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Ladu J.L.C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ladu J.L.C.,University of Juba | Wei T.T.,Nanjing Southeast University | Lu X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhang M.,Nanjing Southeast University
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

This study examined the removal of nitrogen from domestic wastewater through the application of anoxic/oxic (A/O) bio-reactor system. Influent and effluent samples were collected from the system and tested. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4 +-N and NO3 --N were analyzed. Different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and recycle ratios were applied to assess its influence on removal efficiency of the reactor. The temperature was controlled between 20 to 24°C and pH was 7.7 - 8.2. The result revealed average COD removal efficiencies of 72.1%, average removal of NH4 +-N and NO3 --N was 92% and 54% respectively. The result obtained reflects that, the A/O reactor is suitable and efficient in nitrogen removal.


Ladu J.L.C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ladu J.L.C.,University of Juba | Lu X.-W.,Nanjing Southeast University
Water Science and Engineering | Year: 2014

With rural population expansion and improvement of the socio-economic standard of living, treatment of rural domestic wastewater has rapidly become a major aspect of environmental concern. Selection of a suitable method for treatment of rural domestic wastewater depends on its efficiency, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness. This study investigated the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, and effluent recycling on the treatment efficiency of an anaerobic filter (AF) reactor. The first round of experimental operations was run for three months with HRTs of one, two, and three days, temperatures of 18°C, 21°C, and 24°C, and no effluent recycling. The second round of experimental operations was conducted for another three months with HRTs of three and four days; temperatures of 30.67°C, 30.57°C, and 26.91°C; and three effluent recycling ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1. The first round of operations showed removal rates of 32% to 44% for COD, 30% to 35% for TN, 32% to 36% for NH4 +-N, 19% to 23% for NO3 --N, and 12% to 22% for TP. In the second round of operations, the removal rates varied from 75% to 81% for COD, 35% to 41% for TN, 31% to 39% for NH4 +-N, 30% to 34% for NO3 --N, and 41% to 48% for TP. The average gas production rates were 6.72 L/d and 7.26 L/d for the first and second rounds of operations, respectively. The gas production rate increased in the second round of operations as a result of applied effluent recycling. The best removal efficiency was obtained for an optimum HRT of three days, a temperature of 30°C, and an effluent recycling ratio of 2:1. The results show that the removal efficiency of the AF reactor was affected by HRT, temperature, and effluent recycling. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Office of Water Science and Engineering.


Ladu J.L.C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ladu J.L.C.,University of Juba | Lu X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Osman A.M.,Nanjing Southeast University
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014

This study examined the removal of nutrients from the domestic wastewater through the application of integrated anoxic/oxic (A/O) bio-reactor and constructed wetland system. Influent and effluent samples were collected from the system and experimented for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), NH4 +-N, NO3 --N and TP in the laboratory. Different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and recycle ratios were applied in the reactor to evaluate their influence on removal efficiency of nutrients. The temperature was controlled between 20 to 24°C and pH ranges was 7.6-8.1. The result revealed average COD removal efficiencies of 47, 68, 74, 83 and 85% at HRT of 1.5, 4, 2, 3 and 5 h. The average removal of NH4+-N was 60.3, 63.0, 64.4, 71 and 91.8 % operated with HRT of 2, 3, 5, 1.5 and 4 h, respectively. The average removal of NO3- -N was 92, 94, 95 and 97% run with HRT of 2, 1.5, 3, 5 and 4 h, respectively. The average removal of TP was 78, 85, 88 and 89% operated with HRT of 5, 3, 2 and 1 h. This system removed up to 74.1, 94.4 and 85% of NH4+-N, NO3- -N and TP with proper pH control using external source of alkalinity. The result showed the optimum recycle ratio of 3. The results obtained attest that, the integrated anoxic/oxic bioreactor and constructed wetland is feasible and efficient for wastewater treatment. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2014.


Ladu J.L.C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ladu J.L.C.,University of Juba | Xiwu L.,Nanjing Southeast University
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014

The study examined the removal efficiency of upflow anaerobic filter reactor fed continuously with campus domestic wastewater at different hydraulic retention time and wastewater temperature. The reactor was filled with non woven filter materials and operated at hydraulic retention time ranging from 1 to 6 days and wastewater temperature ranging from 20 to 30°C. At that operating condition, the result revealed no significant difference for Carbonaceous (COD) and nutrients materials except there was significant production of gas. The result revealed that increase in HRT and wastewater temperature improves removal performance of the reactor. The overall reactor removal efficiency for COD, TN, NH4 +-N, NO3 -N and TP concentration were 51, 22, 21, 28 and 10% and 61 35, 37, 49 and 27% in the anaerobic and anoxic columns, respectively. The experimental system was capable of instantaneous removal of the carbonaceous, nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds. © 2014 Maxwell Scientific Organization.


