Hooijer A.,Deltares |
Page S.,University of Leicester |
Jauhiainen J.,University of Helsinki |
Lee W.A.,National University of Singapore |
And 3 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2012
Conversion of tropical peatlands to agriculture leads to a release of carbon from previously stable, longterm storage, resulting in land subsidence that can be a surrogate measure of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. We present an analysis of recent large-scale subsidence monitoring studies in Acacia and oil palm plantations on peatland in SE Asia, and compare the findings with previous studies. Subsidence in the first 5 yr after drainage was found to be 142 cm, of which 75 cm occurred in the first year. After 5 yr, the subsidence rate in both plantation types, at average water table depths of 0.7 m, remained constant at around 5 cm yr-1. The results confirm that primary consolidation contributed substantially to total subsidence only in the first year after drainage, that secondary consolidation was negligible, and that the amount of compaction was also much reduced within 5 yr. Over 5 yr after drainage, 75% of cumulative subsidence was caused by peat oxidation, and after 18 yr this was 92 %. The average rate of carbon loss over the first 5 yr was 178 t CO2eq ha-1 yr-1, which reduced to 73 t CO2eq ha-1 yr-1 over subsequent years, potentially resulting in an average loss of 100 t CO2eq ha -1 yr-1 over 25 yr. Part of the observed range in subsidence and carbon loss values is explained by differences in water table depth, but vegetation cover and other factors such as addition of fertilizers also influence peat oxidation. A relationship with groundwater table depth shows that subsidence and carbon loss are still considerable even at the highest water levels theoretically possible in plantations. This implies that improved plantation water management will reduce these impacts by 20% at most, relative to current conditions, and that high rates of carbon loss and land subsidence are inevitable consequences of conversion of forested tropical peatlands to other land uses. © Author(s) 2012.
Hariyadi B.,University of Jambi |
Ticktin T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2012
Documenting indigenous healthcare practices provides insight into how human communities have adapted to their local environments and can guide culturally appropriate medical care. The Serampas inhabit the border of Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia, and the only ethnobotanical study carried out there was in 1783. We identified the Serampas' conceptions of health and illness and the medicinal and ritual plants they use; and assessed how this has changed over the past two centuries. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were carried out with 36 respondents. The Serampas conceive of health and illness to be caused by external and internal factors and recognize obat rajo (king's medicine) and obat ditawar (enchanted medicine). They use > 127 medicinal plant species, which overlap with their 32 species of ritual plants. Most medicinal plants are gathered from shifting cultivation fields and secondary forests, > 50% are cultivated, and 40% are also food. The Serampas use 50% of the medicinal plants recorded in 1783.
Guillaume T.,University of Gottingen |
Damris M.,University of Jambi |
Kuzyakov Y.,University of Gottingen |
Kuzyakov Y.,Kazan Federal University
Global Change Biology | Year: 2015
Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha-1 after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ13C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ13C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The 13C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ13C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ13C values with depth. © 2015 The Authors.
Yusrizal Y.,University of Jambi
Media Peternakan | Year: 2012
This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus sp and fructooligosaccaride (FOS) to reduce the volatile ammonia formation from chicken excreta and layer slurry. For each treatment-replication, 150 g of fecal material were collected from the poultry farm and placed in 500 ml beaker glass. The fecal sample was then treated with 2% Lactobacillus sp (2.6x106) cfu/g and 2% FOS and covered with plastic wraps. The volatile ammonia contents and pH were measured after one hour of standing (0 d) and repeated at 48 h intervals for 6 d. For the dropping slurry study, 300 g of each layer dropping slurry sample were used. Results indicated that 2% Lactobacillus sp or FOS supplementations in the feces and dropping slurry after 1 h up to 6 d reduced the ammonia odor formation, fecal pH, and moisture content. The Lactobacillus sp and FOS treated manure resulted in increasing Lactobacillus sp count and reducing in E. coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in 6 days for both feces and layer dropping slurry. In addition, reducing moisture content was observed in treated manure. It is concluded that Lactobacillus sp and FOS reduced the volatile ammonia formation and pathogenic bacteria from chicken excreta and layer slurry.
