Johannesburg, South Africa

University of Johannesburg

www.uj.ac.za/
Johannesburg, South Africa

The University of Johannesburg is a public university located in Johannesburg, South Africa. The University of Johannesburg came into existence on 1 January, 2005 as the result of a merger between the Rand Afrikaans University , the Technikon Witwatersrand and the Soweto and East Rand campuses of Vista University. Prior to the merger, the Daveyton and Soweto campuses of the former Vista University had been incorporated into RAU. As a result of the merger of Rand Afrikaans University , it is not uncommon for alumni to refer to the university incorrectly as RAU.The newly emerged institution is one of the largest comprehensive contact universities in South Africa, with nine faculties having more than 90 departments and an enrollment of approximately 48,000 students, spreading over four different campuses. The university is one of the largest residential universities in the Republic of South Africa. Wikipedia.


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Patent
University of Johannesburg | Date: 2015-05-13

This invention relates to a force and moment balance (1) including a support (9) therefor and more specifically, but not exclusively, to a force and moment balance (1) and a support (9) therefor for a wind tunnel. Force and moment balances are known in the art and are typically used in wind tunnels to measure the force and moment loads on a model in the wind tunnel. A problem with current balances is that there is inherent vertical movement associated with horizontal force. According to the invention, the balance (1) has a fixed end (3) and a movable end (6) with a number of supports (9) between the fixed end (3) and the movable end (6). Each support (9) includes compensation means to compensate for resultant movements caused by lateral movement of the movable end (6) relative to the fixed end (3).


News Article | April 11, 2017
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

