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Mohamed E.A.,University of Khartoum | Abdelraheem Ali N.,University of Juba | Ahmed S.H.,University of Khartoum | Mohamed Ahmed I.A.,Tottori University | Babiker E.E.,University of Khartoum
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2010

Whole and dehulled flours of millet cultivars Ashana and Dembi were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that the storage period was found to have no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents. Moreover, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and polyphenols of both cultivars. Cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly (. P≤0.05) reduced phytate and polyphenols contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents but when followed by cooking significantly (. P≤0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly (. P≤0.05) decreased Ca and P content but slightly decreased Fe content. Radiation alone or in combination with cooking was found to have slight effect on minerals content of the whole and dehulled raw flour for both cultivars. Cooking alone or in combination with radiation of whole or dehulled raw flour significantly (. P≤0.05) improved the extractable Ca but had no significant (. P≤0.05) effect on extractable P and Fe for both cultivars. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ladu J.L.C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ladu J.L.C.,University of Juba | Wei T.T.,Nanjing Southeast University | Lu X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhang M.,Nanjing Southeast University
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

This study examined the removal of nitrogen from domestic wastewater through the application of anoxic/oxic (A/O) bio-reactor system. Influent and effluent samples were collected from the system and tested. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4 +-N and NO3 --N were analyzed. Different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and recycle ratios were applied to assess its influence on removal efficiency of the reactor. The temperature was controlled between 20 to 24°C and pH was 7.7 - 8.2. The result revealed average COD removal efficiencies of 72.1%, average removal of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N was 92% and 54% respectively. The result obtained reflects that, the A/O reactor is suitable and efficient in nitrogen removal. Source


Ladu J.L.C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ladu J.L.C.,University of Juba | Lu X.-W.,Nanjing Southeast University
Water Science and Engineering | Year: 2014

With rural population expansion and improvement of the socio-economic standard of living, treatment of rural domestic wastewater has rapidly become a major aspect of environmental concern. Selection of a suitable method for treatment of rural domestic wastewater depends on its efficiency, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness. This study investigated the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, and effluent recycling on the treatment efficiency of an anaerobic filter (AF) reactor. The first round of experimental operations was run for three months with HRTs of one, two, and three days, temperatures of 18°C, 21°C, and 24°C, and no effluent recycling. The second round of experimental operations was conducted for another three months with HRTs of three and four days; temperatures of 30.67°C, 30.57°C, and 26.91°C; and three effluent recycling ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1. The first round of operations showed removal rates of 32% to 44% for COD, 30% to 35% for TN, 32% to 36% for NH4 +-N, 19% to 23% for NO3 --N, and 12% to 22% for TP. In the second round of operations, the removal rates varied from 75% to 81% for COD, 35% to 41% for TN, 31% to 39% for NH4 +-N, 30% to 34% for NO3 --N, and 41% to 48% for TP. The average gas production rates were 6.72 L/d and 7.26 L/d for the first and second rounds of operations, respectively. The gas production rate increased in the second round of operations as a result of applied effluent recycling. The best removal efficiency was obtained for an optimum HRT of three days, a temperature of 30°C, and an effluent recycling ratio of 2:1. The results show that the removal efficiency of the AF reactor was affected by HRT, temperature, and effluent recycling. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Office of Water Science and Engineering. Source


ElShazali A.M.,University of Khartoum | Nahid A.A.,University of Juba | Salma H.A.,University of Khartoum | Elfadil E.B.,University of Khartoum
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2011

Grains of Ashana and Dembi millet (P. glaucum L.) cultivars were used in this study to investigate the effect of radiation process on antinutrients, protein digestibility and sensory quality of the flour during processing and storage. Whole and dehulled flour of millet cultivars were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Antinutrients (tannin and phytate) contents were assayed for all treatments. The results showed that the storage period had no effect on phytate and tannin contents. For both cultivars, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and tannin. Moreover, cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased tannin and phytate contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on tannin and phytate contents but when followed by cooking significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the protein digestibility but decreased the quality attributes of both cultivars. Radiation alone for the whole or dehulled seeds had no effect on the protein digestibility but slightly improved the quality attributes of both cultivars. However, radiation followed by cooking significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the protein digestibility but improved the quality attributes of both cultivars. © 2008 IFRJ, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, UPM. Source


Ladu J.L.C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ladu J.L.C.,University of Juba | Lu X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Osman A.M.,Nanjing Southeast University
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014

This study examined the removal of nutrients from the domestic wastewater through the application of integrated anoxic/oxic (A/O) bio-reactor and constructed wetland system. Influent and effluent samples were collected from the system and experimented for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), NH4 +-N, NO3 --N and TP in the laboratory. Different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and recycle ratios were applied in the reactor to evaluate their influence on removal efficiency of nutrients. The temperature was controlled between 20 to 24°C and pH ranges was 7.6-8.1. The result revealed average COD removal efficiencies of 47, 68, 74, 83 and 85% at HRT of 1.5, 4, 2, 3 and 5 h. The average removal of NH4+-N was 60.3, 63.0, 64.4, 71 and 91.8 % operated with HRT of 2, 3, 5, 1.5 and 4 h, respectively. The average removal of NO3- -N was 92, 94, 95 and 97% run with HRT of 2, 1.5, 3, 5 and 4 h, respectively. The average removal of TP was 78, 85, 88 and 89% operated with HRT of 5, 3, 2 and 1 h. This system removed up to 74.1, 94.4 and 85% of NH4+-N, NO3- -N and TP with proper pH control using external source of alkalinity. The result showed the optimum recycle ratio of 3. The results obtained attest that, the integrated anoxic/oxic bioreactor and constructed wetland is feasible and efficient for wastewater treatment. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2014. Source

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