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Jambi City, Indonesia

The Jambi University is a public university located in Jambi City, Jambi, Indonesia. The university was registered by Minister of PTIP decree Number 25 of 1963, as The State University of Jambi. Wikipedia.

Syafwan S.,University of Jambi | Wermink G.J.D.,Wageningen University | Kwakkel R.P.,Wageningen University | Verstegen M.W.A.,Wageningen University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choicefed birds could choose between the control diet, a highprotein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Aryati A.,Airlangga University | Trimarsanto H.,Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology | Trimarsanto H.,Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology | Yohan B.,Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology | And 3 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Early diagnosis of dengue infection is crucial for better management of the disease. Diagnostic tests based on the detection of dengue virus (DENV) Non Structural Protein 1 (NS1) antigen are commercially available with different sensitivities and specificities observed in various settings. Dengue is endemic in Indonesia and clinicians are increasingly using the NS1 detection for dengue confirmation. This study described the performance of Panbio Dengue Early NS1 and IgM Capture ELISA assays for dengue detection during our surveillance in eight cities in Indonesia as well as the genetic diversity of DENV NS1 genes and its relationship with the NS1 detection.Methods: The NS1 and IgM/IgG ELISA assays were used for screening and confirmation of dengue infection during surveillance in 2010-2012. Collected serum samples (n = 440) were subjected to RT-PCR and virus isolation, in which 188 samples were confirmed for dengue infection. The positivity of the ELISA assays were correlated with the RT-PCR results to obtain the sensitivity of the assays. The NS1 genes of 48 Indonesian virus isolates were sequenced and their genetic characteristics were studied.Results: Using molecular data as gold standard, the sensitivity of NS1 ELISA assay for samples from Indonesia was 56.4% while IgM ELISA was 73.7%. When both NS1 and IgM results were combined, the sensitivity increased to 89.4%. The NS1 sensitivity varied when correlated with city/geographical origins and DENV serotype, in which the lowest sensitivity was observed for DENV-4 (19.0%). NS1 sensitivity was higher in primary (67.6%) compared to secondary infection (48.2%). The specificity of NS1 assay for non-dengue samples were 100%. The NS1 gene sequence analysis of 48 isolates revealed the presence of polymorphisms of the NS1 genes which apparently did not influence the NS1 sensitivity.Conclusions: We observed a relatively low sensitivity of NS1 ELISA for dengue detection on RT-PCR-positive dengue samples. The detection rate increased significantly when NS1 data was combined with IgM. In our study, the low sensitivity of NS1 antigen detection did not relate to NS1 genetic diversity. Rather, the performance of the NS1 antigen test was affected by the infection status of patients and geographical origin of samples. © 2013 Aryati et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Guillaume T.,University of Gottingen | Damris M.,University of Jambi | Kuzyakov Y.,University of Gottingen | Kuzyakov Y.,Kazan Federal University
Global Change Biology | Year: 2015

Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha-1 after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ13C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ13C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The 13C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ13C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ13C values with depth. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Azis A.,University of Jambi
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of feeding time restriction in alternate day on performance and Heterophil to Lymphocyte (H/L) ratios as indices stress of broiler chickens. A total 180 seven day-old unsexed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three treatments: chicks fed ad libitum (P-0); chicks had free access to feed from 07:00 to 09:00, 12:00 to 13:00 and 17:00 to 18:00 (P-1) and from 07:00 to 09:00 and 17:00 to 18:00 (P-2). The feeding time restriction was given at 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21 days of age and chicks was access feed ad libitum on alternate days (8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 days of age). The chicks were fed ad libitum during 22 to 42 days of age. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio in feed restricted broilers were lower (p<0.05) than ad libitum broilers during 7 to 21 days of age. There were significantly increases heterophil and Heterophil/Lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. During realimentation period from 22 to 42 days of age, there were no statistically significant differences between feed restricted and ad libitum broilers on performance and differential leucocyte count. It was concluded that although feeding time restriction led to induce stress during starter periods, but there were not influenced on the performance and differential leucocyte cells of broilers during realimentation periods. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012. Source

Hooijer A.,Deltares | Page S.,University of Leicester | Jauhiainen J.,University of Helsinki | Lee W.A.,National University of Singapore | And 3 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2012

Conversion of tropical peatlands to agriculture leads to a release of carbon from previously stable, longterm storage, resulting in land subsidence that can be a surrogate measure of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. We present an analysis of recent large-scale subsidence monitoring studies in Acacia and oil palm plantations on peatland in SE Asia, and compare the findings with previous studies. Subsidence in the first 5 yr after drainage was found to be 142 cm, of which 75 cm occurred in the first year. After 5 yr, the subsidence rate in both plantation types, at average water table depths of 0.7 m, remained constant at around 5 cm yr-1. The results confirm that primary consolidation contributed substantially to total subsidence only in the first year after drainage, that secondary consolidation was negligible, and that the amount of compaction was also much reduced within 5 yr. Over 5 yr after drainage, 75% of cumulative subsidence was caused by peat oxidation, and after 18 yr this was 92 %. The average rate of carbon loss over the first 5 yr was 178 t CO2eq ha-1 yr-1, which reduced to 73 t CO2eq ha-1 yr-1 over subsequent years, potentially resulting in an average loss of 100 t CO2eq ha -1 yr-1 over 25 yr. Part of the observed range in subsidence and carbon loss values is explained by differences in water table depth, but vegetation cover and other factors such as addition of fertilizers also influence peat oxidation. A relationship with groundwater table depth shows that subsidence and carbon loss are still considerable even at the highest water levels theoretically possible in plantations. This implies that improved plantation water management will reduce these impacts by 20% at most, relative to current conditions, and that high rates of carbon loss and land subsidence are inevitable consequences of conversion of forested tropical peatlands to other land uses. © Author(s) 2012. Source

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