The unit is scheduled to begin operating later this year. The first of the graphite spheres was loaded within the reactor’s core on April 5. Work on two demonstration HTR-PM units at China Huaneng Group’s Shidaowan site near Weihai city in China’s Shandong province, began in December 2012. The plant will initially comprise twin HTR-PM reactor modules driving a single 210 MWe steam turbine. A proposal to construct two 600 MWe HTR plants – each featuring three twin reactor and turbine units – at Ruijin city in China’s Jiangxi province passed a preliminary feasibility review in early 2015. The design of the Ruijin HTRs is based on the smaller Shidaowan demonstration HTR-PM. Construction of the Ruijin reactors is expected to start next year, with grid connection in 2021. China has been actively promoting its HTR technology overseas and has already signed agreements with other countries – including Saudi Arabia, South Africa and the UAE – to consider the construction of HTGR plants. Last August, China Nuclear Energy Engineering Group signed an agreement with Indonesia’s National Atomic Energy Agency (Batan) to jointly develop an HTGR in Indonesia. (WNN) Each of the graphite spheres for the HTR-PM is 60 millimeters in diameter and weighs about 0.192 kilograms. Every fuel element contains 7 grams of heavy metal. The enrichment of U-235 is 8.5%. The uranium kernels – about 0.5mm in diameter – are coated by three layers of pyro-carbon and one layer of silicon carbon. The coated fuel particles are dispersed in matrix graphite of pyrolytic carbon PyC which is 5cm in diameter. Surrounding the fuel-containing graphite matrix is a 5mm thick graphite layer. The reactor cavity will be filled with a total of 245,318 fuel elements, to a depth of over 11 meters. In 2005, a prototyping fuel-production facility was constructed at the Institute for Nuclear and New Energy Technology with an annual capacity of 100,000 fuel elements. In an innovative partnership tiny X-Energy, a start-up, has teamed with one of America’s biggest nuclear utilities, Southern Co., to collaborate on the development and commercialization of the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. X Energy, LLC (X-energy) announced March 16 that it has commenced the conceptual design phase for its Xe-100 high temperature gas-cooled (HTGR) pebble bed modular reactor. The company also welcomes Clint Medlock, a Southern Nuclear employee, as Program Management Consultant. X-energy held a Conceptual Design Readiness Review on March 8 to validate the baseline design parameters, preparatory documentation, analysis tools, scope of the proposed conceptual design phase (including all planned deliverables), management processes and overall team readiness to proceed on to the next phase of Xe-100 reactor development. An external panel comprised of industry experts from Southern Nuclear, Burns & McDonnell, and Technology Insights was engaged to evaluate X-energy’s preparedness to enter the conceptual design phase. As part of the conceptual design, X-energy and Southern Nuclear deepened their relationship by engaging Clint Medlock on X-energy’s Xe-100 development team as Program Management Consultant. Medlock, a 12-year Southern Nuclear veteran, has 27 years’ nuclear industry experience and has managed several large nuclear design and construction projects. “I am excited to have Clint as part of our X-energy leadership team. His nuclear experience, input, and guidance has and will continue to be invaluable,” said Ghaffarian. “We value our partnership with Southern Nuclear as we move through conceptual design and look towards deployment.” In August 2016, Southern Nuclear and X-energy entered into a Memorandum of Understanding as a step toward commercializing and deploying the Xe-100. Triso Fuel Hold the Keys to the X-Energy / Southern Partnership Neither Southern nor X-Energy explained in their press statements in August 2016 where their R&D work intersects. The technological link between the two projects is Triso fuel. Some GEN IV designs of very high temperature molten salt reactors specify the use of it. The pebble bed design depends entirely on Triso fuel. According to a 2013 report by World Nuclear News, research teams at two US national laboratories ORNL, INL) have found that irradiated carbon-coated Triso fuel particles are even more resistant to extreme temperatures than previously thought, offering potential benefits for reactor safety. TRISO fuel developed and tested at the Idaho National Laboratory was enriched to just over 9% U235. The pebble bed and molten salt designs share another characteristic, and that is both have a negative temperature coefficient that automatically shuts down the reactor if temperatures get too high. The Integral Fast Reactor, a sodium cooled design, also has this safety feature. The structure and spherical shape of TRISO fuel means that it maintains its integrity under extreme heat conditions. TRISO fuel was originally developed in the 1980s and is currently being manufactured in the USA. TRISO fuels are fabricated by BWX Technologies Nuclear Operations Group (Lynchburg, Virginia) that can be formed for use in both the prismatic-block version of the HTGR and the pebble-bed HTGR, depending on the selected reactor design. (Bloomberg) Urenco Ltd., the world’s second-biggest maker of atomic fuel, is is developing a radically smaller nuclear reactors in order to boost demand for its services. The company is developing, in conjunction with Amec Foster Wheeler Plc, a generation of small, modular reactors called “U-Batteries,” CEO Thomas Haeberle told the Bloomberg wire service the firm’s design is expected to be able to generate 10MW of electrical power or for use as process heat. The U-Battery is being developed for small towns and industries operating in areas beyond the reach of large nuclear plants. While a typical reactor generating a 1,000 MW of electrical power would need pervasive grid access and dense populations for profitability, a U-Battery could make economic sense even in more remote areas with less concentrated economic activity. Haeberle said. “It will enable nuclear to grow in areas that big nuclear wouldn’t have access to.” Central to the U-Battery design is its so-called TRISO fuel, a three-layered sphere with a uranium kernel that can withstand very high operating temperatures according to the web site prospectus. The reactor uses helium to move heat via a primary loop from the reactor directly to a turbine or to