Mardalena S.S.,University of Jambi |
Erina S.,University of Jambi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016
The current study aims to identify the potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from pineapple waste as candidate probiotics for ruminants. LAB were isolated from the skin of ripe pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr). Pineapple skin was crushed in a chopper then placed in a sealed container and stored in an aerobic conditions for a week. LAB antimicrobial tests were conducted on four types of pathogenic bacteria E. coli (NBRC14 and 237), Staphylococcus aureus (NBRC13 and 267), Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). Bile tolerance testing was performed using 0.3% (w/v) and 0.5 (w/v) oxgall bile solution LAB grown only in MRS medium were used as a control. Tolerance to bile salts was calculated based on the log difference in the number of bacterial colonies growing under control versus treatment condition. The smaller the difference, the more tolerant LAB were to bile salts. Sequence analysis was performed using DNAstar software. Sequence alignment was analyzed by comparing the queried PCR sequences with those the NCBI Gene Bank data base using BLAST and then kinship examined with Clustal W. Lactobacillus plantarum isolates extracted from pineapple skin were able to live and thrive at room temperature for 6-h in storage and with stand a 0.3% (w/v) bile salts solution while maintaining optimum growth. These LAB were also able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus. The result suggest that LAB extracted from pineapple skin waste including L. plantarum and L. pentosus have the potential to be used as probiotics for ruminants. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2016.
Syafwan S.,University of Jambi |
Wermink G.J.D.,Wageningen University |
Kwakkel R.P.,Wageningen University |
Verstegen M.W.A.,Wageningen University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012
Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choicefed birds could choose between the control diet, a highprotein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Azis A.,University of Jambi
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of feeding time restriction in alternate day on performance and Heterophil to Lymphocyte (H/L) ratios as indices stress of broiler chickens. A total 180 seven day-old unsexed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three treatments: chicks fed ad libitum (P-0); chicks had free access to feed from 07:00 to 09:00, 12:00 to 13:00 and 17:00 to 18:00 (P-1) and from 07:00 to 09:00 and 17:00 to 18:00 (P-2). The feeding time restriction was given at 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21 days of age and chicks was access feed ad libitum on alternate days (8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 days of age). The chicks were fed ad libitum during 22 to 42 days of age. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio in feed restricted broilers were lower (p<0.05) than ad libitum broilers during 7 to 21 days of age. There were significantly increases heterophil and Heterophil/Lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. During realimentation period from 22 to 42 days of age, there were no statistically significant differences between feed restricted and ad libitum broilers on performance and differential leucocyte count. It was concluded that although feeding time restriction led to induce stress during starter periods, but there were not influenced on the performance and differential leucocyte cells of broilers during realimentation periods. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.
Murdy S.,University of Jambi
Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015
Rubber production is still important in the development of the Jambi province economy. This study sought to: determine the business management system of smallholder rubber plantations; (2) determine the development of various social capital types and their relationship with the sustainable development of smallholder rubber plantations and (3) analyze the causality between the level of sustainable development of smallholder rubber plantations and business management system. The study was conducted in Jambi province by selecting two districts, namely: Sarolangun and Batang Hari district. This study employed cross-section primary data. The data collection was conducted form March until September 2013 by interviewing 600 respondents who were selected by cluster and purposive sampling. The data analysis was conducted using both structural equation model and binary logistic regression. The results show that the sustainable development of rubber plantation has not been yet fully achieved. The social capital has a positive relationship with sustainable rubber plantations. The determinants of sustainable rubber plantations in all dimensions are benefit form association and working spirit. © 2015, International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.
Afriyanti D.,Wageningen University |
Kroeze C.,Wageningen University |
Saad A.,University of Jambi
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016
Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20 years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447 Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26 Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38 t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176 Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Naswir M.,University of Jambi
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2015
The copper hydride is an intermediate hydride which decomposed to copper atom and hydrogen at temperature 110oC. In the research, resulted copper atom is measured on heated open absorption cell. The copper hydride was formed by reduction of Copper (II) with hypophosporus acid 4% at temperature 80 oC. Sodium lauryl sulphate 0.01 M was used as a misel production to carry out copper hydride to absorption cell of hot vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (HV-AAS). The optimum condition of experiment were; 0.5 ml of H3PO2 4%, 80±5°C of reaction temperature, 0.5 mL of sodium lauryl sulfat 0, 01 M, 60±5 second of formation time, and 15.35 cm long of glass a pipe. Argon or air for blowing was conducted at the base of flask reaction with 324.7 nm wave length measurement. The duration of measurement was ± 35 seconds. Regression equation of standard copper absorbance 5 to 30 mg/L was Y = 0, 026 + 0, 0091x. By using the equation, the characteristics of analytical procedure were found: 3.65 mg/L detection limit, 0.18 mg/L sensitivity. The accuration of the procedure is 1.41%, its precision 10.59%, repeatability is 3.79 at 10 mg/L concentration of solution and average value of confidence interval 95% was 9.86 ± 0.8 mg/L or at range 9.1 to 10.7 mg/L. Linearity range standard of concentration is 5 to 25 mg/L (absorbance 0.088 to 0.258). The analysis procedure characteristics obtained with HV-AAS is less effective than flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) as its detection limit is 0.004 mg/L and its sensitivity is 0.03 mg/L. © 2006-2015 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).