Ladu J.L.C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ladu J.L.C.,University of Juba | Lu X.W.,Nanjing Southeast University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

The right combination and sequence of treatment methods is the key to the successful handling of rural domestic sewage. This research aim was to carry out experimental study on the combined process and assess its efficiency, feasibility, robustness and suitability for rural domestic sewage treatment and explore the best treatment effect and operating parameters. The parameter optimized and controlled includes hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature during the entire research operations. The average COD, TN, NH4 +-N and TP removal efficiency of the combined process was 78.2%, 70%, 76% and 87% respectively. Overall, the combined process proved to be efficient and suitable for rural domestic sewage treatment. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


PubMed | Doctorss Data Inc., Institute of Functional and Environmental Medicine, University of Juba, Sign of Hope e.V. and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Forensic science international | Year: 2017

In the oil fields of Thar Jath, South Sudan, increasing salinity of drinking water was observed together with human incompatibilities and rise in livestock mortalities. Hair analysis was used to characterize the toxic exposure of the population. Hair samples of volunteers from four communities with different distance from the center of the oil field (Koch 23km, n=24; Leer 50km, n=26; Nyal 110km, n=21; and Rumbek 220km, n=25) were analyzed for altogether 39 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Very high concentrations and a toxic health endangerment were assessed for lead and barium. The concentration of lead increased steadily with decreasing distance from the oil field from Rumbek (mean 2.8g/g) to Koch (mean 18.7g/g) and was there in the same range as in highly contaminated mining regions in Kosovo, China or Bolivia. The weighting materials in drilling muds barite (BaSO


Mohamed E.A.,University of Khartoum | Abdelraheem Ali N.,University of Juba | Ahmed S.H.,University of Khartoum | Mohamed Ahmed I.A.,Tottori University | Babiker E.E.,University of Khartoum
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2010

Whole and dehulled flours of millet cultivars Ashana and Dembi were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that the storage period was found to have no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents. Moreover, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and polyphenols of both cultivars. Cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly (. P≤0.05) reduced phytate and polyphenols contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents but when followed by cooking significantly (. P≤0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly (. P≤0.05) decreased Ca and P content but slightly decreased Fe content. Radiation alone or in combination with cooking was found to have slight effect on minerals content of the whole and dehulled raw flour for both cultivars. Cooking alone or in combination with radiation of whole or dehulled raw flour significantly (. P≤0.05) improved the extractable Ca but had no significant (. P≤0.05) effect on extractable P and Fe for both cultivars. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Baker A.A.B.A.,University of Juba | El Tinay A.H.,University of Khartoum | Yagoub A.E.A.,University of Zalingie
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Changes in pH, protein content and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were investigated during fermentation and/or cooking of the supplemented sorghum flour with soybean flour. The pH of the fermented material decreased with progressive fermentation. Supplementation with soybean flour resulted in drop in pH during the fermentation period but increased at 14 h. Protein content of the unsupplemented sorghum significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased for 14 h dough. The protein content of the cooked sample is higher compared to uncooked counterparts. Supplementation of sorghum with soybean resulted in 2-folds increase in protein content at commencement of fermentation. The IVPD of unsupplemented dough was in the range of 16.6 - 21.8%.The IVPD increased from 16.6% for unsupplemented sorghum to 37.2% in supplemented dough. Cooking of supplemented doughs showed high level of IVPD compared to unsupplemented cooked sorghum flour indicating the feasibility of utilizing soybean as supplement to sorghum.


ElShazali A.M.,University of Khartoum | Nahid A.A.,University of Juba | Salma H.A.,University of Khartoum | Elfadil E.B.,University of Khartoum
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2011

Grains of Ashana and Dembi millet (P. glaucum L.) cultivars were used in this study to investigate the effect of radiation process on antinutrients, protein digestibility and sensory quality of the flour during processing and storage. Whole and dehulled flour of millet cultivars were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Antinutrients (tannin and phytate) contents were assayed for all treatments. The results showed that the storage period had no effect on phytate and tannin contents. For both cultivars, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and tannin. Moreover, cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased tannin and phytate contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on tannin and phytate contents but when followed by cooking significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the protein digestibility but decreased the quality attributes of both cultivars. Radiation alone for the whole or dehulled seeds had no effect on the protein digestibility but slightly improved the quality attributes of both cultivars. However, radiation followed by cooking significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the protein digestibility but improved the quality attributes of both cultivars. © 2008 IFRJ, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, UPM.


PubMed | University of Gezira, University of Juba and Bahari University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sudanese journal of paediatrics | Year: 2016

The purpose of this report is to highlight the clinicopathological features, diagnosis, management and prognosis of rare childhood breast cancer. We herein report a case of slowly growing, locally advanced secretory carcinoma of the breast in an 11-year-old boy with metastatic axillary lymph nodes, 12 of them were totally replaced by the tumor cells. No evidence of distant metastases was detected. Modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance was done, with uneventful postoperative course. On searching the Sudan medical literature, no previous report of similar case was found. In conclusion, breast carcinoma, though a rare entity, yet should be borne in mind if a firm breast lump was found in a child. Fine needle aspiration cytology is effective to start with as a diagnostic tool.

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