secondary loop in a steam generator. The company is in talks about conducting trials on a prototype in Canada and Poland and is about to start the licensing process, the CEO said. The construction company Laing O’Rourke Plc as well as shipbuilder Cammell Laird Holdings Plc are also part of the group developing U-battery. (Financial Mail) South Africa a new initiative to revive the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor project that was abandoned in 2010 after years of development. The reasons for halting the project were given as cost overruns, missed deadlines and lack of an anchor customer. Problems were also identified with the efficiency of the reactor for baseload electrical power. Applications for process heat were not fully explored by the R&D program. The intellectual property of the PBMR remained with Eskom, which is revisiting it. Brian Molefe, CEO of Eskom, has asked his team to look again at the PBMR and the new plan is to develop a reactor that is simpler and more efficient than the original design. A small-scale nuclear reactor would fit into a grid mix that includes the intermittency of renewable power. He says the funding for this research is limited and the project is not yet at the stage where he can give a cost estimate for design, proof of concept and commercialization. (Deutsche Welle) President Jacob Zuma’s recent cabinet reshuffle removed key political figures from government who are opposed to proposals to build more nuclear reactors. These are full size reactors based on conventional light water technologies. The political move also set financial markets on edge and put the South African currency into a new tailspin. South Africa is now being gripped by fresh controversy over plans for expanding its nuclear power program. The new finance minister Malusi Gigaba denied that any deal had been inked with Rosatom for 9.6 GW of nuclear power. The Rosatom offer is for eight light water type VVER 1200 MW units. Gigaba’s predecessor as finance minister, Pravin Gordan, who was fired last week, was a strong opponent of the Russian proposal and the development of nuclear energy in general, largely over cost issues. The new nuclear reactors are expected to cost more than (65 billion euros, $73 billion). Gordan repeatedly warned of the high costs of nuclear projects believing they would plunge South Africa deeper into debt. The ministers for energy and for public works in the old cabinet also lost their jobs in the recent purge of political appointees. Hartmut Winkler, professor of Physics at the University of Johannesburg, told DW that the change in finance ministers is politically motivated. “Zuma fired Gordan so that he could replace him with someone who wouldn’t raise any major objections to the planned nuclear deal,” he said. Rosatom announced that it had sealed a “strategic partnership” with South Africa in 2014 when President Jacob Zuma visited his Russian counterpart Vladmir Putin in the Kremlin. The plan was to build eight nuclear reactors in South Africa with a combined output of 9.6 GW by 2030. News media in South Africa have reported connections between President Zuma and family members of his close supporters. Critics of the nuclear deal claim that the huge project will provide Zuma with a nearly bottomless bucket of patronage for his supporters. DW reported that its research indicated that Rosatom is the favorite to secure the deal. However, Nesca, the state-run nuclear energy corporation, has denied this allegation. The newspaper did not reveal its sources nor publish any documents to back up its claim. South Africa was in the process of collecting bids ESKOM, the state owned public utility said in a written statement. Companies could submit bids until April 28. A number of companies have ready promised do this including major suppliers of nuclear technology from China, France, Russia and South Korea. Eskom would send the paperwork to the finance ministry and the cabinet and was hoping approval for the project before the end of the year. ESKOM has released and canceled tenders for nuclear energy in the past with the cancellations attributed to the lack of financing for the project. South Africa’s economy is in trouble and the currency has been devalued. It’s bond rating now has a “junk” rating and some investment analysts say that downward move is long overdue. The ability of the nation to pay for a $73 billion energy program is beyond its reach even with 50% financing from a vendor taking an equity stake in the project. South Africa’s ruling party on April 9 said the government will have to re-think its costly and highly contentious nuclear expansion program following last week’s relegation of the country’s creditworthiness to junk. Within days of each other, two of the world’s major rating agencies, Fitch and Standard & Poor’s, downgraded South African sovereign debt to junk status after President Jacob Zuma’s dramatic ministerial shake-up that saw respected finance minister Pravin Gordhan axed. In 2010 South Africa formulated plans to expand its nuclear power capacity, plans estimated to cost around R1-trillion ($73-billion). The politics of the structure of South Africa’s economy is one of the things that keeps the government in a state of near perpetual turmoil. The new finance minister Malusi Gigaba, told CNBC reporters last week, “The issue of radical economic transformation arises from a criticism that for quite a long time the structure of the South African economy has not been changed. We have not paid sufficient attention to the real economy, to industrializing the economy, to ensuring that we create entrepreneurs and industrialists, particularly among black people.” “No-one can properly define this term” Peter Attard-Montalto, emerging markets economist at Nomura, told CNBC. He added that it was likely to imply initiatives such as faster land redistribution, forced share ownership changes and higher wealth taxes. The goal is to address the fact that around 10% of the population – a largely white cohort – still own at least 90 to 95% of all wealth, according to widely cited research from REDI published last June. The report also made allegations of widespread corruption by President Zuma and his supporters. It isn’t clear whether Gigaba plans for the government to seize assets from the wealthy, but even if he does, it may cripple the very industries that would be the customers for the electricity that would come from the planned nuclear reactor program.


