate travel times, road networks, or cross-sectional surveys. Mobile phone data provide a unique source of information about human travel, but the power of these data to describe epidemiologically relevant changes in population density remains unclear. Here we quantify seasonal travel patterns using mobile phone data from nearly 15 million anonymous subscribers in Kenya. Using a rich data source of rubella incidence, we show that patterns of population travel (fluxes) inferred from mobile phone data are predictive of disease transmission and improve significantly on standard school term time and weather covariates. Further, combining seasonal and spatial data on travel from mobile phone data allows us to characterize seasonal fluctuations in risk across Kenya and produce dynamic importation risk maps for rubella. Mobile phone data therefore offer a valuable previously unidentified source of data for measuring key drivers of seasonal epidemics. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Source


Ngure P.,Daystar University | Ng'ang'a Z.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Kimutai A.,University of Kabianga | Kepha S.,Kenya Medical Training College | And 3 more authors.
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2014

INTRODUCTION: To determine the immunostimulatory potential of crude extracts of Warburgia ugandensis subsp. ugandensis with a soluble leishmanial antigen in vaccinating BALB/c mice.METHODS: Seventy two female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into six groups. The mice were vaccinated with soluble leishmania antigens (SLA) alone, hexane, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane extract co-administered with SLA. Unvaccinated mice formed the control group. The induction of cell-mediated immunity following vaccination was determined by measuring in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and the production of interleukin (IL)-4 and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) determined by flow cytometry. Protection against L. major was determined by quantifying parasite burdens in L. major infected footpads using a limiting dilution assay and by measuring lesion sizes of the infected footpad compared to the contralateral uninfected footpad.RESULTS: On vaccination with extracts of W. ugandensis subsp. ugandensis alone or as adjuvants when used in combination with Leishmania antigens, the hexane extract and the dichloromethane extract plus SLA stimulated moderate production of IFN-γ and low levels of IL-4.These mice were partially protected from cutaneous leishmaniasis as shown by the slow development of lesions and comparatively less parasite burdens.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that extracts of W. ugandensis subsp. ugandensis are suitable adjuvants for Leishmania vaccines. However, since W. ugandensis subsp. ugandensis has been shown to be effective against Leishmania parasites in vitro and in vivo, further studies ought to be conducted to determine its immunochemotherapeutic potential when co-administered with a soluble leishmanial antigen in vaccinating BALB/c mice. Source

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