Patent
University of Johannesburg | Date: 2017-03-22

This invention relates to a force and moment balance (1) including a support (9) therefor and more specifically, but not exclusively, to a force and moment balance (1) and a support (9) therefor for a wind tunnel. Force and moment balances are known in the art and are typically used in wind tunnels to measure the force and moment loads on a model in the wind tunnel. A problem with current balances is that there is inherent vertical movement associated with horizontal force. According to the invention, the balance (1) has a fixed end (3) and a movable end (6) with a number of supports (9) between the fixed end (3) and the movable end (6). Each support (9) includes compensation means to compensate for resultant movements caused by lateral movement of the movable end (6) relative to the fixed end (3).


Patent
University of Johannesburg | Date: 2017-07-19

The invention relates to an apparatus for applying foliar spray and more specifically, but not exclusively, to an apparatus for applying a carbon rich foliar spray. The apparatus (1) includes supply means (2) for supplying water (3) to the apparatus. The supply means (2) is in the form of a water tank (4) with pipe (5) extending from the tank, through a reverse osmosis water filtration unit (12), pump (6), and valve (7). A solute container (8) for holding solute (9) in the form an electrolyte solution of sodium ions (Na+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) formed by mixing sodium bicarbonate and water (3) from the supply means (2). The combinatory part (10) is connected to an ion exchange part (15) through valve (19), pipe (17) and pump (18). The prepared solution is the product of passing the diluted electrolyte solution (11) through the ion exchange column (15). The prepared solution now contains mostly negatively charged bicarbonate anions (HCO3-) and may be applied to the foliage of plants (26) through pump (27), pipes (28), and finally micro sprayers (29).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-03-2015 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2016

GLOBUS critically assesses the EUs impact on justice in a global system characterised by uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. GLOBUS defines a new research agenda for the study of the EUs global role. This agenda directs attention to underlying political and structural challenges to global justice that are prior to the distributive problem, as well as to the fact that what is just is contested both by theorists and policy makers. GLOBUS provides in depth knowledge of how the EU proceeds to promote justice within the specific fields of climate change, trade, development, asylum/migration and security while also speaking to the key horizontal issues of gender and human rights within each of these fields. Rather than focusing on a single dimension GLOBUS develops three different conceptions of justice. This nuanced conceptual scheme allows GLOBUS to address the multifaceted challenge of justice, and to specify the EUs real impact. GLOBUS takes heed of the reality of the foreign will through intense engagement with partners outside Europe. This provides a reality check of the limits and potential for the EUs future place in a multi-polar order. The three conceptions of justice as non-dominance, as impartiality and as mutual recognition all have limitations as they prioritise some challenges to global justice over others. These limitations are important in order to empirically discern inhibiting factors for global political justice such as power, unequal competences and the prevailing system of states as well as in order to specify how the EU contributes to justice. In order to develop a feasible model of justice promotion, we return to theory when data is collected and revise and amend the analytical model. We further factor in the viewpoints and experience of practitioners and stakeholders, GLOBUS provides policy-relevant recommendations that take into consideration ideal requirements while at the same time not losing sight of the realities of power.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-13f-2015 | Award Amount: 1.98M | Year: 2015

STRADE addresses the long-term security and sustainability of the European raw material supply from European and non-European countries. It will develop dialogue-based, innovative policy recommendations for a European strategy on future raw-material supplies. STRADE will initially concentrate on the industry perspective. Based on an analysis of the European mineral raw-material mining sectors competitiveness, the objective is to provide a strategy on how the EU can work to promote mining investment into and within the EU. Areas in which there is a need to revisit and improve present policies and conditions to advance European competitiveness for inward investments will be identified. STRADE also addresses equipment and service suppliers, exploration companies and investors. EU-level dialogues should be initiated with mineral-producing countries to support European businesses in these sectors within non-EU countries. These activities will also serve as a gateway to future cooperation between the EU and other raw-material-producing countries and will often address environmental challenges in the mining sector. Subsequently, STRADE will focus on government level and the EUs relation to mineral-producing countries. Based to the mapping of present EU and member-state engagements as well as those engagements of non-EU countries, it will provide analyses on how the EU can renew its engagement with mineral-producing countries aiming at a larger EU strategy to ensure fair and unrestricted access to mineral raw materials worldwide. A specific objective towards the goals of environmental and social sustainability is the development of new concepts for Europes role in international action towards sustainable mining and processing. Stakeholder workshops on possible contributions of EU /member states to an international resource governance alliance and internationally accepted sustainability evaluation and certification schemes will be conducted.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: GARRI-6-2014 | Award Amount: 2.65M | Year: 2015

The goal of the TRUST Project is to catalyse a global collaborative effort to improve adherence to high ethical standards around the world. Achieving equity in international research is one of the pressing concerns of the 21st century. Many international groups and organisations are working on governance frameworks and standards to guide research activities after progressive globalization. However, their efforts are disparate and lacking a guiding vision. In an interdisciplinary collaboration between multi-level ethics bodies, policy advisors, civil society organisations, funding organisations, industry and academic scholars from a range of disciplines, this project combines long-standing, highly respected efforts to build international governance structures with new exciting network opportunities between Europe, India, Sub-Saharan Africa, China and Russia. TRUST will open up new horizons in improving adherence to high ethical standards in research globally. The projects strategic output are three sets of tools based on participatory engagement covering all continents: (1) a global code of conduct for funders, (2) a fair research contracting on-line tool and (3) a compliance and ethics follow-up tool, which takes limited resources into account.


Razzaque S.,University of Johannesburg
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

The center of the Milky Way is a host to energetic phenomena across many electromagnetic wave bands and now possibly of high-energy neutrinos. We show that 5 out of 21 IceCube showerlike events, including a PeV event, likely originated from the Galactic Center region. A hard spectrum and flux inferred from these events are inconsistent with atmospheric neutrinos. The flux of these neutrinos is consistent with an extrapolation of the gamma-ray flux measured by Fermi-LAT from the inner Galactic region. This indicates a common hadronic origin of both, powered by supernovae. Three other showerlike events are spatially correlated with the Fermi bubbles, originating from the Galactic Center activity, within the uncertainty of reconstructing their arrival directions. The origin of the other neutrino events, including 7 tracklike events, is still elusive. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Razzaque S.,University of Johannesburg
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Long duration gamma-ray bursts are powerful sources that can accelerate particles to ultrahigh energies. Acceleration of protons in the forward shock of the highly relativistic gamma-ray burst (GRB) blastwave allows PeV-EeV neutrino production by photopion interactions of ultrahigh energy protons with x-ray to optical photons of the GRB afterglow emission. Four different blastwave evolution scenarios are considered: adiabatic and fully radiative blastwaves in a constant density circumburst medium and in a wind environment with the particle density in the wind decreasing inversely proportional to the square of the radius from the center of the burst. The duration of the neutrino flux depends on the evolution of the blastwave and can last up to a day in the case of an adiabatic blastwave in a constant density medium. Neutrino fluxes from the three other blastwave evolution scenarios are also calculated. Diffuse neutrino fluxes calculated using the observed rate of long-duration GRBs are consistent with the recent IceCube upper limit on the prompt GRB neutrino flux below PeV. The diffuse neutrino flux needed to explain the two neutrino events at PeV energies recently detected by IceCube can partially come from the presented GRB blastwave diffuse fluxes. Future observations by IceCube and upcoming huge radio Askaryan experiments will be able to probe the flux models presented here or constrain the GRB blastwave properties. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 177.06K | Year: 2016

This project aims to support the use of eco-system services evidence to inform policy-making that is more relevant to the realities and multitudes of people living in LMICs and their complex use of eco-system services. By generating practical tools, supporting capacity, and increasing research demand and awareness, this research aims to influence the behaviour of decision-makers in order to support pro-poor eco-system services policy-making in Sub-Saharan Africa. It uses evidence synthesis, evidence mapping and systematic review methodologies to provide answers for policy and practice across the region. The first step set out in the research will be to understand the nature and extent of the evidence-base generated by the ESPA programme in relation to eco-system services in LMICs, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. We will go on to search comprehensively for research evidence from the region to produce a systematic evidence map. This will be the basis for a user-friendly evidence interface to enable an active dialogue between decision-makers in government, NGOs, and researchers. This evidence interface will be tailored to inform decision-making in a policy context and allow policy-makers to critically interrogate the gaps and policy-relevance of the existing research evidence. We will launch the evidence interface at a high-level meeting of senior African environmental policy-makers, the International Biodiversity Research and Evidence Indaba. As a result of this stakeholder engagement, we will agree four demand-driven syntheses, which will then be produced during the remainder of the project. These four pieces of more focused work will synthesise evidence to answer four specific questions in the region as prioritized by our government partners. These have been preliminarily scoped with government colleagues as follows, but will be refined in consultation with stakeholders: i) what works in the management of ecosystems services in drylands in the region, ii) how best to provide effective governance of ecosystems services in low income countries, iii) what guidelines and decision-making tools are available to support decision-makers and do these include multiple dimensional measures of poverty? and iv) how can research methodologies be better aligned to decision-makers needs? We will engage in an active process of co-production with government colleagues to answer research questions (iii) and (iv). That is, these two evidence syntheses will be produced by an active collaboration between the research team and government colleagues. This will include direct mentoring, applied learning, and on-demand capacity-building. It will allow us to not just synthesise insights on decision-making tools and applied research methods; but to also adapt and develop new decision-making tools and to enhance policy-makers understanding and appraisal of the existing evidence-base. The project will therefore leave eco-system service policy-makers in Sub-Saharan Africa with two tangible tools to support their decision-making. The first tool refers to the evidence interface, while the second refers to the jointly-produced (or adapted) decision-making tool, which is assumed to be more policy-relevant and by design of the synthesis will pay particular attention to multi-dimensional poverty measures. This work will be led from the University of Johannesburg by their Evidence to Action team, with support from specialists in evidence synthesis (at University College Londons EPPI-Centre), from international leaders in understanding multi-dimensional poverty in Africa (from the Southern Africa Social Poverty Research Institute - SASPRI), and from specialists in eco-systems services (including the South African National Biodiversity Institute - SANBI). Last but certainly not least, this proposal has been driven by colleagues from South Africas national Department for Environmental Affairs, and their recognised priorities across the region.

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